University of Sierra Leone, Sierra Leone. (No. 2)




PROCEEDINGS:

16th Academic Conference on Sustainable Development in 21st Century.

 

DATE: 23rd – 24th November, 2017.

 

VENUE:  Bintumani Conference Centre, University of Sierra Leone, Sierra Leone.


 


EFFLUENTS AND THEIR IMPACTS ON WATER QUALITY OF RECEIVING RIVER NGGADA, MAIDUGURI, NIGERIA.

DEBORAH J.MALGWI 1, AHMED .T.GUBIO 1, ZARA K.KOLO 1,FANNA.A.KYARI 1 AND  A.Y SANGODOYIN 2

Department of Civil Engineering, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Nigeria 2Department of Agricultural and Environmental Resources Engineering, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

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ABSTRACT

An evaluation of abattoir effluent, waste generation and management operations on receiving stream of Maiduguri main abattoir (Kasuwan Shanu) Borno State , 2013. Water samples were taken from water sources in the abattoir and were assessed for Biological and chemical analysis, Using the standard methods of examination of water and waste water (APHA,1992). The biological and chemical parameters range between 2 – 18mg/l DO,  and 10 – 45mg/l BOD5 98 -789mg/l CL, 29.8 – 855mg/l SO4, 3.50 – 19mg/l PO4 for different sampling point in the study area and were above the WHO Standards for effluent discharge from industries.  The rise and fall pattern of Do and BOD confirms the process of self purification of the receiving stream with distance. The result implies that   no sufficient measures or facilities to treat abattoir wastewater for environmental safety in Maiduguri abattoir. Thus, the need to treat this wastewater rather than discharging it to the environment is needed.

Keywords: effluent discharge, self purification, river Ngadda

 

 

SAFETY ASSESSMENT, INVIVO ANTI-TRPANOSOMAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOL ROOT EXTRACT OF SECURIDACA LONGEPEDUNCULATA IN MICE INFECTED WITH TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI BRUCEI

HARUNA, Y 1., C.M. ELINGE 2

1,2 Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, P.M.B. 1144, Aliero, Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria.

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Abstract

Securidaca longepedunculata is a savannah shrub commonly used by traditional medicine practitioners in Nigeria; the plant is reputed to have over one hundred medicinal indications. The study aims at assessing the safety of the plant which is 2.8 mg/kg, and its trypanocidal activity using Swiss albino mice of both sexes: The animals were randomly selected and divided weight dependently into groups of 5 mice each, consisting of three methanol extracts groups of 5%, 10%, and 20% of the extract’s LD50 which is equivalent to (0.14, 0.28, & 0.56 mg/kg) respectively, and also a standard control drug (diminazene aceturate 3.5 mg/kg), infected and not treated group and no infection no treatment group. Except the no infection no treatment group, all other groups were infected with T. brucei. Invariably, each animal received inoculums of about 1.0 x 107 parasites per gramme body weight through needle passage and produced parasitaemia in the mice. On commencement of the medications the methanol root extract of S. longepedunculata was given to the three groups in divided doses for seven days and the diminazene aceturate was given at a therapeutic dose of 3.5 mg/kg just once. All the drugs were given through intra-peritoneal routes after confirming parasitaemia.

Keywords: Drug, mice, Securidaca longepedunculata, Parasitaemia, Treatment,

 

 

A REVIEW OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN IMPROVING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE: IMPLEMENTATION OF PRACTICE AND CHALLENGES

A. B. ABUBAKAR, Z, U, JIDDA, S. ABUBAKAR

Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

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ABSTRACT

The concept of opting for Total Quality management in both manufacturing industries as well as human services sector, lead to a greater competition among their peers to win consumers satisfaction and  needs by providing quality products/services. With the emergence of TQM philosophy in the mid-20th century under Deming’s guidance. A lot of models and theories resurface to developed TQM and its implementation in organizational performance to deal with current challenges in quality improvement with utmost efficiency and effectiveness. Total quality implementations meet numerous challenges in improving performances. This paper reviews the concept of performance practice and implementation. Recommendation will be provided to overcome these challenges.

