African Scholar Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Vol. 20 No. 6


VOL. 20 NO. 6 MARCH, 2021 ISSN: 2110 – 2086



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2021 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Early Urbanization in West Africa: An Archaeological Evidence from Birnin-Kudu Settlement


Abdulmalik Abdulmalik Abdulrahman; Ibrahim Naimatu; & Hassan Disa Hussaini

Department of Archaeology and Heritage Studies, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria



Several collections of evidences from oral tradition, archaeological, historical, sociological researches have clearly indicated several early urban centers in West Africa and the differences in their characteristics based on region. This paper is aimed at bringing to limelight the place of Birnin-Kudu as part of early urban center in West-Africa and sourced it data from archaeological excavations and survey, collection of oral traditions and review of several literatures relating to the research focus. The archaeological and historical evidences from Birnin-Kudu settlement relating to early urban centers were addressed as well in this paper. It concludes that Birnin-Kudu is one of the early urban centers in West Africa based on the analysis of evidence and recommends further investigations and absolute dating of the settlement.

Keywords: Early Urbanization, West Africa, Birnin-Kudu, Archaeological and Historical Sources.




Impact of Budgeting and Budgetary Control in Tertiary Institutions (A Case Study of Edo University, Iyamho, Edo State)


Dr Anthony Emhenya Iyoha

Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Edo University, Iyamho, Edo State, Nigeria.



The purpose of this research work  is to make inquiry and analysis of the relation between control and effective management in a contemporary higher institution. This research was written with a practical orientation in other to facilitate its relevance, alternatively. The research work therefore focuses on the role and importance of effective budgeting and budgetary control on tertiary institution in Nigeria. The purpose was to further analysis the problem that lies on the initial   point of institution of the area concern, Edo university, Iyamho, Benin City. Thus, the need for accurate presentation and analysis of data that would enhance effective management control of finance become important for the smooth running of the institution. However, a number of theoretical convention are much reliance on the techniques as a substituted of good management. The internal lags and delays in the system is another problem. Necessary commendations were the provisions of a budget manual should not be left out as the content is of the paramount importance to the budget preparation for budget preparation stages. The reliance of government director should be a secondary guild and a sole institution and information for the preparation for budget in the institution. A budget should never be a straight jacket, given no flexible to executives as budget set long before the actual event and circumstance will alter in the implementation. The conclusion point to the fact that an effective budgeting and budgetary control is a necessity to efficient management of higher institution. 

Keywords: Budget, Budget Center, Budget Committee, Capital Budget, Operating Budget, Cash Budget, Master Budget  




The Problem and Prospect of Biblical Concepts of the Christian Marriage Today


*Wadam Z.S.; *Adamu E.R.; **Salome. I; & **Zakka G.W.

*Department of Arts Education, Faculty of Education University of Jos, Plateau State. **Department of English and Literary Studies, Faculty of Arts and Education, Bauchi State University Gadau, Bauchi State.



The paper examines the marriage as a concept and identifies the three types of marriage in Nigeria. A critical examination of the problems and prospect of marriage is been made and profound solution. Marriage is lifelong union of man and woman. In other words, marriage is a legal union of a man and a woman by legal publication which enables them to love and live together as husband and wife. In biblical understanding, marriage is the oldest institution God created by himself for mankind. The paper also focuses on the cause of divorce in marriage and possible solutions.

Keywords: Problem, Prospect, Biblical, Concept, Christian Marriage, Today.




Factors Affecting Journalism Career Consideration among Nigerian Women Graduates of Mass Communication and Journalism


Adamkolo Mohammed Ibrahim1; Maryam Maina Wagami2; & Abubakar Sufyanu Saidu Al-Sadique3

1Department of Mass Communication, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria; [Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria]. 2Department of Mass Communication, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. 3Department of Mass Communication, Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011 Kano, Kano State, Nigeria [Department of Mass Communication, The Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria].



