Journal of Environmental Design & Construction Management (JECM) Vol. 14 No. 3

African Scholar Journal of Environmental Design & Construction Management (JECM-3)

VOL. 14 NO. 3 ISSN: 1896-6783 MARCH 2019



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies, University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.

Copyright © 2019 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Bathymetric Mapping for Safe Navigation: A Case Study of Part of Lagos Lagoon


Tata Herbert1*, Nzelibe Ifechukwu Ogochukwu1 and Faneye, Ayodeji John2

1Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal University of Technology Akure 2HafenCity University Hamburg Überseeallee 16, 20457 Hamburg, Germany.



Lagos Lagoon, located at the south western part of Nigeria has been known for its use as a major navigational route for the transportation of people as well as goods and services. The Bathymetry of part of the lagoon was carried out to map the profile of the seabed around the channel that leads to the Lagos habour. Data acquisition was done using satellite imagery, tidal observation and depth sounding were obtained with echo sounder and the positions determined using GPS. Initial processing performed on observed bathymetric data includes noise removal, tidal correction on instantaneous depth and sorting with HYPACK 2008 software. Further processing was done using ArcGIS 10.2 Software. The processed depths were analyzed and presented in form of a Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) and Digital Terrain Model (DTM) to showcase the seabed profile. A query was performed on the acquired date to determine the deepest and shallowest portion of the lagoon. The deepest spot was found to be 19.69m while the shallowest spot was found to be 1.139m respectively. From the analysis conducted, there is an indication that vast changes on the seabed has taken place over the years as a result of dredging activities along the channel.

Keyword: Bathymetry, Mapping, Lagos Lagoon, Navigation, Sounding, Seabed




Abrasion Resistance of Concrete Floor; a Comparative Study of New Engineering Auditorium and Civil Engineering Classroom


Obam, S. Ogah1 and Iorliam Y. Amos

Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Nigeria



Civil engineering structure should perform optimally throughout its life span. The floor of classroom and laboratory of the Civil Engineering Department of the Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Nigeria were observed to be deteriorating, creating depressions and cracks. Abrasion caused by foot wears and dragging of machinery on surface of concrete can lead to wearing away of the top surface, spalling and other failures. This research investigated the abrasive resistance of these floors using a non-destructive Rebound Hammer Test. A total of 120 rebound number readings were taken for each of the floors. The results showed that the average hardness for the floor of the New Engineering Auditorium and the floor of Civil Engineering Classroom are 24.0 and 16.0 N/mm2 respectively. Statistical analysis showed that there is a significant difference in the mean of the rebound numbers taken from the two concrete floors. This implies that Civil Engineering Classroom is more susceptible to failure due to its low surface hardness.

Key Words: Concrete Floor, Surface hardness, Abrasion, Hardness Test.




Hedonic Pricing Method in Determining Influence of Urban Green Space on Rental Decision in Ikeja Area of Lagos Metropolis


Ola, Olumide S. 1, Joshua S. Mangvwat 2, Ashen, M. J3, Akinluyi M. L4

1&3Department of Estate Management, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Jos 2Department of Quantity Surveying, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Jos 4Department of Architecture, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Ara keji, Nigeria



Green space is an important environmental amenity in our urban area. Evidence from literature suggests that presence of green space generally have a positive influence on housing value as they constitute positive externalities to the surrounding properties. To this end an investigation was made into the relative contributions of urban green space on rental decisions in a residential neighborhood of Lagos, Nigeria using hedonic regression model. With a response rate of 141 drawn on the basis of simple random sampling from population of 152 head of household or their representative who are 18 years of age and above, results from the study indicated that structural condition of the buildings, number of bedrooms, number of bathrooms, number of toilets, size of bedrooms, kitchen size, size of the living room, distance to shop and availability of neighborhood security are the foremost attributes influencing rental decisions in the study area. Although the occupants of such houses shows some level of appreciation of the presence of green space, nevertheless, green space has no significant impact on rental decisions in the study area. The renters/Tenant are not willing to pay higher premium for living near such environmental amenity. The findings of this investigation are of importance to investor, financiers, developers, government and real estate practitioners in that sub market. As a way of promoting green space within our urban area, the study recommends a greater awareness of the importance of keeping a green space as part of ways of ameliorating adverse effect of global warming.