Keywords: Total quality management (TQM), manufacturing, organizational performance, challenges, implementation.

 

 

THE FUNDAMENTALS OF AFRICAN TRADITIONAL ETHICS

KANU, IKECHUKWU ANTHONY, O.S.A., Ph.D

Augustinian Institute, Makurdi, Benue State

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Abstract

Scholars of the colonial era have argued that Africans have no ethics, and as such cannot distinguish between good and evil, and that even if they give considerations to issues of this kind, it is always savage in character. This perspective was born from the racist mentality of the time that relegated the African to the background of insignificance. This research, therefore, studies this perspective to understand if there was the possibility of an African ethics in African traditional societies. This research reveals that African traditional societies had their own ethics. It further explored its ontological foundations, the link between the African community and ethics, and the nexus between African ethics and religion.

 

Keywords: African, Ethics, Traditional, Fundamentals, Ontology, Foundations, Religion.

 

 

MODELING STOCK PRICES WITH EXPONENTIAL WEIGHTED MOVING AVERAGE (EWMA).

ADEJUMO WAHAB ADEWUYI

Department of Insurance, the Oke Ogun Polytechnic Saki, Oyo State. Nigeria

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Abstract

Volatility is an important parameter for financial risk management and it is applied in many issues such as option pricing, portfolio optimization, VaR methodology and hedging, thus the forecasting of volatility or variance can be regarded as a problem of financial modelling. The objective of this paper is to forecast FTSE 100 Stock Prices of top 100 companies listed on London Stock Exchange by using the Exponential Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) Model. The data for this model is directly obtained from the UK FTSE 100 Index. In this research paper, we have examined the daily returns of FTSE 100 Stock Prices of top 100 companies listed on London Stock Exchange from the thirtieth day of June 2009 to the first day of December 2014 and equally forecasted the daily returns from the first day of December 2014 to the fifth day of February 2015 with the Exponential Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) Model. We found that there is a very high possibility that the stock prices will start to fall as from 5th February 2015 downwards.

Keywords: EMWA, ARCH, GARCH,

 

 

ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION METHODS FOR CROP FARMERS IN IKWERRE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA.                                      

HARRY, A. T.* AND SMART, E. B.**

*Department of Agriculture and Applied Economics/Extension, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, PMB 5080, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

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ABSTRACT

The study assessed the extension methods for crop farmers in Ikwerre Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Data were randomly collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire administered to 120 respondents who were crop farmers. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics, frequency and percentage and T-test to test the hypothesis. The results showed that the mean age of crop farmers was  (40.6 years), findings also shows that (66.7%) of the farmers were males while 33.3% were females, household size of respondents which falls between 7 and 9 had a majority of (39.2%); (37.5%) with a mean of (8.2 per household) earned a monthly net income of 10000-20000 naira; (35.8%) also agreed that they were visited by extension agents once in three months; 60.8% of the farmers welcomed the improved cassava variety innovation, while 58.3% accepted the use of fertilizer technology. Crop farmers preferred the method demonstration and result demonstration of extension methods with 62.5% and 52.5% respectively. Constraints faced by extension agents in the use of extension methods were illiteracy level of the farmers (66.6%) and insufficient funds (53.3%). Findings also show that there is no significant difference between the extension agents and crop farmers in the extension methods used when the hypothesis was tested. This study therefore recommends an enhanced education and improved credit facilities to crop farmers in the study area.

Keywords:  Agricultural extension; extension methods; crop; farmers; Ikwere.