This research work focused on the factors impeding the adoption of journalism as a career among female graduates of mass communication in Maiduguri, Borno State. The study aims at finding out the rationale behind non-pursuance of journalism by women. This study adopted a qualitative survey approach. Specifically, the key informant interview (KII) approach was adopted with 12 women mass communication graduates who were selected based on a snowball approach. The data (responses) were analysed using a thematic approach. The study found that: there was a great deal of perceived discrimination senior colleagues at places of work and by the general society toward women that are into journalism practice in Nigeria; female roles as mothers and wives; religious and cultural beliefs; and poor salary/wages were some of the critical factors impeding women mass communication graduates in Maiduguri from adopting journalism-related careers. The study concluded that women mass communication graduates in Maiduguri have negative perception toward journalism-related careers. The study, therefore, recommended that media organisations should make it as a duty to employ offer employment opportunities to more women and formulate and implement viable and strong gender equality policies.

Keywords: Career consideration, Journalism career, Mass communication graduates, Media organisations, Nigerian news media, Women journalists




Application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) For Effective Administration in Nigerian Secondary Schools


Hassan Mohammed Hamma; Usman Mohammed Dambam; & Ismaila Umar Kanda

Department of Educational Foundations, A.D. Rufa’i College of Education, Legal and General Studies Misau, Bauchi state.



This paper examined the application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for effective administration in Nigerian secondary schools. Despite the ICT innovation in secondary school administration, the administrative process still faces a number of problems indicating possible ineffective usage of ICT. The paper highlighted the role that ICT could play in the administration of secondary schools such as application of ICT in human resources administration, application of ICT in the administration of physical resources and the application of ICT in the administration of financial resources. Also, challenges facing the application of ICT for effective administration such as inadequate ICT facilities and lack of information and communication technology skills for administrators were identified. The paper conclude that ICT could enhance effective administration in secondary schools. It was recommended that ICT facilities should be made available in secondary schools and training and retraining in the use of ICT should be organise for school administrators.

Keywords: Application, Information Communication Technology, Effective, Administration, Secondary Schools




Rape: A Psychological Theft of Dream (The Example of Bolanle in Lola Shoneyin’s the Secret Lives of Baba Segi’s Wives)


Beatrice Morenike Afolabi; & Omotolani Sadia Oyin-Adejobi

General Studies Department, the Polytechnic, Ibafane.



Violence against women in form of rape has been widely discussed and condemned in different fora because rape as an emotionally scarring event cannot be over-emphasized. However, in Nigeria, cases of men raping women are still so rampant and it is worrisome. It is worrisome because the act signifies a symbolic infringement on the rights and psychological state of the victim who sometimes has her life negatively, remodeled, her dreams battered, shattered and stolen sometimes and has to live with these emotional scars for years after the evil act. Therefore, this paper examines rape as a psychological theft of dream as stereotypically characterized in Bolanle in Lola Shoneyin’s The secret lives of Baba Segi’s wives. The paper discovers that rape victims are susceptible to disorientation, depression, hopelessness, loss of focus; identity; interest in activities ones loved and suicidal thoughts amongst others. The paper concludes that rape as a dastardly act negatively impacts the psychology of the rape victims much more than the physical abuse. The paper then recommends among all others that conscious and massive awareness on the prevention of the evil act be created at all levels of governance particularly at home among family members. Also recommended is the implementation of effective penalties on the rapist to serve as a deterrent to others and proper reorientation of victims from derailing psychologically as a derailed psychology could lead to a derailed destiny.

Keywords; Violence, rape, psychological, theft, dream




The Consequences of the Implementation of Adopted Governance System with Collapse of Democratic Systems


Adm. Kola Gidily Nzadeno

Adamawa State Polytechnic Yola.




This paper studies how some sets of nation-states have been haunted by series of historical challenges like human injustices, human depression, oppression similar to what the colonial masters have done to our ancestors on the African continent. The paper went further to find and compare the public dominance of resources control, politics of god-fatherism, struggle for political power, confused and working at cross purpose legislative systems, egocentric, self-serving leaders of the historical pastand the present. This paper was able to show the master and servant relationshlp that prevailed instead of a proud well-functioning political system. Prior study of collapse society due to poor governance had and will continue to be cause of violence and violent crimes, destructions, lack of obeying law and order, lawlessness and so on. The paper suggests among other things a call upon the international communities, government, corrupt free associations, nongovernmental societies and individual activists to commit themselves to further development in good governance to avoid collapse of society and obtain equal development, poverty and disease free society, political and economic growth and development.

Keywords:  nation-states (countries), governance system, democratic society, violence and violent crimes, collapse of democratic systems, socio-economic and political development, neo-colonialist, political-cross-roads, adapted system of governance.




