African Scholar Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Vol. 19 No.6


VOL. 19 NO. 6 DECEMBER, 2020 ISSN: 2110–2086



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2020 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


An Examination of the Formalities for the Formation of Hire-Purchase Agreement


*Irene, Airen Aigbe (Mrs.); & **Eric Omo. Enakireru

*Department of Business   Law, Faculty of Law, University of Benin. ** Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe- Oghara.



This article examine the formalities require for the formation of hire purchase contract in Nigeria, hire purchase contract or agreement includes any other agreement, or combination of agreements which, together have the same import irrespective of the name given by the parties. The object is to prevent sellers from circumventing the provision of the Hire-Purchase Act by disguising their transaction as loan, pledge or a lease. The article examine the import of the Nigeria Hire Purchase Act which provides that agreement must be in writing, stating the price at which the goods may be purchased. It is the duty of the owner to give this information to the prospective hirer. However, where the hirer has inspected the goods, and at the time of that inspection tickets or label were attached or displaced clearly stating the price, or that the hirer selected the goods by reference to catalogue, price list or advertisement which clearly stated, the cash price, then the need for the written notice is dispensed with, failure to comply with this requirement renders the agreement unenforceable. The article further recommend that the penal sanctions to ensure compliance in the execution of hire-purchase agreement are weak. There is the need to review the Act with the view to strengthen the enforcement mechanisms.

Keywords: Agreement, Formalities, Commercial Transactions, Penalties and Liabilities




Economic Deprivation and Students’ Academic Performance in Secondary Schools: Management Strategies as Intervention


*Ebuk, Love (Ph.D) **Zainab Mohammed Abbas

*Department of Educational Management, Faculty of Education, University of Abuja **Department of Home Economics, FCT College of Education, Zuba-Abuja



This paper focused on economic deprivation and student academic performance in secondary schools: Management strategies as intervention. Survey research design was used for the study. The study was carried out in senior secondary schools in Gwagwalada Area Council, Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, Nigeria. The population of the study was 11 principals (ERC 2018), 2976 students, the total respondent were 2987. The sample for the study was 11 principals and 300 students, the total sampled was 3011 respondents used for the study. The instrument used to collect data was questionnaire on “Economic Deprivation and Students Academic Performance” (EDSAP). The questionnaire was validated by experts in the Department of Home Economics and Educational Management, College of Education, Zuba Abuja and University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria. The reliability of the instrument was tested by carrying out a pilot study, hence 10 copies of questionnaire were distributed to  the respondents and were responded to by the subject who were not part of the sample. Split-half statistical method was used to extract data from the two sets of questionnaire for analysis. Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficient and Spearman Rho Rank Order Correlation Coefficient Statistics were used to analyse the data. The index of 0.71 was got, proving that the instrument was reliable. Simple frequency was used to collate data and mean was used to analyse data got from the research questions. The findings of the study proved that economic deprivation has effect on students’ academic performance and that the secondary school management did not apply intervention strategies to alleviate economic deprivation factors adversely affecting students’ academic performance. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that secondary school management should set up counselling unit in the school that will provide counselling services for the less privilege students. School management should provide mentorship programme for economically deprived students.

Keywords: Economic deprivation, Students, Academic Performance, Management Strategies, Intervention.




Effects of Entrepreneurial Marketing Tools on Consumer Adoption of Poultry Products in Ilorin Metropolis


