African Scholar Journal of Built Environment & Geological Research Vol. 30 No. 4


VOL. 30 NO. 4 SEPT., 2023.



African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies, University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.


Relationship between Urban Growth and Temperature Rise in Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria


Y.A. Abbas, O.O Morenikeji, M. Dalil and H.D. Musa

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.



Urbanization can be seen as an increase in the proportion or share of the population residing in urban area as opposed to rural areas. The spatial dimension of urban growth pattern could be perceived to as negative which could have irreversible impact on the sustainability of the environment and human. This paper aimed at assessing the relationship between urban growth temperature rise in Gwagwalada area of Abuja. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Landsat-8 Operational Land imager (OLI) images of 2010 and 2021 were used. Land use land cover maps were generated using supervised classification. The study revealed that for the past 12 years, Gwagwalada has been experiencing tremendous urban growth. The study showed that built up is increasing at an annual rate of over 8.7% while the land surface temperature (LST) has increase by 5℃ between 2010 and 2022. The study also recommends that biophilic design should be adopted by the Federal Capital Territory Administration (FCTA) administration in Gwagwalada revised master plan to help mitigate LST and improve the livability of the resident.

Keywords: Urban Growth, Land Surface Temperature, Remote Sensing, Built up Area




Assessing the Economic Benefits of Using Kaolin Clay in Emulsion Paint


1 Suleman Aliyu Bawa, 2 Ibrahim Adamu Kwami, 3 Isah Hussaini Abubakar, 4 Gambo Ibrahim, 5 Prof Sani Usman Kunya and 6 Prof. Inuwa Yusuf Muhammad.

1,2,4,5,6Department of Building Technology, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria. 3Department of Industrial Design, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria.



Building materials industry contributes immensely to national economy of any nation. The rapid increase in the price of paint especially in Nigeria necessitates the search for new and cheaper raw materials for its local production.This research work helps to investigate the economic benefits of using Kaolin as a new pigment extender in emulsion paint. The results from the economic analysis carried out when considering the total cost of producing paint using locally sourced materials shows that the economic evaluation of the locally sourced kaolin was cheaper than that of foreign pigment. A 20 litres paint was produced locally using kaolin at the cost ₦4,455.65 as compared with that of a foreign fine coat emulsion paint which cost ₦8,500.00. It was concluded that emulsion paint made of locally sourced kaolin is sustainable and economical.The research recommends the use of kaolin as pigment to produce emulsion paint locally for both external and internal purpose. This will help to reduce the cost of paint in the country, create employment for people and for betterment of the people.

Keywords: Emulsion Paint, Pigment, Extender, Economic Benefits, Kaolin




Effectiveness of the Existing Regulations and Policies Related to Charcoal Production in Nasarawa State, Nigeria


Ekpo A. S. 1, A. I. Abdullahi 2, Z. I. Ismail 3

1Department of Environment, Faculty of Environmental Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi. 2&3Department of Geography, Faculty of Environmental Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi



Charcoal production plays an essential role in contributing to both local livelihoods and the overall environmental sustainability of Nasarawa State. However, this practice raises significant concerns regarding its environmental impact, particularly concerning deforestation and land degradation. These concerns are central to the discourse on sustainable natural resource management. Despite its substantial contribution to the local economy, charcoal production often leads to environmental degradation, deforestation, and social conflicts. This study seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of the existing regulatory framework in Nasarawa State in addressing the complex challenges associated with charcoal production. By utilizing a combination of field surveys, stakeholder interviews, and policy analysis, this study delves into the regulatory mechanisms currently in place and assesses their enforcement and impact on promoting sustainable practices within the charcoal production industry. Data for this study was analyzed using content, thematic and qualitative methods of analysis. The study found that there were no specific policies focused on ensuring sustainable commercial charcoal production at both state and national levels. Instead, respondents indicated that certain policies under the National Forest Policy (2006) were being applied to charcoal production. Two key policies were identified: one aimed at promoting efficient fuelwood use and the other at encouraging sustainable forest resource management. Among these policies, the most implemented strategy was effective forestry law enforcement (80% highly implemented), followed by the development of efficient wood stoves (100% moderately implemented). However, training programs on woodstove use and maintenance received only moderate attention (20% moderately implemented), while other strategies showed little to no implementation. The study highlights the need for greater policy focus on mitigating environmental impacts in commercial charcoal production, echoing concerns about the lack of coherent policies and informal, unregulated practices in the sector. The research emphasizes the necessity for adaptive policies that account for the evolving dynamics of the charcoal industry and the broader socio-economic landscape. Ultimately, the study sheds light on the imperative of enhancing the effectiveness of regulatory measures. A regulatory system should be organized among the commercial charcoal producers and registered formally so that they can access incentives for acquiring sustainable technologies for charcoal production

Keywords: Policies, Charcoal, Regulation, Production, Livelihood




Slope Analysis of Watersheds in Kano State, Nigeria


Usman Umar Bichi1; Adamu Tanko Ogah2; Joshua Ibrahim Magaji3 & David Ategbe4*

1 Survey Department Kano State Ministry of Land and Regional Planning, Kano State. 2&3 Department of Geography, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nasarawa State. 4*Department of Cartography and GIS, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna State