 

 

GINGER PRODUCTION (LOCAL RESOURCE), SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION FOR ATTAINING SUBSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN 21ST CENTURY

 DR (MRS) WAKAWA RACHEAL JOSHUA AND **OLAWUWO ADEBOOLA FALILAT

*Chemistry Department, School Of Sciences, Fct College Of Education Zuba Abuja **Department Of Integrated Science, School Of Sciences, Fct College Of Education Zuba Abuja

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Abstract

This paper examines how ginger production can provide economy sustainable using Science and Technology skills for the packaging of product of ginger to foster sustainable development of the nation for 21st century. Ginger production guarantee the sustainability through adequate production of the technical manpower required to run the economy in the information age. Despite the fact that Technology is the aspect of education that leads to the acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic scientific knowledge for sustainable development, much is easier said than done, the study employed Meta-analysis by highlighting the skilled required through Science and Technology for economic production and national development for ginger production. The need for ginger production to diversify our economy from oil production and nutritional value of it in the light of the current manpower situation in the country was highlighted. The economy values of ginger, its health benefits such as stimulant of the gastro intestinal tract, medicine as a carminative, powerful antioxidant, antiemetic relieves, colon cancer prevention, soft drinks and nonalcoholic drinks and its oil extraction for export was fully discussed. For the purpose of propagation, harvesting, extraction and packaging for export purposes, science and technology skills will be needed. With all these valuable benefits of ginger it is therefore  recommended to government and individual private bodies to provide enabling environment to our team youth by providing them with funds to motivate them to ginger farming so as to empowered them economically and for sustainable development in 21st century.

Keyword: Ginger, Health benefit, Extraction, Nutritional value, Science and Technology, Sustainable development.

 

 

ENTRENCHING CORPORATE GOVERNANCE, THE CHALLENGE TO THE NEW MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA

RUKAIYAT ADEBUSOLA YUSUF

Department of Accounting, Kaduna State University

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Abstract

Africa to a large extent has continue to remain a paradox. Apart from the landmass and its huge population, it has varieties of both solid and mineral resources. Yet a greater percentage of its people live in abject poverty. The level of development in Africa vis-à-vis other continents, particularly the industrialized nations of the world has been a great concern to scholars and the international community which led to the millennium development goals (MDGs). However, the inability of most of the countries to meet these goals has brought to the front burner the factors responsible and ways of overcoming them. This paper situate corporate governance as a critical factor in the development of the continent, investigates available literature on the challenges of development in Africa and conclude that lack of corporate governance in both private and public sector is a setback. It looks at the MDGs and some prominent theories on corporate governance, examining the various challenges in Africa in this regard and concludes that for effective growth and economic development of the continent entrenching effective and qualitative corporate governance is of great significance. This will lead to all round effective leaders, thus redeeming business image, attracting more funding and increasing inflow of investment both within and outside its continent.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Africa, New Millennium, MDGs, Economic Development.

 

 

TRANSPARENCY AND ACCOUNTABILITY IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT: EFFECTIVE MACHINERIES FOR NATIONS DEVELOPMENT

ISMAILA ABUBAKAR

Department of Business Management Education, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria

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Abstract

The purpose of the paper was to determine the effect of transparency and accountability in nation’s development. More often, people found the application of transparency in their mindsets as a struggle force difficult to overcome especially in the developing societies. The earning desires or expectancy for nation’s development is largely a mechanism in their capability and self conscious to give adequate account of their resources entrusted in their custody or disposals of the accounting people. This paper was written with the aim of delivery into the process of encouraging all sectors to handle procure items i.e. goods, works, services and consultancy in their possession in such a manner that accountability will be achieved. It was also anticipated that it will assist the general public to contribute and monitor strategically the syndrome of high level corruption in the developing countries. The paper ample solution and recommendation’s to solicit all that matters in acquiring resources for the development of nations.