Ishola Abdulfatai Idomi; Zekeri Abu PhD; Ibrahim Waheed  

Department of Business and Entrepreneurship, Kwara State University, Nigeria



Poultry farming is one of the most lucrative farming businesses to start up in Nigeria. This aspect of livestock farming presents one of the finest opportunity for entrepreneurs to make profit within a short time period and it is a significant contribution to job creation. Poultry firm as segment of SMEs in Nigeria are faced with several challenges resulting in inefficient operation and failure to survive in the market. Their unimpressive performance in recent year has generated a lot of concern among tier of government as well as research interests among academia. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of entrepreneurial marketing tools on consumer adoption of poultry products in Ilorin Metropolis. This study focused on poultry firms in three different local government area of Kwara State. In this study, proactiveness and opportunity-driven strategy were antecedents of entrepreneurial marketing, while consumer adoption acts as the dependents variable. This study used explanatory designs to collect primary data through quantitative methods. A total of 400 copies of questionnaire were distributed to the selected respondents using convenience sampling technique, whereas 383 were analyzed after removal of outliers. Cronbach alpha was conducted to ensure the reliability of the data used. The findings indicated that all predictors of entrepreneurial marketing evaluated were significantly associated with consumer adoption of poultry product. Based on correlation and multiple regression analysis, the study found that entrepreneurial marketing has a significant relationship with consumer adoption of poultry products. Besides, one out of two hypotheses tested shown a positive significant effect on consumer adoption of poultry products, while, opportunity-driven strategy indicated no positive significant effect on consumer adoption of poultry products. It was therefore recommended that poultry firms should focus on the proactiveness, and also opportunity-driven strategy to stimulate and enhance consumers to form an attitude towards their products.

Keyword: Entrepreneurial marketing, proactiveness, opportunity-driven strategy, cognitive state, emotional state.




The Socio-Economic and Political Implications of Coronvirus Pandemic Outbreak on the Global Economy


Jibrin Ubale Yahaya, PhD

National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN)



The 2019–2020 Corona virus pandemic outbreaks has created a far-reaching consequences that affected the lives of the global communities while efforts to quarantine the spread of disease   was not successful in different parts of the world especially the so called advanced countries despite their health facilities and manpower expertise in health sector. The outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic has spread around the globe; concerns have shifted from supply-side and manufacturing issues to decreased business in the services sector. Supply shortages have affected a number of sectors due to panic buying, increased usage of goods to fight the pandemic, and disruption of factories and logistics in mainland China and other industrialize countries. There have been widespread reports of supply shortages of pharmaceuticals and other domestic utilities with many areas seeing as panic buying and consequent shortages of food and other essential grocery items. The technology industry, in particular has been affected with long time of delay in the shipments of goods and workers are restricted to stay at home living the industry with little production capacity. This paper was of  views that the pandemic outbreak of Corona Virus has raised level of poverty and social insecurity in the underdeveloped countries because of lack of strong political will by leaders in Africa to address the menace of the coronavirus in terms of qualitative health care services and real interventions service that can reduce the effects of coronavirus pandemic outbreak rather most of their policy outcome  they choice to   impose some strict policy that deprived the social relations exists between the citizens without providing an appropriate  intervention measures that could  help to address  the  hardship brought by the Virus, many   African countries  instruction of complete lock down, without proper provision of intervention package has turns lives in different countries in Africa become hard and very difficult . The researcher was of the view that global  leaders must developed an economic and social strategy policy package that may help to address socio-economic problems during  emergency situations to meet the needs and demands of peoples at grass root without  posing serious implication on both socio-economic and Political affairs of their respective  citizens in their countries.

Keywords: Pandemic outbreak, Undeveloped Countries, Socio-economic policies.




Corperate, Individual Membership Rights And Liabilities Under The Nigeria Company Law: Comparative Anlysis


Enakireru Eric Omo & Omameren Patience David

Delta State Polytechnic, Oghara.



It has long been an established fact that companies are persons at law. And just as human persons are made up of different body parts or members, so a company is also made up of different members. Everybody part or member has its own functions and is equipped to perform these functions. This equipment can be seen from a legal perspective as the right of that member to do certain acts in furtherance of its functions and membership of the entire body, and also to be free from interference from other members. In this work, we shall be looking at the company as a body, focusing on its constituting corporate and individual membership rights and liabilities, the circumstances under which those rights can be said to have been infringed upon, these rights in relation to other members and organs, the pattern or kind and extent of liability to be borne by those liable and the remedies available to members whose rights have been infringed upon. The work further analysis the corporate and individual membership rights and liabilities, protection of minority rights, and investigation of company’s affairs at the instance of a member under the Nigeria Company law with that of other jurisdiction like English, United State of America, and China.  This work will conclude that the Nigeria company law has made adequate and democratic provisions and procedures like personals actions in the case of personal membership rights and derivative action in the case of corporate member rights.

