AFRICAN SCHOLARS JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCE (JPAS-1)
VOL. 7 NO. 1 ISSN – 2278-8881
African Scholar Publications and Research International,
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PCR ANALYSIS OF RESISTANT BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM RIVER SOKOTO, NORTHWESTERN NIGERIA
RAJI, M.I.O. AND GARBA, I
Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria.
Thirteen resistant bacteria strains from River Sokoto namely Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella pneumonae and Enterobacter aerogenes recovered on Mueller-Hinton agar by disc diffusion method were subjected to PCR (Polymerase chain reaction) analysis to determine their antibiotic resistance genes. Forward and reverse copies of five primers (TEM, spvC, SHV, aacC3 and qnrS) were used in the PCR analysis. Aminoglycoside resistance genes (aacC3) were detected in the majority of the isolates such as E. coli, Shigella flexneri, Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus saprophytica and Enterobacter aerogenes with plasmid numbers ranging from 1 to 4 and molecular weights ranging from 185 bp to >10,200 bp. Virulence resistance genes (spvC) were detected in Salmonella typhi on two plasmids with molecular weights of 571 bp and >10,200 bp while quinolones resistance genes were detected on plasmid numbers ranging from 1 to 3 and molecular weights ranging from 400 bp to 1000 bp in Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis and Providencia rettgeri. Three different resistance genes namely β-lactam (blaTEM), virulence (spvC) and quinolones (qnrS) on 6 plasmids with molecular weights ranging from 428 bp to 1,200 bp were found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa while two resistance genes (aacC3 and qnrS) on 2 plasmids with molecular weights of 185bp and 428bp were detected in Klebsiella pneumoneae. Non-specific resistance genes alongside with specific resistance genes were however detected in the majority of the isolates. The study revealed that the resistance genes exhibited by resistant bacteria isolates from River Sokoto were mainly virulence, aminoglycoside and quinolones resistant genes. The scientists are therefore challenged on the need for development of new antibiotics to combat the infections caused by these resistant strains.
Keywords: PCR analysis, resistant bacteria, antibiotic resistance genes, non-specific resistance genes.
SYNTHESIS OF RUBBER SEED (HEVEA BRASILIENSIS) OIL METHYL ESTERS OVER A CALCINED WASTE RUBBER SEED SHELL CATALYST: MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS VARIABLES
SAMUEL ERHIGARE ONOJI, *, †, ‡ SUNNY E. IYUKE, †, ‡ ANSELM I. IGBAFE, § AND MICHAEL O. DARAMOLA†
†School of Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, 1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Braamfontein 2050, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg, South Africa ‡Petroleum and Natural Gas Processing Department, Petroleum Training Institute, PMB 20, Effurun, Nigeria §School of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering, Afe Babalola University, PMB 5454, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
In the present study, waste rubber seed shell (RSS) obtained from our previous study was investigated as a plausible solid base catalyst for the transesterification of esterified rubber seed oil (RSO) to biodiesel. TGA, XRF, XRD, GC-MS, SEM, and N2 adsorption/desorption analysis (BET) were used to characterize the catalyst. Central composite design (CCD) was employed to design the experiments conducted to study the influence of the process variables (reaction time, methanol/oil ratio, and catalyst loading) on biodiesel yield. Response surface methodology (RSM) technique, was used to optimize the process, and the quadratic model developed was statistically significant with F-value of 12.38 and p-value (<0.05). The optimum conditions obtained from RSM are as follows: reaction time (60 min), methanol/oil ratio (0.20 vol/vol), and catalyst loading (2.2 g) with a maximum biodiesel yield of 83.11% which was validated experimentally as 83.06±0.013%. Reusability test of the catalyst at optimum conditions shows that the biodiesel yield was over 80% after 4th cycle of usage and the leached Ca2+ ion content of biodiesel was 3.26 mg/kg (ppm). The ester content determined by a pre-calibrated gas chromatography and the oxidation stability of the biodiesel are 96.7% and 7.8 h, respectively. The characterized biodiesel complied with ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards.
Keywords: Rubber seed oil, rubber seed shell catalyst, biodiesel, optimization, central composite design, response surface methodology.
ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM PINEAPPLE WASTE BY ENZYME HYDROLYSIS FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
NJOSI JUSTINA ANWILIKA
Department of Industrial Safety and Environmental Technology, Petroleum Training Institute P.M.B 20, Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria.
