Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences (JPAS) Vol 12 No.1

African Scholar Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences (AJPAS)

Vol 12 No.1 2018 ISSN 2321-2845

Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies, University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.

Copyright © 2018 African Scholar Publications and Research International.




Solution of Non-Linear Differential Equations that Model Population Dynamics Using the Laplace Transform Methods

Bazuaye F.E

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Portharcourt, Rivers State.



This paper applied Laplace Transform Techniques to obtain solutions to non-linear differential equations that model Population dynamics. The new model identified four parameters that affect population growth, in contrast to the models in literature which considered only three parameters which are Births, deaths and overcrowding. The additional parameter is the epidemic. The solutions obtained in no overcrowding and no epidemic indicates a population growth. It shows that there exists a rise in the population abundance. But whenever the epidemic term is introduced into the model, there is a sharp decrease in population growth.

Keywords: Population growth, Model parameter, Simulation



Facility Maintenance Management Plan 3 – A Case Study of Kashim Ibrahim Library (Kil), Ahmadu Bello University (A.B.U.), Zaria.

Sylvanus Musa Hassan

Kaduna State University



There is a direct relationship between the physical condition of a building and the maintenance strategy used. As shown in a previous research on Kashim Ibrahim Library (KIL) of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria,  which revealed the poor condition rating of KIL to be a direct effect of the absence of a documented maintenance strategy; and  concluded that a documented Facility Maintenance Management Plan (FMMP) is necessary for the upkeep of KIL and similar facilities, (Musa 2018a). A FMMP is a documented strategy for Facility Management (FM) capable of increasing the operational efficiency of facilities by strategically outlining policies that synchronize organizational goals and objectives with appropriate maintenance operations. This research therefore attempts to develop a FMMP Framework for KIL – using a FMMP template designed by this author in a previous research,(Musa, 2018b). It is hoped that this research will provide the management of KIL with a strategy for effective FM, and industry practitioners with a basis for designing FMMPs.

Keywords: Facility Maintenance Management Plan Framework



Evaluating the Computing Principle, Operations and Constraints of Android Technology

Amannah, Constance Izuchukwu and Igwela, Jennifer N.

*Department of Computer Science, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rivers State, Nigeria. **Department of Library and Information Science, Rivers State University Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.



Android is a software stack for mobile devices that include an operating system, middleware and key application. Android software platform and operating system for mobile devices is based on Linux operating system and developed by Google and Open Handset Alliance. The study investigated the computing principles of Android technology and also ascertains its mode of operations. The study is recommending that Android users have a strong flexible understanding of Android phones by studying the Android operation performance either on Android handbook or online research so that their use of Android smart phones in optimized. The study reviewed that when all the necessary instructions are implemented Android smart phones will perform more efficiently. Thus it will enhance effective use and management of Android smart phones.

Keywords:   Evaluation, Computing, Principle, Operations, Constraints Android, Technology.



Determination of Some Heavy Metals Concentration in the Blood, Brain, Flesh and Liver of Cane Rats (Thryonomys Swinderianus) In Gyawana Ecosystem, Adamawa State, Nigeria

1Buba, Z.M., 2Yusufu, S. D., 3Akan, J.C.

1Department of Zoology, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria 2Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria 3Department of Chemistry, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria



The excess quantities of heavy metals are detrimental as these destabilize the ecosystems because of their bioaccumulation in organisms, and elicit toxic effects on biota and even death in most living organisms. This study was carried out in Gyawana ecosystem, Adamawa State, Nigeria, for a period of twelve months (December 2015 to November, 2016). A total of four hundred and eighty (480) male and female adult cane rats (T. swinderianus) were used, to determine the concentration of heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the blood, brain, flesh and liver of T. swinderianus. The T. swinderianus were dissected separately to obtain the organs. The brain, liver and flesh of each T. swinderianus sampled were dried at 105oC and digested with tri-acid mixture (HNO3: HCO4: H2SO4). Determination of the heavy metals was done using a Buck Scientific 200A Model, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The result shows that all the heavy metals except Cr were found in the blood and organs of the T. swinderianus studied. The blood, flesh and liver of the T. swinderianus had the same mean concentration of As (0.032±0.000mg/g), which was the highest and the least mean concentration of 0.030±0.000mg/g in the brain.  Cd had the highest mean concentration of 0.480±0.053mg/g in the liver of T. swinderianus, followed by blood (0.441±0.006mg/g) and brain (0.439±0.005mg/g). The least mean concentration of 0.216±0.003mg/g was found in the flesh. Co had the highest mean concentration (0.408±0.009mg/g) in the brain of T. swinderianus, followed by liver (0.372±0.004mg/g) and the flesh (0.300±0.003mg/g), while blood showed the least mean concentration of 0.290±0.004mg/g of Co. Blood had the highest mean concentration of Cu with 21.980±0.048mg/g, liver (20.862±0.049mg/g), flesh (16.952±0.066mg/g). The least mean concentration of Cu (16.463±0.059mg/g) was detected in the brain. The highest concentration of Ni (0.043±0.000mg/g) was found in the blood, followed by liver with 0.040±0.000mg/g and flesh with 0.038±0.000mg/g. The brain showed the least mean concentration of Ni (0.026±0.000mg/g). The highest mean concentration of Pb was 0.375±0.009 mg/g, in the flesh, followed by blood with 0.351±0.005mg/g and liver with 0.317±0.004mg/g. The least mean concentration of Pb 0.273±0.004mg/g, was detected in the brain. The highest mean concentration of Zn (11.823±0.122mg/g) was observed in the blood, followed by liver with 11.582±0.117mg/g and 10.307±0.116mg/g in the flesh. Brain had the least mean concentration of 9.920±0.105mg/g. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study shows that the heavy metal concentrations in the study T. swinderianus were within the permissible limit; therefore, it is safe for consumption.