Keywords: Individual, Membership, Liabilities, The Nigeria Company Law, Comparative Anlysis




The Foundational Structure(S) of Knowledge-Based Economy: The Case of Nigeria


*Suhaibu Mohammed; & **Fathu Muhammad

*Department of Social Studies, Shehu Shagari College of Education (SSCOE), Sokoto-Nigeria **Department of Social Studies, Dr. Yusuf Bala Usman College, Daura, Katsina-Nigeria



Knowledge-based economy, an economic structure that uses knowledge as a tool for the production of goods and services, is the new resource that First World countries tap to skyrocket their social and economic development. Through the application of Structural Functionalism, a classical sociological theory developed by Emile Durkheim (1858-1917), we studied the meaning, characteristics, and the impact of the knowledge economy in terms of its contribution to the socio-economic growth of Third World societies, including its function in meeting the “social prerequisites” of Nigerian society, in particular. In this paper, we summarize our findings of the structural foundations for building a knowledge-based economy in the context of Nigeria, through qualitative data, using Israel’s knowledge-based economic achievements as a case study.

Keywords: Knowledge-Economy, Structural Functionalism, Nigeria, Israel




Learning English by Social Media “A Case Study of Whatsapp”


*Kabiru Idris Muhammad; and **Fatima Abubakar

*Department of Mass Communication, School of General Studies, Kano State Polytechnic – Nigeria **Department of Arts and Humanities, School of General Studies, Kano State Polytechnic – Nigeria



Education system has developed rapidly; technology has invaded our lives, everyone has smart phone these days, using Whatsapp, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Telegram, etc., no one can deny that the generation I teach these days has become addicted to these applications for social relationships and fun.

Keywords: Learning, English, Social Media, Whatsapp, System.




Language Attitudes and National Development


Aina, Olajide Funmi; Temple, Oluchi Edith; Obomanu, Felicia Ihuoma; & Oyebanji, Ademola Oyeleye

Department of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Ukana.



Language is an instrument of the society which is acculturated into a given society. Through the instrumentality of language, a man identifies and makes findings of his environment. Thus, language in the hand of man preserves, conserves, transmits and appropriates functions and does so across space and time thereby enabling him to overcome those physical limitations to human endeavors and achievements. Language is the strongest medium for transmitting culture and social reality. It can be a key contributing force towards the consolidation of nationhood and the realization of national development. It is a means by which participation by citizens is facilitated or prevented and it holds the key to the establishment of true democracy and equality in a country. Language plays a major role in the development of a nation. It contributes a lot to individual and societal development which are prerequisite for national development. Scientific and technological development cannot be achieved without language. Individuals can develop educationally, socially, politically, economically and culturally through interaction with government agencies that disseminate polities through various indigenous languages. Deployment indices such as internal cohesion, integration, unity, economic wellbeing and citizens’ participation in governance are promoted through indigenous languages. This paper focuses on the role of language attitude and national development. The paper examines the place of language in national   development with particular reference to Nigeria.

Keywords: Language, National Development, Communication and National Languages.




Adressing Societal Vices through Friday Khutbah in Ningi Central Mosque


Abubakar Garba Umar

A.D. Rufa’i Coelegs.Misau Bauchi State



Some Islamic scholars have argued that if prayer is the first function of a mosque, then the second main function is teaching people affairs of their religion and guiding them towards obeying their Lord and following their prophet. And within the means of bringing out or exhibiting these instruments is Friday khutbah . In another words, one of the most important objectives of Friday sermon is that it serves in guiding people in matters of their religion and teaches them how to obey their creator Allah and follow the footsteps of their prophet. Allah has prescribed khutbah for the purpose of informing people what He has ordained upon them regarding commandments and prohibitions. It also includes guiding them towards moral ethics and praise worthy features and warning them against what is contrary to this. The methodology of the study is an analytical survey  through the review of related primary and secondary literatures. By a review of some sampled Friday sermons that were delivered in the mosque on social issues, the paper examined the messages they contained and it reveals that they reflect on the prime objective of the sermon which is preaching that contains admonitions and warnings. Since Islam is a perfect religion, it therefore contains provision that guides completely the life of its followers in all areas of human Endeavour. The sermons are observed to have made the mosque to a centre of religious learning, moral training, and reorientation. 