Ethanol was produced from renewable resources of pineapple waste through processes of liquefaction, fermentation, enzyme hydrolysis and distillation. The fermentation was done using activated dried yeast in a fermentation broth using a distillation system with a thermometer and a receiving vessel in the bulk distillation. Percentage of sugar in the mash liquid yield from the fermentation broth, alcohol content, reducing sugar and titrable acidity were measured and the results obtained showed that the pineapple waste constituted a potential source of alcohol as biofuel, it had a percentage yield of 45%. The Ethanol produced can be used directly as a motor fuel. Production of Ethanol from renewable resources as biofuel was employed to substitute for the production of fuel from non renewable resources of crude oil and gasoline. The findings of the study revealed that organic garbage can be recycled into useful grade ethyl alcohol and biofuel that can be use as a source of energy, thereby preventing environmental pollution of waste materials for sustainable economic and environmental development in Nigeria.
Keywords: Renewable resources, Pineapple waste, liquefaction, Enzyme hydrolysis, Fermentation, Distillation unit, Ethanol, Biofuel, Sustainable development.
ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS ROOT EXTRACT OF IMPERATA CYLINDRICA (L) ON MAIZE AND SORGHUM SEEDS GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH.
A.I. ABUBAKAR* Y. HARUNA* GARBA, A**. AND BARNABAS, B.*
*Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi. **Department of Forestry Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.
This study was conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the allelopathic effects of aqueous root extract of Imperat cylindrica L. at 5 and 10% (w/v) concentrations on maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) seed germination, seedling growth (shoot and root length). The treatments were laid out in completely randomized design with four replications. Results showed that the aqueous root extract significantly inhibited seed germination, shoot length and root elongation of the crops. The germination percentage, root and shoot growth decreased with increase in extract concentration. It was suggested that integrated weed management practices should be designed and employed to control this invasive weed from maize and sorghum fields to sustain production of the crops.
Keywords: Allelopathic, aqueous root extract, maize, sorghum
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF NON-INTERACTING PARALLEL DATA USING A COMPUTATIONAL ODE45 APPROACH: INTER-COMPETITION BETWEEN LEGUMES
*ALAPUYE GBOLU ELEKI, **ENU-OBARI N. EKAKA-A, **A.O. NWAOBURU,
*Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Port Harcourt Polytechnic, Rumuola, Port Harcourt, Nigeria **Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Nkpolu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
The existence of non-interacting parallel data in the field of crop science would require a sound statistical analysis. We have utilized a computational ODE 45 approach to analyze this problem. The novel contribution of this study is presented and discussed in this paper.
Keywords: Non-Interacting, Computational, Statistical, Analysis, Parallel.
ROBUST WILD BOOTSTRAP METHOD BASED ON LMS ESTIMATOR IN THE PRESENCE OF OUTLIERS AND HETEROSCEDASTICITY ERROR VARIANCE USING MONTE-CARLO SIMULATION
BELLO ABDULKADIR RASHEED A* AND SAGIR MAHMOOD B
a, bDepartment of Mathematics and Statistics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
This paper is concerned with wild bootstrap techniques in linear regression model in the presence of outliers and heteroscedasticity using Monte-Carlo procedures. The Monte-Carlo procedures was apply for the study in which random sample of sizes 30 was replicated three and five times to generate a sample of 90 and 150 observations. However, the linear regression model is based on fixed X variable for different sample size was generated to follow normal distribution and the stochastic error for different sample sizes also follow a normal distribution. The form of heteroscedasticity was introduced to the regression model to justify the behavior of the parameter estimate. The outliers are generated by replacing some good observation by a suitable outlier’s observation. The BootWu, BootLiu, RBootWu and RBootLiu methods were applied to identify the best method in the presence of outliers and heteroscedasticity errors. This estimators were compared using robust procedure based on the weighted residuals which combine the Alamgir redescending m-estimator weighted function, least median squares (LMS) estimator, robust location and scale, and the wild bootstrap sampling procedure of Wu’s and Liu’s. The performance of the proposed methods RWBootWu and RWBootLiu is compared to the existing RBootWu, RBootLiu, BootWu and BootLiu using the bias, RMSE and average standard error. The results of the simulation study indicate that the RWBootWu and RWBootLiu have proven to be a good alternative estimator for regression model.
Keywords: – Robust estimation, Wild Bootstrap, Bias estimation, Root Mean Squares Error, and Average standard error.
SAFETY ASSESSMENT, IN-VIVO ANTI-TRPANOSOMAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOL ROOT EXTRACT OF SECURIDACA LONGEPEDUNCULATA IN MICE INFECTED WITH TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI BRUCEI
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, P.M.B. 1144, Aliero, Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria.