Keywords: green space, rental decision, hedonic model, environmental preservation, urban area




Analysis of Scavenging Activities in Bauchi Metropolis, Nigeria


Bogoro Audu Gani

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, AbubakarTafawaBalewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria



Scavengers play an important role in solid waste management systems in cities of developing countries; they contribute to both socio-economic and environmental benefits. In this study, 176 questionnaires were proportionately administered to scavengers in the low, medium and high incomes areas of Bauchi metropolis to determine the characteristics of scavengers and problems of scavenging in the metropolis. Data collected revealed that In Bauchi direct scavenging activity is predominantly practiced by teenagers that are basic school drop-outs and are all exclusively masculine. The driving forces that push youth in to the business is mainly poverty as a result of joblessness. It is also discovered that, by way of law, the government does not recognize them as stakeholders in solid waste management nor assign any official role to them,  and  the society continued to  perceive them as people having ‘inferior’ and ‘polluting’  occupations leading to social stigma. With all the associated inevitable health hazards, surprisingly, 67% of the respondents don’t care about the health hazard. A big problem for all scavengers is lack of a body to coordinate their activities and talk on their behalf. This paper recommends that government shouldnot only recognize but also integrate scavengers into solid waste management programs and create favourable environment for them to develop the profession. There should be regular sensitization training on dangers of unprotected scavenging, finally,  scavengers at all levels should organize themselves in to cooperative societies to coordinate and regulate their activities.

Keywords: Scavenging, Environment, Bauchi, Cooperative Societies, Recycling Industries




Assessment of the Cleaning Services in Public Hospitals in Niger State


Saba, Zainab Hassan

Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal University of Technology, Minna



This study entitled “Assessment of the Cleaning Services in Public Hospitals in Niger State”. Three objectives were formulated one of which was to determine cost of out-sourcing on cleaning services in public hospitals in Niger State. Three research questions were asked in line with the objectives. The study was guided by the Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) in evaluating the effects of outsourcing auxiliary services in an organization. Descriptive survey design was used. The population was 4088 made up of 290 management staff, 2675 cleaners and 107 contractors of public hospitals in Niger State. The sample constituted of 37 management staff, 249 cleaners and 14 contractors were drawn from the 3 senatorial zones in the state. The instrument for data collection was20 structured-item questionnaire. To ascertain reliability of the study, a pilot study was conducted on 40 members of the population from four 5 public hospitals at an interval of two weeks using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMC), the 2 results were correlated and 0.84 was obtained which implies the instrument was reliable. Simple percentage and mean were statistical tools used for data analysis. Inadequate staff, inadequate funds, inadequate materials and equipment, inadequate effective supervision, inadequate refreshing courses for the personnel, poor governance conditions and corruption and poor project approach/planning were also found to be challenges to cleaning service in public hospitals in Niger State. It is recommended that hospital management board should provide adequate qualified personnel, adequate funds, adequate materials and equipment, effective supervision, adequate refreshing courses for the personnel for public hospitals and head of departments as well as contractors should be accountable to check financial malpractices in public hospitals in Niger State.

Keywords: Assessment, Cleaning, Services, Public, Hospitals.




Improving the Quality of TVET Instructional Program Delivery in Building Construction Technology Courses in Benue State


*Dr. Momngu Daniel Tiough & **Imborivungu, Terkimbi Emmanuel

*Building Section, Department of Vocational and Technical Education, Benue State University Makurdi **University of Agriculture Makurdi, Demonstration Secondary School



The study was carried out to improve the quality of TVET instructional program delivery in building construction technology. Four research questions were raise for the study. The study adopted cross sectional descriptive survey research design with the total population of 55 respondents. There was no sampling for the study hence the population was small and manageable. A self-developed questionnaire and checklist was employed to collect data for the study. The data collected was analyesd using descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation and simple percentage. The findings revealed that, the instructional delivery methods used by the lecturers and technologist are excursion and lecture method and that group discussion, demonstration and the use of ICT is not used. conducive workshops, material testing laboratories, materials for practical’s, interactive boards, computer simulation programs and internet facilities are neither available nor adequate and that inadequate number of lectures that are not ICT compliant, lack of materials, tools and equipment for students practical’s, poor funding and public power supply, lack of commitment of students among others are challenges confronting improvement of the instructional program delivery in building construction technology. The study recommended that lecturers and technologist should employ the use of ICT, group discussion and demonstration other than limiting themselves to lecture and excursion method as instructional delivery methods to improve instructional delivery in building construction technology. Conducive workshops, material testing laboratories, interactive boards, computer simulation programs and internet facilities should be made available and adequate enough by the owners of the institutions to improve instructional delivery in building construction technology.