 Keywoods: Social vices, Friday Mosque, Friday Sermon, Pupose of Khutba, Moral Reorientation.




Influence of Gender Disparity on Students’ Academic Performance in Technical Education of Government Technical Training School, Jalingo, Taraba State


Kaigama G. G., & Madaki Fxafatirimam.

Peacock College of Education Jalingo



This study was able to investigate the Influence of Gender Disparity on Students’ Academic Performance in Government Technical Training School in Jalingo Taraba State. A sample of 190 students and 10 Teachers was selected through simple random sampling technique. Two research questions were posed to guide the study. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation for research questions. The study revealed amongst others that Lack of role model to emulate, greasy and oil nature of technical, fear for engineering courses as it relates to calculations, lack of sex or share future career especially female students, and construction and Inferiority complex among female student influences gender disparity on academic performance and participation of students in government technical training school, Jalingo, Taraba State. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended amongst others that; Efforts should be made to carry out sensitization campaign in print and electronic media to parents and members of the public on issues of gender disparity in Technical-Vocational skilled programmes and its attendant effects on the society in general and the nation in particular.

Keyword: Influence, Gender Disparity, Academic Performance, Technical Education, Jalingo.




Communication as an Indispensable Tool for Effective Administration in an Organization. A Study of Gateway (ICT) Polytechnic, Saapade, Ogun-State.


*Salami, Oyindamola A.; **Akah, Oluseyi A.; & ***Ogunyemi, Adebola Adedotun

*Department of Mass Communication, Gateway (ICT) Polytechnic Saapade. **Department of Office technology management, Gateway (ICT) Polytechnic, Saapade. ***Gateway (ICT) Polytechnic, Saapade.



To achieve the objectives of an organization, communication must be effective. However, managers do frequently cite communication breakdown as one of the factors hindering effective communication. The aim of this paper was to find out whether or not communication has any relationship with effective management of an organization. To achieve the objectives of this study, survey research design was adopted and the focus of this study is cross- sectional. A convenience sample size of seventy member’s staff (70) from Gateway (ICT) Polytechnic, Saapade had been chosen randomly for this study. The population of the study is described as management, academic and non-academic staff of Gateway (ICT) Polytechnic, Saapade. Seventy (70) questionnaires were administered and only fifty seven (57) respondents filled and returned the administered copies of the questionnaire back to the researcher, where results were gathered for the study. For easy analysis of data, the mean method was used and data collected was presented in tables and percentages respectively. It was gathered that communication is a vital tool for effective management in an organization. Among other recommendations, it was recommended that communication as a tool for effective management in an organization should be sustained through a laid down organization structure.

Keywords: communication, business organizations, effective organizational structure, effective management, effective communication.




Conventional Interpretation of Jihad in Islam and Its Objectivity


Mal Ahmed Waziri.

School of Arts & Islamic Studies ADR/CLIS Misau Bauchi State



The paper aims at giving the position of Islam jihad in Islam; it is permissible but keeps it within the strict rules and limits. Islam has set down certain rules, the most merciful and considerate to people, and required Muslims to observe them, such rules go in line with the principles of international law in many ways. The principles of international law lack divine authority that ensures putting them into practical effect. The Muslims rules though they aim at justice and mercy, have the faith of Muslims as an authority to ensure them being carried out.

Keywords: Jihad, struggle, Spiritual, tremendously, obligation, conventional, verbal, physical, justification, philosophy 




Evaluation of Constitutional and Statutory Frameworks for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage in Nigeria


Aniekan J. Mendie

Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria.