This study analyzes the slope characteristics of watersheds in Kano State using various GIS techniques. The data used were satellite imagery and SRTM data acquired from Antrium Geo Information Services Infoterra and USGS Earth Explorer. The research identified twenty-nine watersheds in the region, with Challawa watersheds covering the largest area of 365,225Ha and Ruwan Kanya watershed occupying the smallest area of 2,231Ha. Different slope characteristics were identified across the watersheds. Bagauda watershed exhibited primarily horizontal, very flat, and flat slopes, with some selected areas having moderate to steep slopes. Challawa watersheds featured very flat and flat slopes, with certain regions displaying moderate slopes. The Gari watersheds system consisted of four distinct watersheds (Gari 1, Gari 2, Gari 3, and Gari 4), each exhibiting varying slope characteristics. Kafinchiri watershed comprised six different watersheds each demonstrating dominance of horizontal slopes, with variations of very flat, flat, moderate, and steep slopes in different locations. Kusalla watershed displayed various slopes, including very flat, flat, moderate, and steep, covering specific areas. Magaga watershed featured very flat, flat, and patches of moderate slopes in some parts. Mainika watershed was characterized by very flat, flat, moderate, and patches of horizontal slopes. Ruwan Kanya watershed displayed horizontal, very flat, and flat slopes, with patches of moderate slopes in certain areas. Thomas watershed demonstrated very flat and flat slopes, with patches of moderate and steep slopes near the fringes. Tiga watershed systems comprised eight distinct watersheds, each showcasing a dominance of horizontal slopes with varying levels of very flat, flat, moderate, and steep slopes in different locations. Lastly, Watari watershed systems included two watersheds (Watari 1 and Watari 2) with varying slope characteristics. The study recommends the implementation of watershed management and conservation, erosion control measures, water resource planning, flood risk assessment and watershed monitoring and research.

Keywords: Characteristics, Flat, Erosion, Steep, Slope, Watersheds




Assessment of Land Use Pattern and Change in Zaria Central Area Kaduna State


Kauthar Abubakar Mikail and Haleema Ja’afar

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria



The study assessed the land use pattern in Zaria central Kaduna state. Land is used to meet multiple and variety of human use. Land use pattern is based on the functional dimension of the land for different human purpose or economic activities. The increase in economic activities has brought about the occurrence of conversion of land use to other which if left uncontrolled or planned for in the future will lead to danger on growth and development of the area. These changes have resulted to the transformation in the structure and pattern of the area with implication on traffic congestion, parking difficulties and encroachment of commercial activities and increase in pressure on the existing utilities, facilities, services and infrastructure. The data for this study is collected through self administered survey questionnaire and data have been analysed and presented. The paper suggests the need to address the problem by establishing the scale and trend of conversion and identify possible implication. The study therefore recommends that an effective policy should put in place to ensure the cooperation and support of the governing bodies placed at the disposal of the planning. The policy should also be adhered to and enforced by all related parties to ensure its workability.

Keywords: Land use Pattern, Economic Activities, Conversion, Encroachment Occurrence




Prediction of Force Displacement Behaviour of Pad Foundation on Lagoon Clay Soil


*1Otunola, O. O., 2Balogun, W. O., 3Komolafe, T.F., 4Umar, L., 5Oyeniyan, W. O., 6Ajala, A. K., 7Olabisi, O. S.

1,2,3,4,5,6 Department of Civil Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 420, Offa, Nigeria. 7Executive Director, Opeyliberty Building and Engineering Construction Ltd.



The determination of bearing-capacity is more challenging when complicated cases are encountered. This research aim to build a numerical (FE) model of an axi-symmetric (square) shallow foundation under vertical load to determine its load-deformation behavior, using appropriate constitutive models and soil properties derived from laboratory and/or in-situ test data. To achieve this aim, the soil parameter were calibrated, then un-drained response model was developed using both total and effective stress-based analyses, then the effects of meshing and mesh refinement on the results was done and  the simulation results were validated against measured load-test data. From the results it was observed that the mesh refinement has a significant effect on the Plaxis calculation time period, the output results and number of iteration it takes to achieve a specified result. Thereafter, it was observed that the total stress path analysis using Mohr-coulomb model predictions were very conservative and below the real field results. Finally, it was observed that both effective and total stress path analysis experienced general shear failure. It can thus be concluded that effective stress path analysis using Modified cam clay model predictions were closed to real field results compared to total stress path analysis.