Keywords: Vocational, Technical, Education, Training, Instructional Program, Delivery, Building, Construction and Technology




Role of Pictures in Social Science Research


*Zakari Abdullahi Tijjani **Aisha Abdulkarim Aliyu *Danjuma Abdu Yusuf

*Department of Architecture, FAEES, Kano University of Science and Tech., Wudil. Kano State. **Department of Architectural Technology, Jigawa State Polytechnic, Dutse, Jigawa State.



This paper discusses Social science research, and potentiality of photo-elicitation in social science research. It gives an insight on Visual Assessment as a tool, and has given an insight on the applicability of the methodology in different types of research methods. To be specific, its roles as a methodology. The roles of photographs to obtain relevant data and issues of interest are presented. Finally, ethical issues to be noted in research using photographs are pointed out, especially the meaning of informed consent and confidentiality in photographic research is emphasized. Pitfalls in photography are also discussed in this paper.

Keywords:   Pictures, Research, Role, Social, Science.




Relationship between Water Volumes, Shapes, Glass Thicknesses and Water Holding Capacity of 40 Litres Glass Aquaria


Olayimika, S. O. A*, Lamai, S. L*, Olugboji, O. A** and Garkida, A. D.***

*Water Resources, Aquaculture and Fisheries Technology Department, Federal University of Technology, Minna; Niger State, **Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna; Niger State, *** Glass Technology Department, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria; Kaduna State.  Coresponding author



The study determines the relationship between water volumes, glass thickness, and water holding capacity of three shapes of30 Litres (L) glass aquaria. Glass aquaria were designed and constructed using 3 mm, 4 mm and 5 mm thicknesses glass for Tower, Prism and Cuboid shapes in triplicate and they were tested for leakages. Water was introduced into each aquarium and monitored under room condition for 49 days. A significant difference occurred (p < 0.05) in the volume of water that can be retained by Prism shaped and 3 mm glass thickness of glass aquaria. Prism shaped 3 mm thickness glass aquaria failed in retention of water of 30 L with a significant difference (p < 0.05) within the shape for various glass thicknesses and between the shapes for various glass thicknesses. Tower and Cuboid shaped aquaria retained water, without significant difference (p > 0.05) within and between the shapes. 4 mm and 5 mm glass thicknesses retained water without significant difference (p > 0.05) within and between them for all the shapes. 4 mm and 5 mm glass thicknesses are recommended for the construction of Prism, Tower and Cuboid shaped 30 L aquaria, while 3 mm can be used for Tower and Cuboid shaped aquaria for economic reason. Aquaria builders have opportunity to offer quality aquaria to customers based on their demand using 4 mm and 5 mm glass thicknesses for 30 L Prism, Tower and Cuboid shaped glass aquaria.Opportunity for choice of glass thicknesses based on customers’ financial ability exist between 4 mm and 5 mm forPrism, Tower and Cuboid shaped glass aquaria,minimizing loss of time, money, power and materials caused by failure and increasein healthy nation, job creation and wealth for the people are attainable based on this research outcome.

Keywords: Aquarium, Glass thicknesses, Shapes, Water volumes and Water holding capacity




Causes and Effect of Indiscriminate Solid Waste Disposal around Residential Area of Bauchi Metropolis Bauchi State


¹Muhammad Sulaiman, ²Sagir Yusuf Abdullahi 3Bukata Yakubu Gizaki and 4Abubakar Sulaiman

1,2,3Department Of Civil Engineering Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechinic Bauchi  4School Of General Studies, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechinic Bauchi



There is growing solid waste heaps problem in most developing countries which is gradually approaching  a crisis level and this trend has gone unchecked for so many years that now, the situation appears to be intractable. The indiscriminate dumping of refuse, these problems are typified by overwhelming dustbins, mountains of open dump sites at virtually every street Conner, drainage, backyard and public places, with their attendant problem of improperly operated landfill which are often vector and with potentials for surface and groundwater pollution. Also people in the area of study are facing problems associated with indiscriminate disposal of solid waste ranging from flooding water pollution, fire outbreak and endemic of sanitation related diseases. This study focused on the causes and effect of indiscriminate disposal of solid waste in Bauchi metropolis. For convenient data collection for this study the researcher utilize a well-design questionnaire as its research instrument. In order to ensure that accurate information is obtained, the questionnaire was personally administered by the researcher. The population sample comprised of 250 people randomly selected from the ten (10) wards in the area with some living very close to noticeable illegal refuse heaps/dumpsite around their residential premises. But only 243 questionnaires were retrieved and analyzed using simple percentage in bar chart and tables. From   the findings, it is glaring that lack of adequate designated refuse collection centre, inadequate awareness on effect of incriminate solid waste disposal and poor attitude of people toward environmental sanitation are the major causes of indiscriminate solid waste disposal. It has a negative effect on the resident and environment such as vectors of diseases infection and water pollution 