This paper seeks to evaluate the constitutional and statutory regimes regulating the burning issue of compensation for oil pollution in Nigeria. Adopting doctrinal approach in its evaluation of legal provisions, the paper analyses the constitutional and statutory bases for compensation for oil pollution damage in Nigeria. The paper discovers that the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999 as amended and some statutes neither exist with explicit provisions for definition of compensation payable in cases of oil pollution nor with clear-cut procedure for assessment and payment of the compensation in question. Inexplicit and incomprehensive laws therefore account for payment of little or no compensation to oil pollution victims. To that extent, the paper recommends, among others that a clear and specific compensation law be enacted to settle the yearning of oil pollution victims for compensation in Nigeria.       

Keywords:  Evaluation, Constitution, Statutes, Compensation, Oil Pollution, Nigeria.




Prostitution and Motherhood as Weapon of Self-Identity in Saadawi’s Woman at Point Zero and Emecheta’s the Joys of Motherhood


Agboola, Elizabeth Abiade

Department of English, School of Secondary Education (Language Programmes), Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo.



Many scholars have worked on both texts of this study. For instance, Francesca Coin (2006) viewed Woman at point zero by El- Saadawi from the angle of slavery, Munazza Yaqoob and Sonia Irum from feminist ideology, Fwangyil, G. A. (2012) and Balaa, L. (2018) focus on Female Oppression in analysing the text. Also, Emecheta’s The Joys of Motherhood has been studied through stylistic critical approach, motherhood, and feminism points of view. However, this paper’s focus is on prostitution and motherhood as weapon of self-identity using the two texts for analysis. The paper aims at comparing how women in a patriarchal society chose their weapons of self- identity. Feminism is the theoretical framework used for the study. In this paper the character of Firdaus in Saadawi’s Woman at Point Zero and Nnu Ego in Emecheta’s The Joys of Motherhood is identified as a woman’s struggle to find her identity in the socially and religiously degenerated society.

Keywords: Prostitution, Self-Identity, Motherhood, Feminism, Woman’s Struggle.




Mass Media, a Panacea and It’s Influence on Nigerian Christian Youths.


*Mrs. Mathew Leatu Bala; and **Simon Iliya Pukuma

*Office Technology and Management (OTM), Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola; College of Administrative and Business Studies, Cabs, Numan**Department Of Business Management (BAM), Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola; College of Administrative and Business Studies, Cabs, Numan



The world has become a global image as a result of the coming up of the internet that made ease communication for business, Education, Meeting etc. the mass media has created a global village thereby making communication easy, direct and costless. All countries in the world is using mass media for a purpose, which Nigeria is not an exception. Nigeria has made a big move in joining other countries on the planet earth to form the global village, Christian youths that have been using mass media in place of news paper, film, radio, Christian books and magazines and journals have positively or negatively contributed to the development of Christian youths in Nigeria. The paper study how Christian youths use mass media in their daily Christian dealings and food for thought, the paper went further to find out both the positive and the negative effects of mass media on the life style of Christian youths. The paper .concluded and recommendations made based on the facts findings discovered during this research.

Key-words: Mass media, communication, youth, interference and Christians




Effect of Covid-19 Pandemic on Entrepreneurial Activities in Abuja Metropolis, Nigeria


¹Olatunji T. E.; ²Shittu J.K.; ³Dashe E; & ⁴Sirajo Ali

¹³⁴Directorate of Academic Planning, Nigeria Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Zaria. ²Directorate of Science Technology, Nigeria Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Zaria.



Entrepreneurship, as reflected in the start-up of new firms, the growth and market exit of existing firms and venture capital, has been severely curtailed by the lockdown and social distancing measures taken by governments around the world in the fight against Covid-19. The study examined the Effect of Covid-19 Pandemic on Entrepreneurial Activities in Abuja Metropolis-Nigeria. Three essentials- food and consumables, pharmaceuticals, oil and gas in Abuja metropolis were purposively sampled. Data were collected with the administration of structured set of questionnaire on 327 SMEs which were selected purposively. Results indicated that Covid-19 has significant effect entrepreneurship activities in Abuja metropolis. In the light of the foregoing, it was recommended that policy makers and all stakeholders in SMEs in Nigeria should set aside emergency fund targeting SMEs in the country. Deferment of taxes or waiver of taxes, lower of interest rate could also be embarked on by the appropriate policy makers to make SMEs remain afloat during and after Covid-19 pandemic.