Keywords: Determination, Heavy Metals, Cane rat (T. swinderianus), Gyawana, Ecosystem



Fingerprint Voting System for Students’ Union Elections in Nigerian Universities

Akinola Kayode E.1 Odumosu Adesola A.2 Adedeji Abidemi A.3

1,2,3Computer Science Department Abraham Adesanya Polytechnic, Ogun State, Nigeria.

This paper is aimed at computerizing voting system of students’ union elections in Nigerian universities vis-à-vis fingerprint. Presently, virtually in most Nigerian universities students’ union elections is being done by manual system; which consist of paper ballots which is prone to high incidences of electoral malpractices and irregularities. Fingerprints authentication is adopted in this study due to its accuracy, relatively low cost, small size, and ease of integration into different programming language. Window based application was developed using NetBeans 8.0 IDE and Wamp Server 2.0 to build database application package. DigitalPersona U.are.U 5000 was used for fingerprint capturing. This application registers candidate for each elective posts, authentication and authorization of voters, counting of votes, and hence making result of vote available on time and this eradicate fraudulent rigging and manipulation. The study was able to achieve a high success rate during implementation for conducting elections as it was able to stamp multiple registrations by voters through the combined use of their name and unique fingerprint.

Keywords: Fingerprint, voting system, authentication, biometric, student



Adsorption Comparison of Methane and Natural Gases on Synthesized Activated Carbon

Umar Hayatu Sidik

Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, School of Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic P.M.B 35 Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria



Instability of diesel and gasoline market price with the generation of environmental pollution has attracted world attention in looking towards Natural Gas as a means of alternative fuel. This research work presents an investigation of experimental adsorption uptake of pure methane and NG onto a sawdust porous carbon. The porous carbon was prepared by KOH microwave-assisted activation of a sawdust char. The Porous carbon was used as a potential sorbent to investigate the adsorption characteristics of the two gasses. The adsorption is applied at an ambient adsorption temperatures and at a pressure of 35 bar. The comparison is based on measuring adsorption uptake differences of the two gases onto porous carbon. The ideal CH4 and NG adsorption uptake on porous carbon are investigated using volumetric adsorption method. The CH4 adsorption capacity of 8.27 mmol CH4 adsorbed/g adsorbent was achieved at an ambient adsorption temperature. While NG adsorption capacity of 9.11 mmol NG adsorbed/g was achieved at an ambient adsorption temperatures. In conclusion, the results show that NG adsorption uptake is slightly higher than CH4 adsorption uptake. This is due to the ability of the adsorbent to adsorb other components of the NG other than CH4.

Keywords: methane; natural gas; porous carbon; microwave; pseudo-first order kinetics; pseudo-second order kinetics



Real-Time Systems

Anthony Atima Umukoro, Edino Kennedy and Joseph Okorodudu

Department of Computer Science, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe.



In a Real-Time System the correctness of the system behavior depends not only on the logical results of the computations, but also on the physical instant at which these results are produced. Typical examples of real-time systems include Air Traffic Control Systems, Networked Multimedia Systems, and Command Control Systems etc. Real-Time systems are classified from a number of viewpoints i.e. on factors outside the computer system and factors inside the computer system. Special emphasis is placed on hard and soft real-time systems. A missed deadline in hard real-time systems is catastrophic and in soft real-time systems it can lead to a significant loss. Hence predictability of the system behavior is the most important concern in these systems. Predictability is often achieved by either static or dynamic scheduling of real-time tasks to meet their deadlines. Static scheduling makes scheduling decisions at compile time and is off-line. Dynamic scheduling is online and uses schedule ability test to determine whether a set of tasks can meet their deadlines. The present paper talks about static and dynamic scheduling algorithms and operating systems support for these mechanisms.