Keywords: Transparency Accountability Public procurement Corruption National development

 

 

KEY DRIVERS OF DEFORESTATION IN PEHANG PENINSULAR MALAYSIA, A THREAT TO CLIMATE CHANGE

MANDE, K. HA., ABDULLAH, A. MB., GUGONG K. BC., NGHAI E. SD., BALA DE., SHAMANG KF.,.,  BABARINSA DG, BAJI JH., GABRIEL EI., SABO D. DJ.

ag,h&jDepartment of Environmental Managment, Faculty of Environmental Science, Kaduna State University, Nigeria bDepartment of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Environmental   Studies, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. cDepartment of Accounting, Faculty of Art, Kaduna State University, Nigeria d&fDepartment of Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Science, Kaduna State University, Nigeria dDepartment of Geography, Faculty of Sciences, Kaduna State University, Nigeria iDepartment of Urban and Regional Planning, P.M.B 704, FUT Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

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ABSTRACT:

Increasing human population and the growing economy is often associated with various environmental disturbances which have been altering the natural earth ecosystem. The need for more spaces for numerous land development activities has made the existing forests suffer deforestations. The aim of the research is to ascertain the drivers of deforestation and to stabilize the GHG concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate. Pahang currently has only about 1,562,902 ha of forests, which cover the inland forest, peat swamp forest and mangrove forest. These forests have declined in terms of forest cover between 2002 and 2010 due to conversion of forests to other land uses.  Identifying drivers of deforestation as a major cause of carbon emission into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2) is crucial to combat climate change issue, maneuvers future development and sustainable environment. Pahang, which is the largest state in Peninsular Malaysia has the largest forest cover and was selected as the study area. The period of the research was between 1990 and 2010, where variations of drivers of deforestation were quantified spatially and temporal. In this study, Landsat-TM and SPOT-5 satellite images between years 1990 and 2010, with 5-year interval, land use map and ground truthing were used to estimate forest cover and forest cover changes. The images from the satellite and the information on land use map were assessed to determine the rate of deforestation based on permanent land use changes that occurred within the periods. Magnitude of land use changes has been quantified and drivers of deforestation were identified indicating commercial agricultural such as palm oil plantation and rubber plantation was the main proximate drivers for the deforestation in Pahang.

Keywords: Deforestation, landsat, landuse, Forest, Drivers

 

 

PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF FINISHER BROILERS FED BREWER’S DRIED GRAIN SUPPLEMENTED WITH EXOGENOUS ENZYMES.

E.O. AHAOTU 1, V.N. OKONKWO 2, IHENACHO, R.A 3 AND EBOCHUO, V.C 4

1Department of Animal Production Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Nigeria.  2Department of Animal Science and Fisheries, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria. 3Department of Agriculture, Extension and Management, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Nigeria. 4Department of Fisheries and Marine Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Nigeria.

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Abstract

A total of 60 Marshal Strain finisher broiler birds of 28 days of age were used in a twenty eight (28) days feeding trial to determine the effect of brewers spent grain supplemented exogenous enzymes on performance, carcass and internal organs characteristics, hematological and serum, biochemical parameters of finisher broiler birds. Four experimental diets were formulated such that brewers spent grain supplemented exogenous enzymes was incorporated in the finisher broiler diets at 0%, 10%.20% and 30% dietary level to replace maize in experiments (T1,T2,T3 and T4) respectively. The 60 finisher broiler birds were divided into 4 experimental groups of 15 birds per group and were randomly assigned to the 4 treatment diets which were also replicated into three (3) times of 5 birds per replicate. However, all the haematological and serum biochemical parameters were significantly different (p<0.05) among the treatment means. However the FCR was best in treatment 3 and as well T3 had the least fed cost per kg weight gained (N). The cost benefit analysis revealed that the cost per kg was highest (p<0.05) in the control diet (T1) and lowest (P<0.05) T4. Costs per kg of the experimental diet were N79.46, N76.68, N73.18 and N69, 68 for T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. These results suggest that brewers spent grain supplemented exogenous enzymes could be included in the diets of finisher broiler birds up to 30% level without any harmful effect on the animal.

Keywords: Marshal Strain Finisher Broiler Birds, Brewers Spent Grain, Exogenous Enzymes, Haematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters.

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