Keywords: waste heaps; indiscriminate dumping; landfill; groundwater pollution; bar chart; designated refuse; vectors of diseases.




Awakening for Challenges and Opportunities in Innovative Toilet Architecture towards Open Defecation Free in Bauchi


Osunkunle Abdulmageed, Dauda Ali Madu, Hamidu Shitufa, Lodson Joyce, Nazif Barau Yakubu

Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi



The problematic national water, sanitation and hygiene is going from bad to worse, which paved way for harnessing new approaches and opportunities in innovative toilet architecture as a solution to open defecation in Bauchi. Recent concerns for the introduction of innovative toilet architecture have led to the revival on the rate of open defecation and also that of the built environment. The professional practice of architects in actualizing open defecation free status of national development issues can never be overestimated in response to many challenges of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). Also, a healthy nation is central to all physical, social and economic growth. The Nigerian health sector is faced with inadequate sanitary facilities. In most African countries, especially some states in Nigeria have not actually migrated to the next higher level in terms of hygiene as open defecation is still a norm. Hence, this work focused on the various approaches and opportunities in innovative toilet architecture on three selected open defecation free areas of Bauchi metropolis in Dass, Warji and Gamawa local governments. Such innovation approaches are Plastic Sato, technologies, materials and methods, while the opportunities are employment, good health and safe built environment, e.t.c. The study area under investigation also further discusses issues of immense contribution to sanitation marketing and finance which recommended that government should strictly enforce the law on sanitation marketing and finance towards the attainment of innovative toilet architecture towards open defecation free in Bauchi metropolis.

Keywords: Approaches, architecture, opportunities, metropolis and toilet.




Perceptions on the Impact of Felling Trees for Fuel Wood on the Environment of Kafin Madaki, Ganjuwa Local Government Area of Bauchi State


Bala, Sagir Madaki        

School Of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi



The study indentify people’s perception of the impact of felling trees for fuel wood in Kafin Madaki of Ganjuwa L.G.A of Bauchi State. Field observation, questionnaire administration etc were the methods employed in the collection of data and descriptive analysis was used in analysis. The study showed that some tree species that were preferred as fuel wood were also used as medicine, soil stabilizers, wind breaker, and as ornaments It also showed that fuel wood activity is more in male than female mostly driven by economic factors and that this activity is declining the rate of valuable species in the area. It is recommended that other alternative, more efficient and effective sources of energy such as methane (gas), agriculture residue etc are needed to reduce the pressure on forest wood so as to reduce the consequences of deforestation.

Keywords: Trees, Firewood, Energy, Environment, Degradation,




Public Housing Provisions In Yobe State: Successes And Challenges


1salisu Magaji, 2ibrahim Garba, 3abubakar Sa’idu 4habu Babayo

1,2Department of Estate Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi 3Yobe state Ministry of Land and Housing, Damaturu. 4Department of Estate Management, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi.



The purpose of this study is to asses the public housing provision in Yobe state, Nigeria with a view to determining the contributions of the state governments towards public housing provision and the factors militating against adequate housing provision in the study area. Questionnaire survey was carried out to get information from the staff of yobe state ministry of land and housing in the study area. The target population for the study consisted of 256 staff in the ministry. Purposive sampling technique was used in selection of the sample size for the study. The sample size adopted was 60% of the population cutting across staff at different grade levels.A total of 150 structured questionnaires were administered. However, only 133 questionnaires were retrieved (i.e 89% response rate). The results from the 133 responses were collated and analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The study revealed that about 3,099 houses were constructed by the state government since the creation of the state in 1991, the houses were inadequate, no public housing construction within the study area in the last six years and this was largely due to paucity of funds, inadequate mortgage arrangements, issue of affordability, Boko haram insurgency, and poor implementation of housing policies. It was recommended that financial institutions should be co-opted into the housing delivery system of the state, government should, on behalf of its workers enter into a proper mortgage arrangements with primary and secondary mortgage institutions and other housing contributory schemes such as National Housing Funds, adequate housing policy to provide information on sustainable housing programmes within a suitable framework for housing delivery should be provided, the use of durable local building materials capable of achieving functionality and aesthetics should be encouraged and lastly, Lastly, the issue of security of lives and properties should be intensified within the state. Similarly, the state government can work in close collaboration with the security agencies to provide special security sevice for workers on construction sites to prevent possible attacks.