Securidaca longepedunculata is a savannah shrub commonly used by traditional medicine practitioners in Nigeria; the plant is reputed to have over one hundred medicinal indications. In this investigation, its safety was established by determining the median lethal dose as 2.8 mg/kg body weight. The trypanocidal activity was studied using Swiss albino mice of both sexes: The animals were randomly selected and divided weight dependently into groups of 5 mice each, consisting of three methanol extracts groups of 5%, 10%, and 20% of the extract’s LD50 which is equivalent to (0.14, 0.28, & 0.56 mg/kg) respectively, and also a standard control drug (diminazene aceturate 3.5 mg/kg), infected and not treated group and no infection no treatment group. Except the no infection no treatment group, all other groups were infected with T. brucei. Invariably, each animal received inoculums of about 1.0 x 107 parasites per gramme body weight through needle passage and produced parasitaemia in the mice. On commencement of the medications (i.e. at peak parasitaemia) the methanol root extract of S. longepedunculata was given to the three groups in divided doses as shown below for seven days and the diminazene aceturate was given to the standard group at a therapeutic dose of 3.5 mg/kg just once, while the infected not treated and the no infection no treatment received no treatment, all the drugs were given through intra-peritoneal routes after confirming parasitaemia.The diminazine treated group cleared all the parasites the next day and there was no relapse parasitaemia, while dose dependent decrease in the parasites was observed in the extract treated groups but there was gradual relapse parasitaemia in the methanol extract treated groups probably due to the crude nature of the extract. However, S. longepedunculata root extract is perceived to be useful in the treatment of various ailments but should be used with caution particularly on chronic administration like in diabetic, cancer or hypertensive treatment.
Keywords: Root Extract, Anti-trpanosomal, Methanol, Securidaca, longepedunculata.
QUANTIFYING THE IMPACT OF CHANGING INTRINSIC GROWTH RATE ON THE BIODIVERSITY OF THE FOREST RESOURCE BIOMASS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CROSS RIVER STATE FOREST RESOURCE AT THE CROSS RIVER NATIONAL PARK, SOUTH – SOUTH NIGERIA
ATSU, J.U.1. AND EKAKA-A, E.N.2
1Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria 2Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Nkpolu, Port – Harcourt, Nigeria
The numerical analysis of biodiversity is a challenging mathematical idea and an ecological idea. Due to the variation of the intrinsic growth rate of the forestry resource biomass, biodiversity loss can occur when the intrinsic growth rate is slightly decreased by 92 percent, 93 percent, 94 percent and so on, whereas a biodiversity gain can dominantly occur when the same parameter value is increased by 120 percent, 130 percent. We have utilized the numerical method of the Ruge-Kutta ODE 45 scheme which is computationally very efficient to tackle this problem. The novel contributions to knowledge of this robust approach have not been seen elsewhere; these are clearly presented and discussed in this paper.
Keywords: Biodiversity loss, biodiversity gain, intrinsic growth rate, forestry resource biomass, dynamical system, sustainable development, ODE 45.
STRUCTURAL USE OF BAMBOO WITH PRESERVATIVES TREATMENT TECHNIQUES (PART 3)
*DR. ENGR. GANA A.J **DR. ENGR THEOPHILUS.T
*Civil Engineering Department, Collage of Science and Engineering, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara state **Civil Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State
Bamboo, as one of the sustainable construction material has been used for many decades in Civil Engineering and design and construction in different parts of the world. In modern times, it has the potential to be aesthetically pleasing and low cost alternation materials, such as timber, as proved by many professional engineers in the area of design. Like other construction materials are giving adequate treatment before the construction processes, so is the same application to Bamboo. This study examines the types of attacks to Bamboo, protection against decay, and usual common preservatives treatment available for Bamboo.
Keywords: Bamboo uses, types of attacks, protection against decay, preservative treatment.
PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF LOCAL CHICKEN PRODUCTION IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA
KPEREGBEYI J. I1 AND ORHERUATA, A. M2
1 Department of Agricultural Technology, School of Agriculture, Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro 2 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City.
This study was carried out using field data to qualitatively characterize local chicken under traditional system in Delta State. Traits considered were plumage colour, comb colour, wattle colour, earlobe colour, eye colour and shank colour respectively. Data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis to determine percentage distributions of the traits. Results obtained showed a percentage distribution of 68 %,, 40 % and 41 % for red comb colour, red earlobe colour and yellow shank colour, respectively. Twelve (12) plumage colour variants were observed with black and brown predominating with 17 % and 16 %, respectively. The white and yellow colours were the least and constituted 1 % of the population. Two comb colour variants were identified among the local chickens. Sixty – eight (68 %) of the comb colour were red.
Keywords: Qualitative trait, local chicken, plumage, population, traditional system.
THE DOSIMETRY OF X-RAY PLANE SOURCE IN TISSUES.