The Role of Error in Language Construction by L2 Learners: An overview of ELT


Mohammed Abubakar

Department of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State.



In teaching and learning a second language, it is generally believe that the inadequate linguistic competence of students in their communication portray some deviations which should not be left uncorrected as a result of their effects on mutual intelegebility and social accepterbility in a classroom situation and beyond  ( see, Ellis, 2001). Therefore,this could be a very complex issue which has to do with many internal   and external factors affecting the language acquisition and learning process, Language teachers, Learners, and the society at large. This article focuses on errors in construction within the context of ELT. It hopes that the positive influence that corrective feedback has in ELT may be useful for practitioners, researchers and learners. The theoretical framework underpins this study is Error Analysis (E A) by (Corder, 1967). The effects of errors are highlighted and some solutions are proposed for corrective measures.

Key words: E L T, Grammar, Error, Error in Language construction




The Application of Marx and Hegel’s Theories of Recognition and Inequality on Contemporary Nigerian Societies


*Aliyu Bawuro Bashir; **Sani Mustapha Kura; & **Aishatu Musa

*Social Studies Department, College of Education Zing, Taraba State **Department of Social Work, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State.



The study attempt to critically assess the usefulness of Marx and Hegel’s theories of recognition and inequality for the understanding of contemporary Nigerian societies, it is therefore very imperative to define the concepts of theories, recognition and in equality in order to form the basis of this research work.

Keywords: Recognition, Inequalities and Societies




Impact of Social Media in Fostering Creativity amongst Artisans in Northern Nigeria


Maryam Suleiman

Department Of Primary Education, College Of Education, P.M.B. 011, Billiri, Gombe State



This study aims at examines the impact of social media in fostering creativity amongst artisans in northern Nigeria. Through the use of social media platforms, artisans interact with their customers without having to spend money on transportation in order to meet one another. This saves cost and allows regular feedbacks between both parties. Therefore shows that the proximity between the artisan and customer reduces where a platform is created for interaction.

Keywords: Impact, Social Media, Creativity, Artisans, Internet.




Creative Problem Solving and Decision Making Skills in Polytechnic Institutions


*Anasin Salisu Muhammad; **Musa Baba Abubakar; **Adam Muhammad El-Hamees; & ***Murtala Ahmed,

*Registry Dept. Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. **Dept. General Studies, School Of General Studies. Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. ***Dept. Public Admin. Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.



Creative as concept is the tendency to generate all cognitive ideas, alternatives, all possibilities that would be useful in solving problems (human motivation third edition) by Robert E. Franken, Skill is an ability to do something well especially because you have learned and practiced it, while problem can be view as a matter or a situation regarded as unwelcome or harmful needing to deal with and overcome. On the other hand, decision making is a process of selecting a logical choice from the available options. The paper therefore is focus on how to create problem solving and decision making via presentation of some problems associated with polytechnic institutions and suggesting solutions to them, as there can not be good learning atmosphere and qualitative education in a school where there is cultism, exam malpractice, late coming to office/lectures and closure before time, absenteeism etc. This paper believes that qualitative education would be achieved when all vestiges of these problems would have been solved. Accordingly, therefore this would entail the management of polytechnics institutions coming to establish some sincere and well grounded and systematic and sustainable mechanism that would help to inculcate the habit of discipline (by the staff and students) and prudent management (by itself). In conclusion therefore, we should all contribute our individual and group effort towards the realization of this much cherished good learning atmosphere and qualitative education.

Keywords: Problem, Solving, Decision Making Skills, Create, Polytechnic Institutions.




An Account of the Practice Juvenile Justice in Nigeria Setting, Its Challenges and Recommendation


Sani Shehu

College of Education, Legal and General Studies, Misau, Bauchi State, Nigeria



Judiciary is one of the three main arms in the Nigerian government after the executive and the legislative arms. This paper is and is an attempt to study what is known as the juvenile justice system in Nigeria, the history of the system, the objectives, the stages, the challenges and administration of the system in the Nigerian government. There are so many system of law and practices of justice in Nigeria since the independence of the Country to date and this juvenile is one or part of the system of justice in this Country.

Keywords: Juvenile, Justice, Account, Practice, Recommendation.