Keywords:  Housing, public, Provisions, Challenges, Government, State.




Basis for Higher Institution Preference for Off – Campus Accommodation


Ilekoin Olutoba Ayodele1 Rasheed Tunde Bhadmus2 Samaila Garba2 Ka\Halid Abubakar Munkaila2

1Department of Estate Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi 2Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi



Student housing has gained recognition in the housing market as it encourages social, economic and environmental sustainability, it also contributes to a better quality of life to the students.  Student accommodation requirements are increasing every day. With the substantial increment in   student population, private sector developers are becoming key players in students housing provision.  This study aims at discovering the housing preferences of the students of Federal Polytechnic Bauchi. Hostel preference experiment analysis among students of Federal Polytechnic Bauchi was carried out. The variables considered for the study are : rental value  of the property , adequacy of on – campus hostel , nearness of off campus hostel to the campus , the safety  of the hostel , hostel congestion , electricity and water supply . The analysis shows that Nearness to campus is the major factor that student consider in their preference for off – campus hostel. The rental value of the hostel is another factor that students considered while students hostel is being considered while inadequacy of hostels in the campus is the third factor that students considered in their chose of accommodation. Higher institutions authorities should be advised to build more hostels in their various institutions   .

Keywords: Student housing, hostel, Housing preferences, off – campus , Bauchi




Laboratory Study of the Effect of Soybeans Shell on the Dry Bulk Density of Compacted Soil in Bali Taraba State


Sani, Isa A.

Department of Agricultural and Bioenvironmental Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Bali Taraba State Nigeria



The effect of incorporating soybeans shell into the soil on dry density in Bali Taraba State was investigated in the laboratory. Soybeans shell incorporated into the soil samples raising their organic matter levels from 0, 2, 4 and 6% on dry basis.  The soil organic matter blend compacted utilizing 5, 15 and 25 proctor hammer blows at six moisture levels.  The dry bulk density and the liquid limit were determined.  The result shows that liquid limits increase with increased in organic matter levels.  While the dry bulk density significantly decreased with increased in organic matter content irrespective of the pressure subjected on the soil.  Using equivalent static pressure of proctor hammer blows, moisture content and organic matter level, multiple linear regression equation were generated for predicting maximum dry bulk density for the soil textures used in this study.

Keywords: Bulk density, compaction, soybeans, shell.




Assessment of the effect of Human Activities on Quality and Distribution of Water Supply in Minna and its Environs, Niger State, Nigeria


Adamu, A. B., Abdulkadir, Nasiru, Meduna Patience Ndidi & Abubakar Muhammad Jamiu

Geography Department, Federal University Of Technology, Minna, Federal College Of Wildlife Management, New Bussa, Niger State,



Water is the most vital natural resources that nature provides. What we grow, where we live or build depend to a large extent on water and it determine the survival of plant and animal. Access to portable water in Minna has been on decline since 1980s. On the average, 20% of the inhabitant of the area currently have access to water supply (Isah, 2012). The problem of inequality of water infrastructural provision remain unsolved, however the rate at which infrastructural services like provision of water is being provided is grossly inadequate in meeting the population demand in Minna. The main aim of this research is to identify, examine and explain the various human activities which affect the distribution of water resources and supply in other to ascertain its future availability. The data for the study were collated through primary and secondary method, which involve questionnaire, oral interview, and library materials. Data obtained from the field work and Nigeria Meteorology Agency were collected and analysed. The result of the study reveals that availability of water in the study area is affected by human activities (socio-economic activities), increase in population growth, urbanization and agricultural activities, which result also shows that water is mismanaged and absence of full maintenance, there is general reduction in rainfall over the study period (2004-2014). On the basis of the present study i recommend that, the state and local government  involve must establish a state water policy office whose activities would include policies, data collection, policy coordination, project identification, financing, research, control of point and nonpoint of pollution and development.