Keywords: Bearing Capacity, Validation, Effective Stress Path, Total Stress Path, Un-Drained, Foundation




Waste to Wealth Using Recycled Plastic for the Production of Floor/Wall Tiles


Toriola-Coker, O. L *1, Alaka, H.A 2, Ayodele-Oja S3, Oladitan, B.F4, Adeniran-Bakare S5

1, 4, 5 Department of Civil Engineering, Yaba College of Technology, Nigeria. 2University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom. 3Department of Architecture Yaba College of Technology, Nigeria



Nigeria generates around 2.5million-tons of waste yearly, largest in Africa; with Lagos state, of 36 states, being the major culprit. 70% of these plastic wastes end up in landfill, get burnt to reduce waste volume for increased landfill space. There is need for an urgent response for innovative solutions in tackling these growing concerns of plastic waste and pollution globally. The process of converting waste into valuable products is known as “waste to wealth.” Recycling plastic waste is a sustainable approach to waste management that not only reduces landfill waste but also conserves natural resources. This study used an experiment to investigate the use of plastic waste in the production of wall and floor tiles used in the built environment. In the experiment, plastic bottles without cover weighing 1kg was first heated to melt and then mixed with other materials such as sand/quarry dust of 2kg to form a tile mixture. The mixture is then molded into 15cm-by-15cm shape using compression and heating techniques. The resulting tiles are eco-friendly, cost-effective, and aesthetically pleasing, making them a popular alternative to traditional ceramic or stone tiles after 28days of curing. The use of recycled plastic in tile production promotes a circular economy by reducing waste, conserving resources, and creating value from discarded materials. This can result in significant cost savings for municipalities and other organizations that use these materials. By converting plastic waste into a valuable resource, this approach can contribute to waste reduction, environmental sustainability, and economic development by creating job opportunities. The use of recycled plastic for the production of tiles has the potential to transform waste into wealth.

Keywords: Floor, Materials, Recycled Plastic, Tiles, Wall, Wealth and Waste




Determination of the Level, Types and Nature of Waste Minimization Practices among Households in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria


Shekarau, Joshua Asabe1, Auwal Garba2, Muazu Sunusi Mshmood3

1Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria, Kaduna State. 2Department of Environmental Management Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa     University, Bauchi. 3Agricultural Education Department, Vocational and Technical Education, Adamu Tafawa Balewa College of Education Kangere, Bauchi State



A large amount of solid waste is generated from homes, the disposal of which becomes a problem to the environment. The level, type and nature of waste minimization practices among household in Chikun LGA of Kaduna states was determined. Data were sourced through field and questionnaire survey. The study was conducted on 396 respondents which were selected using systematic random sampling from the five urban wards in Chikun LGA. Data were analysed descriptively using frequency table, mean and severity index. Results showed that 76% of the waste generated in Chikun LGA were biodegradables which are mostly vegetables and food waste which weighed 1106.7kg/week and 542.9kg/week respectively. There was a generally low knowledge of waste minimization and its techniques. The average domestic waste generations in Chikun LGA are 455.8kg/day, 1.2kg/household/day, and 0.66kg/capita/day. The most practiced waste minimization technique was reuse. Practices like avoidance, recycle, segregation and compost were seldom practiced in Chikun LGA. It was concluded that high percentage of the biodegradable waste and amount of waste in general calls for an urgent attention as this could lead to adverse health effects. Thus, based on the generation rate and composition of domestic wastes in Chikun LGA, integrated solid waste management system which combines a range of solid waste minimization options like source reduction, composting, recycling and waste to energy transformation is recommended.

Keywords: Chikun, Households, Kaduna, Waste Minimization




The Suitable Safety Gadgets for Construction Operations in Bauchi Metropolis


*Aminu Umar and **Mary John Effiong

*Department of Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi. **Department of Building Technology, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi.



Safety management system is poorly managed in Nigeria construction sites thereby making workers prone to accident. Accident on construction sites is not a new phenomenon in Nigeria construction sites but its frequent occurrence remain a major setback towards successful project delivery. There are health and safety regulations governing construction activities as contain in the Occupational Health and Safety Laws, National Building Code and the Labour Acts of 1990. Despite these laws, there are still persisting occurrences of accidents on construction sites. However, up to date little consideration is given to the Occupational Health and Safety Acts in Nigeria.  The aim of this paper is to determine the safety gadgets suitable for construction operations in Bauchi metropolis. Using questionnaires survey and literature across both engineering and environmental disciplines, to get the opinion of experts on the suitable safety gadgets for construction operations in the study area. The survey was conducted with (76) seventy six experts within the build environment. The total of seventy six (76) questionnaires were administered to experts to obtained information on the suitable safety gadgets for construction operations in the study area on a likert scale 1-5 (1= strongly agree, 2=agree, 3=moderately agree, 4=disagree, 5=strongly disagree). Extracted safety gadgets were presented to experts and were asked to select the suitable safety gadgets for construction operations in the study area. The different background of the experts provided a true reflection of suitable safety gadgets for construction operations in Bauchi metropolis. The findings showed the most suitable safety gadgets for construction operations in the study area. The study concluded that suitable safety gadgets should be provider for construction operations, effective use of audio and visual displaying gadgets on sites, safety training for the workers and ensure one safety manager is employ on every construction site, there should be proper monitoring by constituted authorities to ensure that the suitable safety gadgets are used by construction companies in the study areas.

Keywords: Suitable, Safety, Gadgets, Construction, Operations



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