AREMU S.O1, HAQUE M.F2., NDAWASHI M1., ODELAMI A.K.3
1Federal polytechnic Bauchi, 2Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi. 3Sheu Idris College of Health Sciences and Technology Kaduna.
With the rapidly increasing use of radioisotopes in research, therapy and radiation protection studies, the problem of accurately determining the distribution of the energy imparted to biological tissues has greatly increased in importance. The absorbed doses in tissues due to X- ray plane source were computed as a function of exposure time, Photon energy, radius and the distance between the source and target. The absorbed doses were found to increase linearly with exposure time. With the increase in Photon energy, the absorbed doses were found to increase almost linearly while it decreases exponentially as the distance between the source and the target is increased.
Keywords: Dosimetry, Plane source, Photon energy, Attenuation angles, Exposure time.
FREQUENCY OF PRE-HARVEST AND ANTIBIOGRAM (Escherichia Coli) 0157:H7ON Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea Var. Capitata) MOISTENED WITH GWALLAGA CANAL WASTEWATER IN BAUCHI METROPOLIS
SAADATU BELLO KIRFI
Department of Science Lab Tech. Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
The research investigate the pre-harvest prevalence of E. coli 0157:H7 on cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) grown with contaminated irrigations’ water, of Gwallaga canal and determined the level of antibiotic’s susceptibility phenotype. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated by enrichment on Tripticase Soy Broth (TSB), and transferred thereafter onto Eosin Methlylene Blue (EMB) and Sorbitol MacConkey agar plates, supplemented with 0.5% sodium thioglycolate, cefexime and potassium telurite (CT-SMAC) repetitively. Non Sorbitol fermented colonies were biochemically screened on Microbact 24E, Latex agglutination and tested on standard antibiotic. A total of 11(22.00%) E. coli 0157:H7 were observed with highest resistance of 54.55% on nalidixic acid, followed by gentimycin and ceporex with 36.36% each. A number of strains showed significant positive correlations, in susceptibility response to drugs like ceporex and streptomicin (r = .624, P < 0.05), pefloxacin and ofloxacin (r = .624, P< 0.05), gentimicin and pefloxacin (r = .624, P < 0.05), and cotrimothaxole and pefloxacin, r = .624, P < 0.05 respectively. Similarly eight patterns of multidrug resistance were observed, 27.27% of the isolates showed resistance of 2 to 5 antibiotics. The high prevalence of E. coli 0157:H7 in cabbagecoupled with the high multi-drugs resistance, is a subject of serious public health concerned, these call for active surveillance mechanism, to aid control of emerging infectious pathogens.
Keywords: Pre-harvest, Cabbage, susceptibility, multi-drug resistance and public health
TESTING FOR THE TYPE OF STABILITY UNDERGOING CHANGING EXPERIMENTAL TIME
JAMES GALADIMA1 AND E. N. EKAKA-A2
1Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Natural Science, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria. 2Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Nkpolu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
The formidable problem of stability for a two-dimensional dynamical system due to a variation of the experimental time in the differential equation qualitative interpretation has been presented and analysed using a Matlab ODE45 numerical scheme. This present numerical simulation analysis has predicted three instances of unstable steady-state solutions and a dominant scenario of a stable unique positive co-existence steady-state solution in the absence of a semi-stochastic variation of the deterministic model parameter values. This novel contribution to knowledge that we have not been seen elsewhere are presented and discussed in this paper.
Keyword: Changing, Testing, Experimental, Stability, Time.
ICT IN BUILDING DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION: THE USE OF AUTOCAD SOFTWARE IN BAUCHI CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
1HAMIDU SHITUFA 2YERIMA MOHAMMED 3MURTALA ALIYU BABAJI 4OSUNKUNLE ABDULMAGEED
1,3&4Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi 2Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
This paper reports the usefulness of AutoCAD as information technology software in building Construction projects. The information and technology used in construction industry affects our environment. Also, there is a critical look at the recent and future sustainable developments as a result and trying to identify what their impacts on our construction will be. Most of the recent building design projects are done with the aid of AutoCAD Software in order to achieve the effectiveness, accuracy, state of the art completion and proper monitoring of the building projects during construction. AutoCAD software is one the best to use as it is precise and can be imported with ease to other software for easy usage. AutoCAD software makes building construction projects more successful in recent times. It promotes proper planning for Architects to effectively monitor the building design projects right from design to completion stage. The paper recommended that government should provide help construction experts to enable professionals procure the necessary AutoCAD software acssories that would make construction activities IT friendly.
Keywords: Architect, Auto CAD Software, Construction, Design and Project.