Keywords: Real-Time, Air Traffic Control Systems, Networked Multimedia Systems, and Command Control Systems



The Impact of Information Technology on Data Security and Privacy in National Development

Suberu Yusuf 1 Amatullah Yahaya Aliyu2      Idris Ya’u Idris3

1Computer Science Department the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.



The role of Information Technology (IT) on Data Security and Privacy can never be over emphases. As data and information are the key resources for national development; there is a need to look way forward for securing such data and information. This paper reflects on security, privacy and trust from the point of view of the innovation in information and communication technologies. It also considers social, economic and legal aspects that need to be taken into account in the development cycles of new technologies. Finally, the major research challenges, which need to be overcome to ensure the future of the digital world, protect people privacy and enable even more rapid innovation, have been identified.

Keyword: information Technology, Data Security, Privacy, National Development, Innovation.



Implementation of PC Automation using Radio Frequency (RF) and Tera-Term Software

*Oladosu, D. A,, **Tijani, B.O., *Fadiran, G. O., **Ashim, M. O.

*Department of Computer Engineering, the Polytechnic, Ibadan **Department of Electrical Engineering, the Polytechnic, Ibadan.



Home appliances such as security and climate control systems have become more advanced with improvement in micro-controllers and wireless technologies, these created difficult and complex users’ interfaces. In other to alleviate the problem, radio frequency is being introduced as a replacement for Infra-red and Bluetooth application. The paper presents this novel method to automate the control of appliances through laptop or PDA by incorporating the developed transmitting and receiving modules to the pre-existing system; Home/Office Electrical Distribution Board (DB) while Graphical User Interface (GUI) was enabled through Laptop using Tera-term Software and resulted signal initialized from the PC was transmitted via Radio Frequency to the DB.  The developed circuit was practically implemented and the obtained result was quite satisfactory and can serve as relieved mechanism for disabled person.

Keywords: Automation, Microcontroller, Receiver, Tera-Term, Transmitter.



Sustainable Implementation of Water and Wastewater Infrastructure in Developing Countries: A Review

Sheriff, B., Lamuwa, G., Kurigado B., Mustapha, A., and Saleh B.A.

Department of Agricultural Engineering Technology, School of Engineering, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri P.M.B 1070, Borno State, Nigeria.



The paper reviewed sustainable implementation of water and wastewater infrastructures in developing countries. According to sources, sustainable implementation of water and wastewater infrastructure can only be achieved when there is good governance and political interest on the water infrastructural development. Despite the effort of various governments and international organisations to meet the demand gap of adequate freshwater resources the implementation failed in most of developing countries due to rapid population growth, urbanisation, climate change, poor sustainable skills and strategies for proper implementation of sustainable water and wastewater infrastructure and environmental management. Furthermore, the condition might be worse around sub-Saharan region, because of their fast population growth. In the region, the proportion of people who enjoyed piped water on their buildings, which is the preferred option for urban areas, really reduced from 42% to 34% (WHO and UNICEF, 2014a). This is obviously shows that access to ‘safe’ drinking water sources continues to be a main problem in cities in the developing world. Similarly, the trends are the same in good sanitary services. Urban inhabitants without access to better hygiene increased by 40%, from 541 to 754 million, between 1990 and 2012 (WHO and UNICEF, 2014a).

Keywords: Infrastructure, Pollution, Population, Urbanization, and Water



Estimating the P-Norms Errors between Interacting Stock Exchange Data: Competition within the Same Firm.

  1. M. Nafo1 and E. N. Ekaka-a2

Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.



When the competition between two investors operating in the same firm is considered, we have utilized a numerical method that is based on a Rangekuta ordinary differential equation of order 45 (ODE 45) using the MATLAB function to calculate the p norms error of the vectorised difference between interacting data. Error calculations satisfy the properties of the p norms of vectors and some statistical quantities such as the range, mean, variance and standard deviation. For the scenario of equal inter-competition coefficients, the range has the value 0.354811056684092, the mean has the value 0.087373617499420, the variance has the value 0.005949124620380 and the standard deviation has the value 0.077130568650696. For the scenario of unequal inter-competition coefficients, the range has the value 0.355916689699261, the mean has the value 0.087466009299379, the variance has the value 0.005986005611015 and the standard deviation has the value 0.077369280796805. For another unequal inter-competition coefficients, the range has the value 0.353900236109985, the mean has the value 0.087298946534305, the variance has the value 0.005918804053119 and the standard deviation has the value0.076933764064412. All these predictions concern when the length of the trading period is 9 months which is equivalent to 180 days. The results that we have obtained are fully presented and discussed in this paper.

Keywords: p norms, Stock Exchange, Inter-competition and Error Value.


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