The African Continental Free Trade Area; a Strategy for Improving Trade in Africa in the 21st Century.


Ohiomah Simeon Suleman

Humanities and social sciences, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo state.



For a long time, the dream of establishing an African common market that would lead to an African Economic and trade integration in Africa, geared towards economic development and poverty emancipation begun in the 1980s, when the Lagos Plan of Action for the Economic Development of Africa was adopted. It seeks to enhance intra-African trade and increase Africa’s global market share of trade. The AfCFTA  has  recognized that,  for  it to meet its  general  objectives, States Parties  need to cooperate on competition policy which is part of the second phase of the negotiations that will culminate  into  a  Protocol on  Competition  Policy.  The specific objectives include progressively eliminating tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade in goods and trade liberalization in services. In this regards therefore,10 Member States are required to cooperate on investment, intellectual property, competition policy, all trade-related areas,  customs  matter  and  the  implementation  of  trade  facilitation  matters.  Further,  the establishment  of  a  dispute  settlement  mechanism  and  an  institutional  framework  on  the implementation  and  administration  of  the  AfCFTA  is  key  in  implementing  the  general objectives of the continental free trade area. However, at the core of the AfCFTA, is the expectation that, its implementation will increase intra-regional trade and in turn increase trade. For instance, in 2013, intra-African trade was about 12% while in other regions such as North America intra-regional trade accounted for 40%, 63% in Western Europe, and more than 30% in the Association of the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. It is expected that, with an increase in trade at both continental and global level, Africa will become more competitive leading to the exploitation of the untapped potential and in turn reduce the poverty levels in the region.

Keyword: AcFTA, Trade, Integration, Tariff, Intra-Africa Trade, Economic development




An Experimental Study of the Effect of Watching Subtitled and Captioned Films or Videos on Vocabulary Acquisition Of English As Second/Foreign Language Learners: The Example Of Year One Students In The Department Of English, Emmanuel Alayande College Of Education, Oyo, Oyo State.


Shittu, Morufu Adewale

Department of General Studies, the College of Education, Lanlate, Oyo State, Nigeria.



This study is set to measure the effect of watching subtitled and captioned videos to facilitate English as Second/Foreign Language learners’ vocabulary acquisition. A sample of 55 respondents is drawn from the large population of the first year students of English in the Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo, Oyo. The instrument used was a self-structured questionnaire for collection of data.  This research aims to explore the impact of adding key subtitles and captions to videos, in order to promote vocabulary acquisition of the English as second/foreign language learners. After collecting and analysing data through using a questionnaire addressed to students, this study demonstrates that subtitled and captioned videos are effective in reinforcing learners’ vocabulary development/ acquisition. This study is proposed to focus on enhancing their vocabulary acquisition by suggesting captioned videos in order to facilitate listening comprehension as a result to acquire new items and lexis/new vocabulary.

Keywords:   Captioned films, Vocabulary Acquisition, English as Foreign Language, Language skills.




Re-Thinking Sustainable Development in Africa through Education Revolution: Nigeria as a Case Study.


*Tope Ige; and **Dangana Kayode Abiodun

*Department Of Mass Communication, Federal Polytechnic Offa, Kwara State. **Purchasing and Supply Department, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin.



This article entitled “Re-Thinking sustainable development in Africa through education revolution, Nigeria as a case study” was based on review of related literature. The study identified economic growth, development of civil society, state building and liberal democratic political institutions, including both the rule of law and electoral democracy as development strategies. The study was able to identify development programmes in Nigeria from 1972-2007 and also education policies in Nigeria. The study reveals that there are major challenges militating against education revolution as a tool for sustainable development. Such factors include; curriculum content, intermittent strike action, quality of students admitted and paucity of funds. The paper therefore recommends that if education revolution would serve as a tool for sustainable development, the government must ensure that there is improvement in funding, curriculum content and quality of students.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Education Revolution, curriculum content, quality of student. Paucity of funds.