Keywords: Water quality, Human activities, Minna, Sources of Water and Water supply




 The Influence of Intra-Urban Migration on Land Use Changes


Gwamna Emmanuel1, Usman Musa2, Danjuma Jacob3  and Salihu Nasiru4

Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru123, Bayero University Kano4



Economists, sociologists, psychologists and ecologists have been interested by the intricacies of intra-urban migration and have studied it severally over the years. Many factors may be attributable to intra-urban migration in one country but may not be applicable in other countries. Additionally, households in developing countries have their own peculiar reasons for relocating within the same city which may be quite different from what is obtainable in developed countries. This issue provided the motivation to undertake a proper research study on the causes of intra-urban migration and the magnitude of its influence on land use changes in Kaduna, a metropolis of a developing country, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was employed to select 240 Officials from 6 Government agencies involved with land use matters who were administered questionnaires. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) AMOS was used for data analysis. Findings showed that people relocated within the metropolis to attain more utility in form of security and safety and avoidance of stifling land use controls. Intra-Urban Migration has a significant influencing relationship to Land Use Change at the level of 15%. The study’s findings will serve as invaluable reference points to public and private stakeholders who are involved in one way or another with the manner of human settlement and growth pattern of land uses.

Keywords: Influence, intra-urban migration, land use change, structural equation modeling, Nigeria.




Influence of Motivational Preferences of Construction Artisans on Work Performance


1Shwarka Margaret Sati PhD, 2Olumorin Maiye Michael and 3Adebayo Barakat Abdullahi

1&3Department of Building, College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic. 2Department of Civil Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic.


Enhancing artisans’ productivity in the construction industry is paramount to attainment of a robust and resilient built environment because artisans performance can translate into cost savings, improved productivity and long term sustainable economic development. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate influence of motivational preferences of construction artisans on performance. The objectives are to identify the incentive preferences of artisans and to determine if there is a significance difference in the influence of financial and non-financial incentives on the performance of artisans. The quantitative survey methodology was employed. 40 artisans and 16 managers/supervisors on 8 randomly chosen construction sites in Kaduna metropolis were administered Likert type questionnaires. Simple descriptive statistics and the t-test were used in the analysis. Findings revealed that training and development opportunities, better work tools/equipment and feedback, praise/recognition were most preferred non-financial incentives. Prompt payment of wages, end of year bonuses and end of service retirement gratuity were the most preferred financial incentive., The degree of workers’ preference for financial incentives was higher than their preference of non-financial incentives. A statistical significant difference was found on the influence of financial and non-financial incentives on the performance of artisans (t-testcritical = 1.76). Study concluded that though financial incentives can help better in meeting project deadlines, non-financial incentives are likely to be more beneficial in enhancing long term overall performance. The study recommended that project managers must consistently seek to pay artisans wages promptly, and to adopt incentive schemes that meet their greatest needs.

Keywords:  Artisans, Construction, Incentives, Performance, Preferences.




Ellipsoidal Heights for Digital Terrain Model and Contour Mapping of Bauchi Metropolis


Muhammad S. Kardam(1) Zakari, Danladi(2) Shu’aibu Umar(3)

Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal Polytechic Bauchi, Bauchi State.



Dual Frequency Global Positioning System (DGPS) has emerged as a successful technology in providing precise positions of points on the surface of the earth over the reference ellipsoid with sub-metre level of accuracy.  The end products of surveying with this receiver gives geodetic latitude (ϕ), geodetic longitude (λ) and ellipsoidal height (h) which are obtained with reference to the ellipsoid. This research involved the production of digital terrain model and contour map of Bauchi metropolis, Bauchi state. DGPS receiver was used to obtain the ellipsoidal heights of the study area. The ellipsoidal heights which are part of the geodetic/Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates obtained from DGPS was post processed using spectrum survey office Software.  The digital terrain model and contour map were produced using ArcGIS 10.2.1 Software version. The statistical analysis of the result met the precision of second order geodetic control network. The result of the spearman correlation coefficient computed using geodetic latitude and geodetic longitude is 0.054 and the coefficient of determination 0.0029%. The result of the Z test computed (0.125) indicated that the measurements are precise at 5% confidence level. The reliability of the measurements of X and Y second order geodetic coordinates were computed at a scale of 1:5000 and found to be reliable at 5% confidence level. The digital terrain model and the contour map were produced at a scale of 1:60,000 and the contour lines were interpolated at 5m contour interval which represented the terrain configuration.

Keywords:  Ellipsoidal Heights, Orthometric heights, model and Manipulation



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