Keywords: COVID-19, Pandemic, Entrepreneur, Small and Medium Enterprises,




Influence of Social Media on the Performance of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises


Ndife, Chinelo Franca (Ph.D)

Department of Business Administration, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria



This study was on the influence of social media on the performance of small and medium scale enterprises in Anambra State, Nigeria. The research employs a survey which elicited opinions of artisans and small scale businesses owners in Anambra State using questionnaires. The study made use of a random sample of 300 Artisans and small scale businesses in Onitsha, Awka and Nnewi. The primary source of data was collected used in this study. The various hypotheses were tested using Spearman’s Rank Correlation test at 5% level of significant. The results of this study have been presented and discussed in previous section. The results show that there is a significant positive correlation between social media usage and sales performance of SMEs in Anambra State. The results also show that there exist a significant positive relationship between social media usage and customer base of SMEs in Anambra State. A significant positive relationship was also found to exist between social media usage and profitability of SMEs in Anambra State. These findings lead to the conclusion that social media usage has significant positive relationship with performance of SMEs in Anambra State. Based on the findings in this study, it is recommended that small scale businesses and entrepreneurs should make efficient use of the social media in order to improve their awareness, increase customer base and in the long run increase profitability.

Keywords: Influence, Social Media, Performance, Small, Medium.




Pension Schemes Administration and the Management of Retirees Welfare in Nigeria: Matters Arising


Bassey Moses I.

Political and Governance Policy Department, the Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria



Nigeria, the giant of Africa is richly endowed with both human and natural resources but over the years the various government have failed in their bid to effectively perform the functions of state bestowed on it by the constitution. This is reflected in the poor welfare of retirees which is caused by the poor management of the two pension schemes the Defined Pension Benefit Scheme (DPBS) and Contributory Pension Scheme (CPS). The plight of pensioners have been a source of concern for Nigerians as their pension are not providing the required social safety nets for them. The paper was anchored on Committee System Approach and used secondary data. The findings revealed that there are numerous factors hindering the success of pension schemes in spite of a marked departure in the philosophy and management of both schemes. It therefore recommended that the government should abolish the CPS and concentrate on the DBS. Adopting the CPS from a socialist state (Chile) and implementing it in Nigeria a capitalist state is not ideal because of the ideological differences.

Keywords: DBPS, CPS, Nigeria, PENCOM, Retirees.




Consequences of Motivation on Medical Staff Performance of Some Selected Public Hospitals in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria


*Baba Gana Alimi; **Usman Ismaila; *Rabi Isa; & ***Ahmed Garba

*Department of Social Services, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. **Department of Language and Liberal Studies, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. ***Department of General Studies, Taraba State College of Agriculture, Taraba State, Nigeria.



This study was informed by the rising absenteeism of medical doctors and related health care workers in the place of their work during working hours at various health care centres (Hospitals) in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. The incessant absenteeism of some of the medical physicians had recently provoked, the executive Governor of Borno State, Professor. Babagana Umara Zulum to pay an impromptu visit to various health care centre’s, including Borno State Specialist hospitals and Umaru Shehu Ultra-Modern Hospital Maiduguri, Borno State. However, the Governor unscheduled visit was led to the suspension of many medical doctors in the two identified hospitals who were absent during the working hours and unfortunately, no official permission is granted to their absence. A descriptive research survey was used coupled with primary and secondary sources of data collection was mingled simultaneously to obtain the information required on the consequences of motivation on medical health worker’s performance. A purposive random sampling techniques was equally utilized to select the respondents, a sample size of (120) respondents spread across various departments and units of the hospitals were adopted as study samples. A t-test statistic method was used to translate the respondents’ opinion in respect of the effects of motivation on medical workers’ performance. Several motivation theories and others scholarly literatures were reviewed and found relevant to the research. The result of the study showed that there is a significant relationship between motivational incentives and worker’s absenteeism as well as poor worker’s performance in medical health centre’s (Hospitals). Thus lack of motivation, discourages worker’s performance is inevitable. It is indeed obvious that inability of the Borno State Government to pay or settle the medical doctor’s full scale locum allowances and related benefits discourages them from effective and efficient health care services delivery. Though, the findings of the study have strongly commended the efforts and commitment of Borno State Government, under the leadership of Professor Babagana Umara Zulum for procuring modern day world class health care equipments and zeal of taken path toward improving the welfare of the health care workers and standardizing the health care service delivery system in Borno State.

Keywords: Consequences: Motivation: Medical Staff: Performance: Public Hospitals.




Influence of Social Environment on Nurse/Patient Interaction in Hospitals in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State


Ororho, Maureen E. N.

Federal College of Education (T), Asaba, Delta State.



The study investigated Influence of Social Environment on Nurse patient communication in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State.  Three Research Questions guided the study.  The study adopted a descriptive survey research design and non-participant observation.  The population of the study comprised 40 nurses selected through purposive random sampling technique.  The instrument for data collection was structured questionnaire titled Influence of Social Environment on Nurse Patient Interaction Questionnaire (ISENPIQ).  The instrument was validated by experts.  The reliability coefficient of the instrument was 0.73 obtained through Cronbach Alpha method.  The data collected were analyzed using mean statistics.  The findings revealed that level of income, level of education and environment influence interaction between patients and nurses in selected hospitals in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State.  Based on the findings, the Study recommended among others; that basic workplace facilities should be installed in hospitals to enhance workplace environment and facilitate interaction between nurses and patients.

Keywords: Environment, Nurse/Patient, Interaction, Hospitals, Oshimili South Local Government Area, Delta State.




معركة  أدبية بين أنصار اللفظ وأنصار المعنى


Abubakar Muhammad Almisawi; & Adamu Muhammad Dalibi

School of Remedial and Continuing Education, A.D Rufa’i College of Education, Legal and General Studies, Misau, Bauchi State, Nigeria




هذه المقالة عبارة عن محاولة  كشف الغطاء عما دار بين النقاد حول قضية اللفظ  والمعنى ،وقد تم البيان عن المعركة بانتهاج المنهج الإستقرائي الذي أتاح الفرصة في رصد الآراء التي اعتمد عليها كل فريق، وكذلك إيراد المقومات التي اتخذها كل منهم للحكم على الاعمال الأدية، وبهذا ظهر أن اللفظ  والمعني  عنصران أساسيان اللذان يشكلان الأعمال الأدبية  برمتها،  لذلك ترجع إليهما القيمة العمل الأدبي، ولما تباينت الآراء بين أنصار اللفظ وأنصار المعنى ظهرت قضية النظم -على يد عبد القاهر الجرجاني- التيتعتبر مُطفِـأة  لنارِ هذه المعركة.




Addressing The Rate Of Youth Unemployment In Nigeria Through Entrepreneurial Skills And Competencies


1Egwu .D., 2Abbarett. F.M., 3Ezeadim. O.G., and 4Galadima, J.B.

1,2,3Department of Social Sciences and Humanities, the Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria 4Department of Business Administration, the Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria.



The role of entrepreneurship in economic growth and development of any nation cannot be treated with ignominy, for it had been proven that both developed and developing nations have used entrepreneurship as a vehicle for creating wealth and driving their economies. This paper examined the rate of unemployment in Nigeria and other countries of the globe. The paper found out that unemployment in Nigeria is concentrated in the younger age among 15 – 24 years old. This paper also analyzed the assessment on the effect of interest rate on entrepreneurship which has direct effect on economic growth in Nigeria. The study adopted an error – correction mechanism to test for the relation among the saving deposit, real interest rate and inflation, ECM is negative and further test of Granger casualty indicates that there is a causal relationship between SD and GDP. The study recommends that policies which would bring low interest rate, boost saving accumulation in Nigeria or entrepreneurship development, which enhances economic growth.

Keyword: Entrepreneurship, Youth Unemployment, Interest Rate, Saving Deposit, Inflation.



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