The (Antithetical) Poetics of the Interface of Poverty of Language and the Language of Poverty


Adedeji, I. Adetokunbo (Ph.D)

Department of English, Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo



The issue of dichotomy is a phenomenon and conceptually, antonymy presents a scenario of oppositeness in life. Man at a point in time finds himself in either of the two extremes (or on the inevitable journey to either), you are either a governor or a governed, a leader or a follower, the ‘have’ or the ‘have not’. Reality however presents to us that peace is not necessarily the absence of war and vice versa. This study examines the fact that poverty of language is not necessarily a determinant of immaturity, and that language of poverty is not only expressed in linguistic terminologies but extends through the frontiers of signification. It explains further that the trait of poverty of language directly or indirectly showcases an index of the language of poverty just like the intertwining of listening and comprehension, whereby listening becomes the harbinger to comprehension and comprehension entails listening. This informed the rationale behind the choice of the conceptual theory of language in synergy with semiotics as our framework. The study therefore reveals that mankind has limitations occasioned by circumstances and that systematic deficiency remains the bane of structural development in a situation where language is seen as a signification of inequality.

Keywords: poverty, language, semiotics, conceptual theory, implicature.




An Assessment of Judicial Precedents on Effectiveness of Prosecution Witnesses’ Evidence in Proving Defendant’s Guilt in Criminal Trials


Kenneth Bawo Atsenuwa

School of General Studies, Delta State Polytechnic, Ogwashi-Uku, Nigeria.



This paper applies the doctrinal method to   examine the nature, effectiveness and limitations of prosecution witnesses in discharging the constitutional burden of proven the guilt of defendants beyond reasonable doubts in criminal trial. This paper concludes that materially contradictory evidence of witnesses, presenting hearsay accounts,  and prosecution cases based merely on suspension are key factors inhibiting  the ability of prosecution witnesses   to prove the guilt of accused persons beyond reasonable doubt during trials. It is recommended that the prosecution should always put its house in order and ensure that it presents credible witnesses before the court in order to effectively discharge its legal obligation of proving the guilt of accused persons beyond reasonable doubt.

Keywords: Judicial Precedents, Prosecution, Witnesses Evidence, Proof, Defendant




Leadership for School Reform:  Prospects and Challenges


Ajiboye, Johnson Tunde Ph.D

School of Education, Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo.



A lot of school administrators are uneasy about the direction of recent reforms many of which attempt to strengthen traditional practices and curtail the search for more imaginative solutions. Blame is a remarkably popular but ineffective strategy for change. School systems blame colleges, who in turn, blame school systems. Administrators blame teachers whom in turn blame administrators for impossible workloads and inadequate working conditions. We are living in the information and technology age where school administrators must possess computing capabilities. They must be users of technology and role models to those they lead. This paper attempts to examine general information about leadership in a school setting, how educational administrators cause reformation in school. Changing role of school administrators was discussed in this 21st century, while the bane and boon of ICT in educational administration was also x-ray before conclusion was drawn. 

Keywords: Innovative, Leadership, Reformation, Transformation, Technology.




Stakeholders’ Assessment of the Implementation and Adoption of Drug Mobile Authentication Service in Nigeria


Charles Maduabuchi Ekeh & Helen Odunola Adekoya

Department of Mass Communication, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria



A major challenge facing pharmaceutical industries and indeed health sectors of many countries of the world is drug counterfeiting. Following a protracted battle with fake and counterfeit drug manufacturers in Nigeria and the inability of previous efforts to successfully reduce the volume of fake and counterfeit medicines in the country, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) launched a Mobile Authentication Service (MAS) with which consumers can ascertain the originality of medicines at the point of purchase using their cell phones. However, many years after the launch of MAS in Nigeria the problem of fake and counterfeit drugs remains unabated. This study therefore investigated the views of stakeholders regarding the implementation of MAS in Nigeria. The study was carried out using a qualitative phenomenological-descriptive method. Data was gathered through a semi-structured mail interview and face to face interaction with community pharmacists. Findings revealed that MAS was implemented through collaboration between NAFDAC, MAS providers and HCRs. Whereas stakeholders differ in their opinion on the rate of consumer adoption of the technology, it was discovered that no framework for performance evaluation was included in the guideline for implementation provided by NAFDAC. If the project is well implemented and consumers are well motivated to adopt it, MAS can help to significantly tackle fake and counterfeit medicines proliferation in Nigeria.

Keywords: Assessment, Implementation, Adoption, Drug Mobile, Authentication.




Receive Updates

No spam guarantee.

I agree to have my email transferred to MailChimp ( more information )

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *