JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT (JECM) VOL. 13 NO.3


JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT (JECM) VOL. 13 NO.3

ISSN: 1896-6783 DECEMBER 2018


Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies, University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.

Copyright © 2018 African Scholar Publications and Research International.

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IMPLICATION OF OPEN SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL IN NIGERIAN CITIES

Audu Gani Bogoro

Department of Urban and Regional Panning, Faculty of Environmental Design, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria

Abstract

The research revealed that over 50% of the solid waste generated in Nigerian cities is left uncollected causing health hazard and environmental problems.  In most of the major streets in Nigerian cities a substantial portion of the steets are taken over by heaps of solid waste. In lagos, Bauchi, Delta, Ibadan and many other cities, the recent flood disasters are linked to indiscriminate dumping of solid waste blocking drainages and water ways. This study discovered that high urbanization rate, inadequate solid waste management facilities, weak enforcement of environmental sanitation laws and poor knowledge of the negative implication on the community health. The study recommends that solid waste segregation at source and formal scavenging should be encouraged, solid waste management agencies should be fully equipped with modern waste management equipment, Law enforcement and prosecution should be fundamental in stopping illegal dumping, finally. A high level of awareness and education on sanitation, environmental health matters and benefits of proper waste disposal should be created to the entire public so that they can appreciate the need for a clean living environment and actively participate in keeping the urban roads and drainages clean.

Keywords; solid waste, Nigerian cities, open disposal, flooding, environmental law.

 

 

EFFECTS OF INFLATION ON WAGES AND SALARIES OF CONSTRUCTION CRAFTSMEN IN BAUCHI METROPOLIS

Dr. Inuwa Yusuf Mohd1, Adama Lami Kawu2, Lawal Zubairu Adam3

Department of Building, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria

Abstract

The study aimed at analysing the effects of inflation on wages of construction craftsmen in Bauchi metropolis from 2005-2014. Data used for the study were gathered through the use of 60 returned questionnaires administered to construction craftsmen in the sampled construction companies. A random sampling technique was used in determining the sample. A sample size of 80 and a population size of 100 were used. Five categories of construction craftsmen (block layers, plumbers, carpenters, metal fixers and electricians) were sampled and used in the study.  Cost index analysis and mean were used for the analysis. The findings indicates that  craftsmen in  Company C were  found  to  receive   highest  wages/ salary   among  craftsmen  in   other  firms, followed by Companies B and E. Craftsmen  in  Company A received the lowest. The highest percentage in annual wages/salaries of the craftsmen was recorded in 2007 with a value of 13.6%, and the lowest percentage value was recorded in 2006 with a value of 3.2%. This signifies that all the construction companies sampled paid their craftsmen averagely in 2007 amongst the periods under study. Moreover, the results also indicate a non- linear relationship between the two variables, inflation rates and wages of construction craftsmen. Meaning that inflation has a direct effect on the wages/salaries of construction craftsmen. Finally, the study concluded that in a favourable economy, inflation rates should not be more than 5%. But that was not the case in the periods under study which showed an increase in each year with a lower inflation rate of 5.40% in 2007.

Keywords: Inflation, Wages, Construction Craftsmen, Effect and Salaries.

 

 

THE IMPACT OF MAGA DAM CONSTRUCTION ON THE DOWNSTEAM HYDROLOGICAL SYSTEM, ECONOMY AND SECURITY: A CASE FOR KALA-BALGE AND NGALA LGAS, N. E. BORNO STATE, NIGERIA.

Abbas, Adam M. (PhD)

Department of Geography, Federal University Kashere, Gombe-State, Nigeria.

Abstract

The role of water resources in the economic development of a nation cannot be overemphasized. It constitutes the most important necessities to man. This study looks at the consequences/effects of the Maga Dam construction in the Republic of Cameroon on the development of the downstream areas of Kala-Balge and Ngala Local Government Areas of Borno State Nigeria. The negative effects result from drying of one of the richest sources of Nigerian rivers draining into the Lake Chad. It is called River El-beid and locally known as Ebeji which also forms the larger part of the border between Nigeria and Republic of Cameroon (along the two LGAs) for more than 400 km until Lake Chad. To arrive at results showing the magnitude of the effects, a household survey was conducted in the area 0-5 kilometers away from the boundary. A total of 150 households were considered for the interview survey. Field observation and in-depth interviews were also conducted on some stake holders. The results indicate that, economic activities such as farming, fishing, livestock, tourism, trade and transport/navigation, boat carving industries as well as problem of border porosity and security of the area and Nigeria at large have been affected, with resultant effect of poverty, forced out migration and social vices. It is recommended that, in order to restore the river to its normal state some of the waters of Surbewel should be channeled by construction of a navigable canal 0to River El-beid which could also be dyked through the assistance of Lake Chad Basin Commission and Chad Basin Development Authority (CBDA).

Keywords: Water resource, Boundary, Dam, Downstream, Poverty, Lake Chad

 

 

APPRAISING IMPACT OF FLOOD CONTROL STRATEGIES ON RIPARIAN COMMUNITIES OF SHIRORO DAM, NIGERIA

Garba, I. K.; 1 G.N. Nsofor; 2 A.S. Abubakar 3 A. Abdulkadir 4 And S. Ojoye 5

Geography Department, Federal University of Technology, Minna

Abstract

The operation of Shiroro dam is believed to be causing enormous negative environmental impact on the communities at the upstream and downstream sectors of the dam. Consequently, flood disaster in the riparian communities of Shiroro dam has become an annual event, resulting in heavy losses of human and animal lives, damage to buildings, farms and fishing ponds, erosion of large parcels of land, displacement of people from their original settlements and host of other socio-economic hazards. The aim for this paper was appraising the impact of flood control strategies on riparian communities of Shiroro dam, Nigeria. The objective for this paper was to evolve alternative management strategies to flood hazards in the affected communities. To evolve an alternate management strategies to flood hazards in the affected communities: flood risk maps were evolved in order to delineate highly, moderately, and low vulnerably areas where an appropriate buffer for revisiting resettlement exercise were recommended to the authorities concerned. Therefore, the use of remote sensing technique i.e. Google Earth images, Arc GIS 10.1 and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) to identify the level of terrain (topography) helped to achieve the stated objective of this paper by delineating highly, moderately and low risk areas and to provide an appropriate buffer for each affected communities. The finding shows the flood vulnerability map of Akare and Kwata town with total land cover of 1000.49km2. High risk zone is 523.34km2 (52.31%), moderate risk zone is 523.73 (32.36%) and the low risk zone 153.42 (15.33%). From the result obtained, it shows that more than half of the area studied is prone to flooding and only a small area of Akare and Kwata are located in the low risk zone. The result also shows the flood vulnerability map of Gussoro and Zumba town with total land coverage of 207.57km2. High risk zone is 117.98 (56.84%), moderate risk zone is 81.08 (39.06%) and the low risk zone 8.51 (4.10%). It’s recommended that Niger State Geographic Information System as well as NSEMA specify habitable and non-habitable area in riparian communities of Shiroro dam so as to avoid the flood hazard from affecting the lives and properties of the people.

Keywords: Risk zone, Flood, Shiroro dam and Riparian communities.

 

 

ISSUES MILITATING AGAINST INDIGENOUSLY MANUFACTURED CERAMIC SANITARY WARE IN SOUTH WEST, NIGERIA

1Fadairo, Olurotimi Olakunle 2Akinbogun, Tolulope Lawrence 3Kashim Bolaji Isa

1, 2 & 3Department of Industrial Design, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

Abstract

As humans, we all answer to the call of nature. It is assumed that when we take in food, we are duty bound to pass them out as either liquid or solid waste, after some biologically stipulated time. The discriminate or otherwise of the passing out of this wastes is one major issue of both environmental and health concerns in the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Effective management of human waste could be beyond what some ordinary citizens can afford when one considers the increasing population resulting from migration, shortage of pipe borne water supply and the state of unemployment. This implies that only the rich few have access to satisfactory sanitary disposal systems, even in large cities. As a result, most low and average income earners who cannot afford ceramic sanitary ware in the market; have to put-up with self-built pit latrines or other alternatives which can become detrimental to public health. Although extensive studies over the years have been carried-out on sanitation and drinking water by different research groups and individuals both in Nigeria and worldwide. This research addressed the issue of indigenous ceramic sanitary ware production in south-western Nigeria as it affects waste management. Research design employed was survey via questionnaires. Respondents from the two industries visited were resourceful in drawing conclusions on the subject matter reviewed by the study. 

Keywords: Vitreous China; Sanitary; Porcelain; Casting and Importation

 

 

MATERIALS, PROCESS AND PRODUCT OF TRANSFORMATION FROM UNIMPROVED TO IMPROVED TOILETS IN BAUCHI

1Osunkunle Abdulmageed 2Lodson Joyce  3Hamidu Shitufa 4Mohammed Aliyu Abdullahi

1,2,3Department of Architectural Technology Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi 4Department of Architectural Technology, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, Bauchi

Abstract

Transformation from unimproved to improved toilets using acceptable technology could be potentially constructed using locally available skills, materials, process and products. This will be made possible when households and public spaces paved way for harnessing opportunities in toilet culture, design, and construction by providing professional solutions. Also, recent concerns for the professional practice of architects in actualizing open defecation free built environment can never be over emphasized in response to many challenges and issues of transformation from open defecation to open defecation free areas. Whereas, a healthy nation is central to all physical, social and economic growth, the Nigerian health sector is faced with inadequate sanitary facilities. In most African countries, especially some states in Nigeria have not actually migrated to the next level in the sanitation ladder of hygiene as open defecation is still a norm. Based on the above, this paper is aimed at studying the various materials, process and methods of transformation from unimproved to improved toilets. The study area under investigation also further discusses issues of immense contribution to sanitation marketing and finance which recommended that government should strictly enforce the law on sanitation marketing towards the attainment of transformation from unimproved to improved toilets in Bauchi metropolis.

Keywords: Improved toilets, materials, process, products, sanitation

 

 

AN EVALUATION OF THE CHALLENGES IN LAND TITLING AND REGISTRATION IN BAUCHI STATE

1 A.A Yakub, 2 Z.M. Zaidu, 3A. O. Salawu, 4 J.A. Akeem, 5 S.D. Gimba

1,2,3 &5Department of Estate Management and Valuation, College of Environmental Studies, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure, Nigeria 4Department of Urban and Regional Planning, College of Environmental Studies, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure, Nigeria

Abstract

Registration of Land Titles in Nigeria is put at less than 95% of its entire land mass. Although the government of Nigeria, through the three tiers of government, has been making efforts at addressing this problem, thus this study seeks to evaluate the challenges of land tile registration in Bauchi state. A sample of 100 respondents within Bauchi, a five-point Likert scale was used to measure land/property owners level of satisfaction with the present land titling procedures alongside the challenges faced while the Rii was adopted in order to rank these responses. 40% of the respondents affirmed that the process is expensive; 53% opined that the duration for land registration is lengthy (beyond 6 months) and the same percentage opined that the procedure is expensive while in terms of the most significant problem when subjected to ranking, ‘bureaucratic bottleneck’ ranked highest having a mean index of 3.7. The study also found out that the Bauchi land registration process is presently semi automated. It was recommended that Computerization of the land registry and full automation of land titling and registration procedure through deployment of modern technological system such as Geographical Information System (G.l.S) and GPRS to replace Electronic Data Management System (EDMS) should be carried out.

Keywords:  Land Title; Registration of Instruments; Bauchi; Title investigation; Deed of Assignment

 

 

MODEL FOR EFFECTIVE MAINTENANCE OF TERTIARY EDUCATIONAL BUILDINGS IN EBONYI STATE (A CASE STUDY OF AKANU IBIAM FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC UNWANA)

QS. Agha Kalu A., QS. Anikwe, Nnaemeka J., QS. Ogbonna Ndubuisi J.

Department of Quantity Surveying, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Ebonyi State.

Abstract

The need for attractive facilities places new demands on maintenance manager that require them to adopt more systematic, effective model and pro-active approaches to their work. The aim of the study is to prepare a model for effective maintenance of tertiary educational building and really assess their maintenance approaches in relation to a well argued best practice in the context. The study state the following objectives as to reposition the maintenance approaches to the practice standard and to propose a theoretical strategic frame work on asset management for higher educational institution. The researcher made use of primary and secondary method in sourcing of dataa. The secondary source was through literature review of books, journal and conference papers, while primary source was through structured questionnaire/interviews administered to members of staff of the high institutions. The data collected was analyzed by the use of a simple percentage method and five point Likert scale method for better understanding of the work. The finding review that many higher institutions like Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic Unwana do not have full complement of technical staff; most of the maintenance projects either small and simple or large and complex are outsourced. The study conclude that the use of in-house maintenance staff to perform minor day to day routine maintenance work and outsourcing or indirect labour to perform major maintenance work are typical maintenance strategies adopted by tertiary institutions in Nigeria. It was recommended that institution should create a maintenance control unit without the department within the works and physical planning unit comprising of seasoned professionals from among the technical staff and consulting firms that will be designing the maintenance project.

Keywords: Building management, Improvement, in-house, Maintenance, outsourcing, tertiary institutions.

 

 

ASSESSMENT OF HOSTEL FACILITIES IN FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC MUBI

Moses Zira Wanda1 Fatima Samuel Medugu2 Adila Mohammed Iya3

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal Polytechnic Mubi

Abstract

The study identified the functionality, availability and adequacy of hostel facilities in Federal Polytechnic, Mubi. Questionnaire was administered on 90 students residing on the campus through simple random sampling techniques.  The data was presented using frequency tables and percentage. The study revealed that, 84.21% of the facilities identified are available, 93.75% are functional and 33.33%) adequate. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that the polytechnic administration should ensure regular maintenance of the existing hostel facilities through  relevant units and also provide more hostels equipped with modern hostel facilities that are lacking (internet, Wi-Fi among others) to ensure conducive and secure learning environment.

Keywords: Assessment; Hostels; Facilities, Functionality, adequacy, availability

 

 

IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF TVET INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM DELIVERY IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY COURSES IN BENUE STATE

*Dr. Momngu Daniel Tiough **Imborivungu, Terkimbi Emmanuel

*Building Section, Department of Vocational and Technical Education, Benue State University Makurdi **University of Agriculture Makurdi, Demonstration Secondary School

Abstract

The study was carried out to improve the quality of TVET instructional program delivery in building construction technology. Four research questions were raise for the study. The study adopted cross sectional descriptive survey research design with the total population of 55 respondents. There was no sampling for the study hence the population was small and manageable. A self-developed questionnaire and checklist was employed to collect data for the study. The data collected was analyesd using descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation and simple percentage. The findings revealed that, the instructional delivery methods used by the lecturers and technologist are excursion and lecture method and that group discussion, demonstration and the use of ICT is not used. conducive workshops, material testing laboratories, materials for practical’s, interactive boards, computer simulation programs and internet facilities are neither available nor adequate and that inadequate number of lectures that are not ICT compliant, lack of materials, tools and equipment for students practical’s, poor funding and public power supply, lack of commitment of students among others are challenges confronting improvement of the instructional program delivery in building construction technology. The study recommended that lecturers and technologist should employ the use of ICT, group discussion and demonstration other than limiting themselves to lecture and excursion method as instructional delivery methods to improve instructional delivery in building construction technology. Conducive workshops, material testing laboratories, interactive boards, computer simulation programs and internet facilities should be made available and adequate enough by the owners of the institutions to improve instructional delivery in building construction technology.

Keywords: Technical Vocational Education and Training, Instructional Program Delivery, Building Construction Technology

 

 

MAINTENANCE CULTURE TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE GROWTH: RATIONALE FOR HOUSING MAINTENANCE

Rasheed Tunde Bhadmus1 and Olanrewaju Sharafadeen Babatunde Owolabi2

1Department of Quantity Surveying, School of Environmental Studies, the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State. 2Department of Building Technology, School of Environmental Studies, the Federal Polytechnic, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State.

Abstract

Due to the nature of housing, which is more of stock than flow, a large volume of employment in the housing as a whole is in the repair and maintenance. The importance of maintenance to the economy is not limited to the employment generation and volume of expenditure involved, but it is also very vital to ensure that the nations stock of housing is used as efficiently as possible. This is very important as an annual increment to housing stock is always very small, and larger percentages-of households are housed in the existing housing stock. Infact, more maintenance works will be required to keep our housing stock in a good state of repairs. The sustenance of a maintenance culture requires the adoption of the philosophy of a stitch, “time” save nine. What constitutes “time” varies almost the number of buildings in the country. In Nigeria, the culture reflects a trade-on between the costs of maintenance as at the time of failure and that resulting from the effects of non-maintenance as at when due. The latter is usually preferred if has no direct monetary implication. This explains why messy walls are not usually repainted in owner occupied premises. The cost is a mere subjective feeling of squalor. In let properties however, prompt attention would be required to retain the rental value. Finally housing maintenance had effect on the quality of life and aesthetic of the built up environment.

Keyword: Housing, maintenance, repair, households, aesthetic, quality

 

 

GLASS-CERAMIC STRUCTURE FROM FE-NI WASTE

Mohammed Buba

Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi Adamawa.

Abstract

Hazardous residues from ferronickel production and glass cullet were mixed and vitrified. After low-cost heat-treatment, the obtained glass was transformed into a fine-crystalline glass-ceramic. The evolution of structure during the crystallization cycle is studied by XRD and SEM-EDS. Finally, the morphology of final glass-ceramic was clarified by TEM and FESEM. Due to the elevated amounts of iron and magnesium oxides and the presence of 2 wt % chromium oxides in the composition, the crystallization process is irregular, and the final structure of glass-ceramic is complex. Some preliminary Fe-Mg-Cr spinel crystals with a size of few microns precipitate during the melt cooling. Then, these crystals act as centers for the growth of a pyroxene phase; thus, 15–20 vol% of the glass-ceramic structure is formed. The major amorphous phase, where Cr2O3 concentration becomes negligible, is characterized with a high immiscibility trend, leading to the formation of Fe-rich droplets with the size of 50–70 nm. Subsequently, these droplets are transformed into nano magnetite crystals, which provoke crystallization of the main pyroxene phase. This ‘‘second” new pyroxene phase differs from the one, already formed on the preliminary Fe-Mg-Cr spinel and is composed by mono-crystals with the size of 150–200 nm.

Keywords:  Keywords: Iron-reach glass-ceramic, Vitrification

 

 

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT CONDITIONS OF INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS (IDPS) CAMPS IN MAIDUGURI, BORNO STATE.

*Baba Gana Zannah **Bukar Usman

*Department of Geography Umar Ibn Ibrahim El-Kanemi College of Education Science and Technology, PMB 16, Bama Borno State, Nigeria **Department of Biology Umar Ibn Ibrahim El-Kanemi College of Education Science and Technology, PMB 16, Bama Borno State, Nigeria

Abstract

The aim of this study is to examine the solid waste management conditions of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) camps in Maiduguri, Borno State. The research is descriptive in nature qualitative approached were used. The primary data for the research was sourced through the use of questionnaire and interview using a combination of purposive and convenience sampling. While books, journals, newspapers, magazines and internet materials made up the secondary data. The data collected were coded, edited, presented and analyzed using descriptive statistics through frequency tables and percentages. A total of 197 IDPs participated in the study. The findings revealed that almost half of the respondents (45.7%) revealed that food waste is the highest type of solid waste generated in the camps this is because food is the basic needs for the livelihood of the IDPs in the camps. And also (36.5%) of the respondents indicated that fine was the second largest type of solid waste generated in the camps. Therefore, the burning of fuel wood as a source of energy can produced fine and this is environmentally not friendly which generate air pollution and environmental degradation. The study revealed that majority 122(62.0) of the respondents perceived air pollution was the consequences of solid waste disposal in the camps. While 38(19.3%) of the respondents reveals that spread of germ is the consequences of solid waste disposal. Similarly the study found that incineration was used for managing waste in the camps. Some NGOs contributed in sanitation through Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) committee which conducts regular sensitization on the danger of poor waste management. The study recommends among others the need for intensive education to promote positive attitude for solid waste management among the IDPs.

Keywords: Solid Waste Management Sanitation Polythene

 

 

THE CHANGING PATTERN OF A GAZETTED FOREST RESERVE IN KEBBI STATE

Mohammed Nanoh Bello¹ Abubakaralhaji Umar² & Tukur Almustapha³

1&2Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, College of Environmental Studies, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State. Nigeria. 3Department of Building Technology, College of Environmental studies, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State. Nigeria.

Abstract

Human-induced changes related to deforestation, unsustainable land use, overgrazing, illegal bush burning, fuel wood extraction are believed to have caused significant adverse changes in the ecosystem, subsequently leading to its degradation. Monitoring the trends to which the ecosystem is changing by use of indicators such as land cover and socio-demographic information will be essential in order to make proper planning for sustainable ecosystem management. As at 1991, there are about 24 gazetted forest reserves in Kebbi State but currently a sizable number of the reserves have been taken away by activities like farming and settlement. Land cover changes of Gayi Forest Reserve for a period of twenty seven years were analyzed using Landsat 4 (TM) imageries of 1990, Land Sat5 (TM) of 1998,  Landsat 7( ETM+) satellite imagery of 2010 and Landsat 8 OLI satellite imagery of 2017. The study employed unsupervised Classification method using ArcGIS 10. The land use-land cover were classified into: built environment, bush-land, bare surfaces, trees, grass land and shrubs. The result of the study revealed that the period between 1990 1998 and 2008, bare land has 10.6% which increases to 11.5% and 15.7% respectively. Also between 2010 and 2017 there is a minute increase in the percentages of settlements in the Gayi forest increasing at a rate of 0.020 hecters per year.  Indeed, this drastic change from grassland and bare ground, and increase  of settlements will have negative impact on the reserve in the near future if appropriate machinery for redressing the imbalance is not set in motion.

Keywords:  Changing, Pattern, Gazetted, Forest, Reserve.

 

 

AWARENESS OF LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AMONG WOMEN IN NUMAN AREA OF ADAMAWA STATE NIGERIA

1Joel Eli & 2Suleiman Mohammed Daji

1Aliyu Musdafa College, Yola P.O.Box 5230 Jimeta Yola. Adamawa State Nigeria 2Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Mubi, Adamawa State.

Abstract

Awareness of Local Environmental Problems among Women in Numan Area is an attempt to explore the negative fundamental concept of the knowledge about the environmental, among women. Data for this study were obtained from both primary and secondary sources of data and analyzed for relevant information on the study. The primary data were sourced from administering of 300 questionnaires randomly to the selected women on their socio-economic characteristics and their level of local environmental awareness. Descriptive techniques of data analysis were used as an analytical method of illustration of the various sample collected. Chi-square test X2 test was used to test if women environmental awareness depends significantly on their socio-economic characteristics such as their age, level of education, occupation and location of resident. The results of the analysis revealed that 56% of the women were not aware of the causes, consequences and management of local environmental problems, while 44% were aware. The commonness environmental problem in the study area is flooding. The analyses also shows that there is association between women age, level of education and occupation with their level of awareness about the local environmental problems, while there is no association between women location of residents and their level of local environmental awareness. Finally, the study reveals that educated women were much aware of the causes, consequences and management of local environmental problems, and recommended that environmental education and awareness should be incorporated in environmental policies and managements.

Keyword: Local environment, Environmental problems, awareness, women

 

 

AN ASSESSMENT OF MARKET SANITATION IN KADUNA CENTRAL MARKET, KADUNA NORTH, KADUNA STATE

1 Aminu Musa Bringa & 1 Ahmed Yusuf Abdullahi

1Department of Basic Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, P.M.B 0231, Bauchi State of Nigeria

Abstract

Market occupies an important position in the lives of Nigerians. Market Sanitation has remained an intractable problem in Nigeria with serious public health consequences. Poor Market Sanitation has contributed to the spread of infectious or communicable diseases and environmental degradation in Nigeria. This study aims at assessing the Sanitary Condition of Kaduna Central Market with a view to provide recommendations for improving the sanitary conditions and services. In order to elicit information in the study, questionnaire with fourteen items was administered to 100 respondents using available sample technique. Also, oral interview was conducted to some traders, customers and the market managers. The result was presented using simple percentage analysis to make empirical inferences from the data collected. The findings revealed that though, sanitary facilities are available in the market, the facilities and services are not adequate and evenly distributed within the market. It further revealed that the market layout is distorted by illegal trading, parking and dumping of refuse around the market. Also, there is no adequate drainage and water supply to the market. Therefore, there is the need to build more facilities and improve on the existing ones to bring them to the required standards.

Keywords: Market Sanitation, Sanitary Facilities, Waste Disposal, Health Hazards, Environmental Degradation.

 

 

THE ROLE OF TRADITIONAL AND NON-TRADITIONAL INDUSTRIES IN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF MUBI REGION OF ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

Tpl.   Rabiu Mohammed Usman

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

Abstract

Traditional and modern industries play a vital role in the local economy of many regions in Nigeria. This study is aimed at carrying out an inventory of the resource base of Mubi region. These resources include both Human and natural. This aim was achieved through the identification of types and location of existing industries, the characteristics of existing industries in terms of employment, types of markets in the region as means of distribution of finished goods and finally, sources of raw materials for the different types of industries in the region. Data required for the study were obtained through primary and secondary sources.200 settlements were identified in the region.300 questionnaires were administered in the Five Local Government Areas. Sampling techniques applied were clustered and systematic sampling techniques in which ten per cent (10%) of the 200 identified settlements were selected in the ratio 1:10 so that fifteen questionnaires were administered in each of 20 settlements selected in the whole region. It was found that the area is endowed with both Human and natural resources which include clay, sand, food/cash crops and a vast agricultural land. Recommendations proffered include rehabilitation and construction of feeder roads by the local government councils in the region, Establishment of more Health centres by the Adamawa State Hospital Management Board, Rehabilitation of Gombi-Mubi-Sorau road by the Federal Government through the Federal Roads Maintenance Agency (FERMA) and finally the extension of Adamawa State Broadcasting Corporation Service beyond its 100 kilometre radius so as to reach Mubi region.     

Keywords: Traditional industries, Non-traditional industries, Infrastructure, Markets, Raw Materials.

 

 

IMPACT OF EFFECTIVE STRESS IN UNSATURATED SOIL ON THE COLLAPSE AND SWELLING POTENTIALS OF DESERT SAND

*Jibrin Umar, *Nura Hassan, *Mohammed Yau **Audu V. E. Michael

*Department of civil Engineering Technology, School of Engineering Technology, the Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu **Department of civil Engineering Technology, The Federal Polytechnic, Mubi

Abstract

Unsaturated soils are widely spread all over the world, and their behaviour is generally influenced by the physicochemical interaction between water, air and soil solids. This study is to use suction stress approach in establishing suction stress characteristic curve (SSCC) based on the soil water characteristic curve (SWCC). Experimental water retention data on desert sand and collapsible soil were used. The results obtained were best fitted using two models (van Genuchten and Fredlund and Xing) to establish suction stress characteristic curves (SSCC). The results obtained showed that suction stress characteristic curves (SSCC) can be established from soil water characteristic curves (SWCC). It also shows that with increase in the magnitude of suction stress based effective stress causes a wide range of increase in collapse and swelling characteristics at lower values. This clearly indicated that effective stress has an impact on the collapse and swelling potentials of the selected soils, though a further study on the adopted approach is recommended.

Keywords: Collapse, Swelling, Suction, Effective stress, Suction stress

 

 

THE IMPACT OF MATERIAL MANAGEMENT ON CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS DELIVERY IN NIGERIA

Samaila Garba, Khalid Abubakar Munkaila, Bhadmus Rasheed Tunde, Abdullahi Yusuf.

Depatment of Quatity Surveying, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State.

Abstract

The cost of construction material in a construction project may range from 30 – 80 % of total construction cost making it a prime uncertainty in a construction project. Nigeria being a big nation with a domestic market; shortage of skilled manpower; difficult transport and communication and heavy dependence on imported construction material amplified the problem of material management. The main aim of this research paper is to examine the current material management practice and its impact on the delivery of building construction projects in Nigeria. A questionnaire survey administered to a purposive sample of 20 main contractors and 20 sub-contractors, eliciting current material management practices through semi structured interview and obtaining their perception root causes of ineffective material management toward 34 causes that were extracted from an extensive literature review. Moreover the relationship between different material management practices and project delivery in terms of cost overrun and delay were acquired from this questionnaire. The study found 3 distinguish material management practices that were followed. The top 3 most common root causes of ineffective material management identified were matching price to competitor’s price; time spent investigating non-qualified suppliers and unavailability of material. Moreover the findings indicated that material management practices that are depending on the limited local supplier shops suffered Worst delay problems while material management practices that relied on phase-by phase delivery experienced severe cost overrun. This research was conducted in NIGERIA on building construction projects and similar research needs to be conducted in other types of construction projects to cross-reference and validate the result more widely.

Keywords: Construction projects, Material management, Cost overrun, Delay, Main contractor, Sub contractor

 

 

SPATIO-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT BLACK SPOTS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

Maliki Adeku Joseph

Department of Geography, Federal College of Education, Zaria

Abstract

This study analyzed the spatio-temporal pattern of road traffic accident black spots in Kaduna. Among the objectives were to determine the spatial pattern of road traffic accident black spot, examine its temporal variation, characterize road traffic accidents as well as assess the road way nature at the black spots. Road traffic accident data were collected from Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) from year 2006-2014. Also field survey was carried out through which the geographic coordinates of road traffic accident locations were taken as well as on the spot field observation. Data were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.1 environment to determine the road accidents black spots and frequency distribution tables and SPSS and Microsoft Excel. The findings show that the black spots along Zaria-Kano road includes, Yan Karfe, Dogarawa, Zabi and Anur Mosque while Polo Field, MTD, Palladan and Zango account for those along Zaria-Sokoto road. The temporal variation reveals that year 2012-2014 has the highest number of road traffic accidents black spots of 10 locations accounting for about 63% of the total number of accidents recorded, while the least was between years 2009-2011 with 5 black spots representing only 23% of the total number of accidents. The study reveals that about 85% of the death cases as a result of road traffic accidents at the black spots were recorded along Zaria-Kano road. Regarding the road designs, most black spot locations were characterized by sharp bends, U-turn and intersections. Also, other road conditions like presence of potholes, eroded road shoulder and stationary vehicles were found at the various black spot locations. The study recommended among others, emergency healthcare services to be provided at the various black spots locations on the highways.

Keywords: Spatio-Temporal, Analysis,  Road Traffic Accident, Black Spots, Kaduna State

 

 

ANALYSIS OF THE SPATIAL GROWTH OF KUJAMA TOWN, CHIKUN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

1Ibrahim Samaila 2Abdulazeez Mohammed Jajere 3Mansur Bello

1Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, Kaduna State University. Kaduna, Nigeria. 2Department of Social Sciences, College of Administrative Studies and Social Sciences, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria 3Department of Urban And Regional Planning, College of    Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria.

Abstract

Urban growth and expansion is among the major phenomena of study globally. This study examines the urban growth of Kujama town Chikun local government area of Kaduna State, Nigeria between 2001 and 2015 .Three satellite imageries (LandSat ETM 2001, LandSat 7 ETM+ 2008 and NigeriaSat-X 2015, provided the data for the analysts. Supervised image classification, using maximum likelihood algorithm were applied to the three images. Five land use classes were identified, these are: built up area, vegetation, bare surface, rock out crop and water body. Accuracy assessment was performed on the output images of 2001, 2008 and 2015 classified using error matrixes, to ascertain the accuracy of each classified image. Results from both image data of the three different dates, that is 2001, 2008 and 2015 image were merged as an input to produce one image of change detection results. Post classification analysis was used to quantify the changes that took place during the period of the study. The findings revealed that there was a significant increase in built-up area from 1.84km2 to 3.83km2 and 5.78 km2 in 2001, 2008 and 2015 respectively. This represents a difference of 1.99km2 from 2001 to 2008, and 1.95km2 from 2008 to 2015, which indicated an overall increase of 214% in 2015 meaning that the area extent of Kujama has more than tripled within the period of study. Some of the implications includes, decrease in agricultural, land loss of vegetation uncontrolled growth has led to the development of substandard, haphazard, buildings without planning permission, lack of proper accessibility and difficulty in the provision of public services and infrastructure. The study further made some recommendations, among which are proper planning layout, monitoring of any kind of developmental activities, environmental policies for resources sustainability, public enlightening, seeking planning permission before erecting of any kind of building and the need for further research.

Keywords: Urban, Urban Growth, Spatial, Spatial Changes, Implications, Kujama

 

 

IMPLICATION OF OPEN SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL IN NIGERIAN CITIES

Audu Gani Bogoro

Department of Urban and Regional Panning, Faculty of Environmental Design, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria

Abstract

The research revealed that over 50% of the solid waste generated in Nigerian cities is left uncollected causing health hazard and environmental problems.  In most of the major streets in Nigerian cities a substantial portion of the steets are taken over by heaps of solid waste. In lagos, Bauchi, Delta, Ibadan and many other cities, the recent flood disasters are linked to indiscriminate dumping of solid waste blocking drainages and water ways. This study discovered that high urbanization rate, inadequate solid waste management facilities, weak enforcement of environmental sanitation laws and poor knowledge of the negative implication on the community health. The study recommends that solid waste segregation at source and formal scavenging should be encouraged, solid waste management agencies should be fully equipped with modern waste management equipment, Law enforcement and prosecution should be fundamental in stopping illegal dumping, finally. A high level of awareness and education on sanitation, environmental health matters and benefits of proper waste disposal should be created to the entire public so that they can appreciate the need for a clean living environment and actively participate in keeping the urban roads and drainages clean.

Keywords; solid waste, Nigerian cities, open disposal, flooding, environmental law.

 

 

EFFECTS OF INFLATION ON WAGES AND SALARIES OF CONSTRUCTION CRAFTSMEN IN BAUCHI METROPOLIS

Dr. Inuwa Yusuf Mohd1, Adama Lami Kawu2, Lawal Zubairu Adam3

Department of Building, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria

Abstract

The study aimed at analysing the effects of inflation on wages of construction craftsmen in Bauchi metropolis from 2005-2014. Data used for the study were gathered through the use of 60 returned questionnaires administered to construction craftsmen in the sampled construction companies. A random sampling technique was used in determining the sample. A sample size of 80 and a population size of 100 were used. Five categories of construction craftsmen (block layers, plumbers, carpenters, metal fixers and electricians) were sampled and used in the study.  Cost index analysis and mean were used for the analysis. The findings indicates that  craftsmen in  Company C were  found  to  receive   highest  wages/ salary   among  craftsmen  in   other  firms, followed by Companies B and E. Craftsmen  in  Company A received the lowest. The highest percentage in annual wages/salaries of the craftsmen was recorded in 2007 with a value of 13.6%, and the lowest percentage value was recorded in 2006 with a value of 3.2%. This signifies that all the construction companies sampled paid their craftsmen averagely in 2007 amongst the periods under study. Moreover, the results also indicate a non- linear relationship between the two variables, inflation rates and wages of construction craftsmen. Meaning that inflation has a direct effect on the wages/salaries of construction craftsmen. Finally, the study concluded that in a favourable economy, inflation rates should not be more than 5%. But that was not the case in the periods under study which showed an increase in each year with a lower inflation rate of 5.40% in 2007.

Keywords: Inflation, Wages, Construction Craftsmen, Effect and Salaries.

 

 

THE IMPACT OF MAGA DAM CONSTRUCTION ON THE DOWNSTEAM HYDROLOGICAL SYSTEM, ECONOMY AND SECURITY: A CASE FOR KALA-BALGE AND NGALA LGAS, N. E. BORNO STATE, NIGERIA.

Abbas, Adam M. (PhD)

Department of Geography, Federal University Kashere, Gombe-State, Nigeria.

Abstract

The role of water resources in the economic development of a nation cannot be overemphasized. It constitutes the most important necessities to man. This study looks at the consequences/effects of the Maga Dam construction in the Republic of Cameroon on the development of the downstream areas of Kala-Balge and Ngala Local Government Areas of Borno State Nigeria. The negative effects result from drying of one of the richest sources of Nigerian rivers draining into the Lake Chad. It is called River El-beid and locally known as Ebeji which also forms the larger part of the border between Nigeria and Republic of Cameroon (along the two LGAs) for more than 400 km until Lake Chad. To arrive at results showing the magnitude of the effects, a household survey was conducted in the area 0-5 kilometers away from the boundary. A total of 150 households were considered for the interview survey. Field observation and in-depth interviews were also conducted on some stake holders. The results indicate that, economic activities such as farming, fishing, livestock, tourism, trade and transport/navigation, boat carving industries as well as problem of border porosity and security of the area and Nigeria at large have been affected, with resultant effect of poverty, forced out migration and social vices. It is recommended that, in order to restore the river to its normal state some of the waters of Surbewel should be channeled by construction of a navigable canal 0to River El-beid which could also be dyked through the assistance of Lake Chad Basin Commission and Chad Basin Development Authority (CBDA).

Keywords: Water resource, Boundary, Dam, Downstream, Poverty, Lake Chad

 

 

APPRAISING IMPACT OF FLOOD CONTROL STRATEGIES ON RIPARIAN COMMUNITIES OF SHIRORO DAM, NIGERIA

Garba, I. K.; 1 G.N. Nsofor; 2 A.S. Abubakar 3 A. Abdulkadir 4 And S. Ojoye 5

Geography Department, Federal University of Technology, Minna

Abstract

The operation of Shiroro dam is believed to be causing enormous negative environmental impact on the communities at the upstream and downstream sectors of the dam. Consequently, flood disaster in the riparian communities of Shiroro dam has become an annual event, resulting in heavy losses of human and animal lives, damage to buildings, farms and fishing ponds, erosion of large parcels of land, displacement of people from their original settlements and host of other socio-economic hazards. The aim for this paper was appraising the impact of flood control strategies on riparian communities of Shiroro dam, Nigeria. The objective for this paper was to evolve alternative management strategies to flood hazards in the affected communities. To evolve an alternate management strategies to flood hazards in the affected communities: flood risk maps were evolved in order to delineate highly, moderately, and low vulnerably areas where an appropriate buffer for revisiting resettlement exercise were recommended to the authorities concerned. Therefore, the use of remote sensing technique i.e. Google Earth images, Arc GIS 10.1 and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) to identify the level of terrain (topography) helped to achieve the stated objective of this paper by delineating highly, moderately and low risk areas and to provide an appropriate buffer for each affected communities. The finding shows the flood vulnerability map of Akare and Kwata town with total land cover of 1000.49km2. High risk zone is 523.34km2 (52.31%), moderate risk zone is 523.73 (32.36%) and the low risk zone 153.42 (15.33%). From the result obtained, it shows that more than half of the area studied is prone to flooding and only a small area of Akare and Kwata are located in the low risk zone. The result also shows the flood vulnerability map of Gussoro and Zumba town with total land coverage of 207.57km2. High risk zone is 117.98 (56.84%), moderate risk zone is 81.08 (39.06%) and the low risk zone 8.51 (4.10%). It’s recommended that Niger State Geographic Information System as well as NSEMA specify habitable and non-habitable area in riparian communities of Shiroro dam so as to avoid the flood hazard from affecting the lives and properties of the people.

Keywords: Risk zone, Flood, Shiroro dam and Riparian communities.

 

 

ISSUES MILITATING AGAINST INDIGENOUSLY MANUFACTURED CERAMIC SANITARY WARE IN SOUTH WEST, NIGERIA

1Fadairo, Olurotimi Olakunle 2Akinbogun, Tolulope Lawrence 3Kashim Bolaji Isa

1, 2 & 3Department of Industrial Design, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

Abstract

As humans, we all answer to the call of nature. It is assumed that when we take in food, we are duty bound to pass them out as either liquid or solid waste, after some biologically stipulated time. The discriminate or otherwise of the passing out of this wastes is one major issue of both environmental and health concerns in the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Effective management of human waste could be beyond what some ordinary citizens can afford when one considers the increasing population resulting from migration, shortage of pipe borne water supply and the state of unemployment. This implies that only the rich few have access to satisfactory sanitary disposal systems, even in large cities. As a result, most low and average income earners who cannot afford ceramic sanitary ware in the market; have to put-up with self-built pit latrines or other alternatives which can become detrimental to public health. Although extensive studies over the years have been carried-out on sanitation and drinking water by different research groups and individuals both in Nigeria and worldwide. This research addressed the issue of indigenous ceramic sanitary ware production in south-western Nigeria as it affects waste management. Research design employed was survey via questionnaires. Respondents from the two industries visited were resourceful in drawing conclusions on the subject matter reviewed by the study. 

Keywords: Vitreous China; Sanitary; Porcelain; Casting and Importation

 

 

MATERIALS, PROCESS AND PRODUCT OF TRANSFORMATION FROM UNIMPROVED TO IMPROVED TOILETS IN BAUCHI

1Osunkunle Abdulmageed 2Lodson Joyce  3Hamidu Shitufa 4Mohammed Aliyu Abdullahi

1,2,3Department of Architectural Technology Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi 4Department of Architectural Technology, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, Bauchi

Abstract

Transformation from unimproved to improved toilets using acceptable technology could be potentially constructed using locally available skills, materials, process and products. This will be made possible when households and public spaces paved way for harnessing opportunities in toilet culture, design, and construction by providing professional solutions. Also, recent concerns for the professional practice of architects in actualizing open defecation free built environment can never be over emphasized in response to many challenges and issues of transformation from open defecation to open defecation free areas. Whereas, a healthy nation is central to all physical, social and economic growth, the Nigerian health sector is faced with inadequate sanitary facilities. In most African countries, especially some states in Nigeria have not actually migrated to the next level in the sanitation ladder of hygiene as open defecation is still a norm. Based on the above, this paper is aimed at studying the various materials, process and methods of transformation from unimproved to improved toilets. The study area under investigation also further discusses issues of immense contribution to sanitation marketing and finance which recommended that government should strictly enforce the law on sanitation marketing towards the attainment of transformation from unimproved to improved toilets in Bauchi metropolis.

Keywords: Improved toilets, materials, process, products, sanitation

 

 

AN EVALUATION OF THE CHALLENGES IN LAND TITLING AND REGISTRATION IN BAUCHI STATE

1 A.A Yakub, 2 Z.M. Zaidu, 3A. O. Salawu, 4 J.A. Akeem, 5 S.D. Gimba

1,2,3 &5Department of Estate Management and Valuation, College of Environmental Studies, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure, Nigeria 4Department of Urban and Regional Planning, College of Environmental Studies, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure, Nigeria

Abstract

Registration of Land Titles in Nigeria is put at less than 95% of its entire land mass. Although the government of Nigeria, through the three tiers of government, has been making efforts at addressing this problem, thus this study seeks to evaluate the challenges of land tile registration in Bauchi state. A sample of 100 respondents within Bauchi, a five-point Likert scale was used to measure land/property owners level of satisfaction with the present land titling procedures alongside the challenges faced while the Rii was adopted in order to rank these responses. 40% of the respondents affirmed that the process is expensive; 53% opined that the duration for land registration is lengthy (beyond 6 months) and the same percentage opined that the procedure is expensive while in terms of the most significant problem when subjected to ranking, ‘bureaucratic bottleneck’ ranked highest having a mean index of 3.7. The study also found out that the Bauchi land registration process is presently semi automated. It was recommended that Computerization of the land registry and full automation of land titling and registration procedure through deployment of modern technological system such as Geographical Information System (G.l.S) and GPRS to replace Electronic Data Management System (EDMS) should be carried out.

Keywords:  Land Title; Registration of Instruments; Bauchi; Title investigation; Deed of Assignment

 

 

MODEL FOR EFFECTIVE MAINTENANCE OF TERTIARY EDUCATIONAL BUILDINGS IN EBONYI STATE (A CASE STUDY OF AKANU IBIAM FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC UNWANA)

QS. Agha Kalu A., QS. Anikwe, Nnaemeka J., QS. Ogbonna Ndubuisi J.

Department of Quantity Surveying, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Ebonyi State.

Abstract

The need for attractive facilities places new demands on maintenance manager that require them to adopt more systematic, effective model and pro-active approaches to their work. The aim of the study is to prepare a model for effective maintenance of tertiary educational building and really assess their maintenance approaches in relation to a well argued best practice in the context. The study state the following objectives as to reposition the maintenance approaches to the practice standard and to propose a theoretical strategic frame work on asset management for higher educational institution. The researcher made use of primary and secondary method in sourcing of dataa. The secondary source was through literature review of books, journal and conference papers, while primary source was through structured questionnaire/interviews administered to members of staff of the high institutions. The data collected was analyzed by the use of a simple percentage method and five point Likert scale method for better understanding of the work. The finding review that many higher institutions like Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic Unwana do not have full complement of technical staff; most of the maintenance projects either small and simple or large and complex are outsourced. The study conclude that the use of in-house maintenance staff to perform minor day to day routine maintenance work and outsourcing or indirect labour to perform major maintenance work are typical maintenance strategies adopted by tertiary institutions in Nigeria. It was recommended that institution should create a maintenance control unit without the department within the works and physical planning unit comprising of seasoned professionals from among the technical staff and consulting firms that will be designing the maintenance project.

Keywords: Building management, Improvement, in-house, Maintenance, outsourcing, tertiary institutions.

 

 

ASSESSMENT OF HOSTEL FACILITIES IN FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC MUBI

Moses Zira Wanda1 Fatima Samuel Medugu2 Adila Mohammed Iya3

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal Polytechnic Mubi

Abstract

The study identified the functionality, availability and adequacy of hostel facilities in Federal Polytechnic, Mubi. Questionnaire was administered on 90 students residing on the campus through simple random sampling techniques.  The data was presented using frequency tables and percentage. The study revealed that, 84.21% of the facilities identified are available, 93.75% are functional and 33.33%) adequate. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that the polytechnic administration should ensure regular maintenance of the existing hostel facilities through  relevant units and also provide more hostels equipped with modern hostel facilities that are lacking (internet, Wi-Fi among others) to ensure conducive and secure learning environment.

Keywords: Assessment; Hostels; Facilities, Functionality, adequacy, availability

 

 

IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF TVET INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM DELIVERY IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY COURSES IN BENUE STATE

*Dr. Momngu Daniel Tiough **Imborivungu, Terkimbi Emmanuel

*Building Section, Department of Vocational and Technical Education, Benue State University Makurdi **University of Agriculture Makurdi, Demonstration Secondary School

Abstract

The study was carried out to improve the quality of TVET instructional program delivery in building construction technology. Four research questions were raise for the study. The study adopted cross sectional descriptive survey research design with the total population of 55 respondents. There was no sampling for the study hence the population was small and manageable. A self-developed questionnaire and checklist was employed to collect data for the study. The data collected was analyesd using descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation and simple percentage. The findings revealed that, the instructional delivery methods used by the lecturers and technologist are excursion and lecture method and that group discussion, demonstration and the use of ICT is not used. conducive workshops, material testing laboratories, materials for practical’s, interactive boards, computer simulation programs and internet facilities are neither available nor adequate and that inadequate number of lectures that are not ICT compliant, lack of materials, tools and equipment for students practical’s, poor funding and public power supply, lack of commitment of students among others are challenges confronting improvement of the instructional program delivery in building construction technology. The study recommended that lecturers and technologist should employ the use of ICT, group discussion and demonstration other than limiting themselves to lecture and excursion method as instructional delivery methods to improve instructional delivery in building construction technology. Conducive workshops, material testing laboratories, interactive boards, computer simulation programs and internet facilities should be made available and adequate enough by the owners of the institutions to improve instructional delivery in building construction technology.

Keywords: Technical Vocational Education and Training, Instructional Program Delivery, Building Construction Technology

 

 

MAINTENANCE CULTURE TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE GROWTH: RATIONALE FOR HOUSING MAINTENANCE

Rasheed Tunde Bhadmus1 and Olanrewaju Sharafadeen Babatunde Owolabi2

1Department of Quantity Surveying, School of Environmental Studies, the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State. 2Department of Building Technology, School of Environmental Studies, the Federal Polytechnic, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State.

Abstract

Due to the nature of housing, which is more of stock than flow, a large volume of employment in the housing as a whole is in the repair and maintenance. The importance of maintenance to the economy is not limited to the employment generation and volume of expenditure involved, but it is also very vital to ensure that the nations stock of housing is used as efficiently as possible. This is very important as an annual increment to housing stock is always very small, and larger percentages-of households are housed in the existing housing stock. Infact, more maintenance works will be required to keep our housing stock in a good state of repairs. The sustenance of a maintenance culture requires the adoption of the philosophy of a stitch, “time” save nine. What constitutes “time” varies almost the number of buildings in the country. In Nigeria, the culture reflects a trade-on between the costs of maintenance as at the time of failure and that resulting from the effects of non-maintenance as at when due. The latter is usually preferred if has no direct monetary implication. This explains why messy walls are not usually repainted in owner occupied premises. The cost is a mere subjective feeling of squalor. In let properties however, prompt attention would be required to retain the rental value. Finally housing maintenance had effect on the quality of life and aesthetic of the built up environment.

Keyword: Housing, maintenance, repair, households, aesthetic, quality

 

 

GLASS-CERAMIC STRUCTURE FROM FE-NI WASTE

Mohammed Buba

Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi Adamawa.

Abstract

Hazardous residues from ferronickel production and glass cullet were mixed and vitrified. After low-cost heat-treatment, the obtained glass was transformed into a fine-crystalline glass-ceramic. The evolution of structure during the crystallization cycle is studied by XRD and SEM-EDS. Finally, the morphology of final glass-ceramic was clarified by TEM and FESEM. Due to the elevated amounts of iron and magnesium oxides and the presence of 2 wt % chromium oxides in the composition, the crystallization process is irregular, and the final structure of glass-ceramic is complex. Some preliminary Fe-Mg-Cr spinel crystals with a size of few microns precipitate during the melt cooling. Then, these crystals act as centers for the growth of a pyroxene phase; thus, 15–20 vol% of the glass-ceramic structure is formed. The major amorphous phase, where Cr2O3 concentration becomes negligible, is characterized with a high immiscibility trend, leading to the formation of Fe-rich droplets with the size of 50–70 nm. Subsequently, these droplets are transformed into nano magnetite crystals, which provoke crystallization of the main pyroxene phase. This ‘‘second” new pyroxene phase differs from the one, already formed on the preliminary Fe-Mg-Cr spinel and is composed by mono-crystals with the size of 150–200 nm.

Keywords:  Keywords: Iron-reach glass-ceramic, Vitrification

 

 

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT CONDITIONS OF INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS (IDPS) CAMPS IN MAIDUGURI, BORNO STATE.

*Baba Gana Zannah **Bukar Usman

*Department of Geography Umar Ibn Ibrahim El-Kanemi College of Education Science and Technology, PMB 16, Bama Borno State, Nigeria **Department of Biology Umar Ibn Ibrahim El-Kanemi College of Education Science and Technology, PMB 16, Bama Borno State, Nigeria

Abstract

The aim of this study is to examine the solid waste management conditions of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) camps in Maiduguri, Borno State. The research is descriptive in nature qualitative approached were used. The primary data for the research was sourced through the use of questionnaire and interview using a combination of purposive and convenience sampling. While books, journals, newspapers, magazines and internet materials made up the secondary data. The data collected were coded, edited, presented and analyzed using descriptive statistics through frequency tables and percentages. A total of 197 IDPs participated in the study. The findings revealed that almost half of the respondents (45.7%) revealed that food waste is the highest type of solid waste generated in the camps this is because food is the basic needs for the livelihood of the IDPs in the camps. And also (36.5%) of the respondents indicated that fine was the second largest type of solid waste generated in the camps. Therefore, the burning of fuel wood as a source of energy can produced fine and this is environmentally not friendly which generate air pollution and environmental degradation. The study revealed that majority 122(62.0) of the respondents perceived air pollution was the consequences of solid waste disposal in the camps. While 38(19.3%) of the respondents reveals that spread of germ is the consequences of solid waste disposal. Similarly the study found that incineration was used for managing waste in the camps. Some NGOs contributed in sanitation through Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) committee which conducts regular sensitization on the danger of poor waste management. The study recommends among others the need for intensive education to promote positive attitude for solid waste management among the IDPs.

Keywords: Solid Waste Management Sanitation Polythene

 

 

THE CHANGING PATTERN OF A GAZETTED FOREST RESERVE IN KEBBI STATE

Mohammed Nanoh Bello¹ Abubakaralhaji Umar² & Tukur Almustapha³

1&2Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, College of Environmental Studies, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State. Nigeria. 3Department of Building Technology, College of Environmental studies, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State. Nigeria.

Abstract

Human-induced changes related to deforestation, unsustainable land use, overgrazing, illegal bush burning, fuel wood extraction are believed to have caused significant adverse changes in the ecosystem, subsequently leading to its degradation. Monitoring the trends to which the ecosystem is changing by use of indicators such as land cover and socio-demographic information will be essential in order to make proper planning for sustainable ecosystem management. As at 1991, there are about 24 gazetted forest reserves in Kebbi State but currently a sizable number of the reserves have been taken away by activities like farming and settlement. Land cover changes of Gayi Forest Reserve for a period of twenty seven years were analyzed using Landsat 4 (TM) imageries of 1990, Land Sat5 (TM) of 1998,  Landsat 7( ETM+) satellite imagery of 2010 and Landsat 8 OLI satellite imagery of 2017. The study employed unsupervised Classification method using ArcGIS 10. The land use-land cover were classified into: built environment, bush-land, bare surfaces, trees, grass land and shrubs. The result of the study revealed that the period between 1990 1998 and 2008, bare land has 10.6% which increases to 11.5% and 15.7% respectively. Also between 2010 and 2017 there is a minute increase in the percentages of settlements in the Gayi forest increasing at a rate of 0.020 hecters per year.  Indeed, this drastic change from grassland and bare ground, and increase  of settlements will have negative impact on the reserve in the near future if appropriate machinery for redressing the imbalance is not set in motion.

Keywords:  Changing, Pattern, Gazetted, Forest, Reserve.

 

 

AWARENESS OF LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AMONG WOMEN IN NUMAN AREA OF ADAMAWA STATE NIGERIA

1Joel Eli & 2Suleiman Mohammed Daji

1Aliyu Musdafa College, Yola P.O.Box 5230 Jimeta Yola. Adamawa State Nigeria 2Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Mubi, Adamawa State.

Abstract

Awareness of Local Environmental Problems among Women in Numan Area is an attempt to explore the negative fundamental concept of the knowledge about the environmental, among women. Data for this study were obtained from both primary and secondary sources of data and analyzed for relevant information on the study. The primary data were sourced from administering of 300 questionnaires randomly to the selected women on their socio-economic characteristics and their level of local environmental awareness. Descriptive techniques of data analysis were used as an analytical method of illustration of the various sample collected. Chi-square test X2 test was used to test if women environmental awareness depends significantly on their socio-economic characteristics such as their age, level of education, occupation and location of resident. The results of the analysis revealed that 56% of the women were not aware of the causes, consequences and management of local environmental problems, while 44% were aware. The commonness environmental problem in the study area is flooding. The analyses also shows that there is association between women age, level of education and occupation with their level of awareness about the local environmental problems, while there is no association between women location of residents and their level of local environmental awareness. Finally, the study reveals that educated women were much aware of the causes, consequences and management of local environmental problems, and recommended that environmental education and awareness should be incorporated in environmental policies and managements.

Keyword: Local environment, Environmental problems, awareness, women

 

 

AN ASSESSMENT OF MARKET SANITATION IN KADUNA CENTRAL MARKET, KADUNA NORTH, KADUNA STATE

1 Aminu Musa Bringa & 1 Ahmed Yusuf Abdullahi

1Department of Basic Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, P.M.B 0231, Bauchi State of Nigeria

Abstract

Market occupies an important position in the lives of Nigerians. Market Sanitation has remained an intractable problem in Nigeria with serious public health consequences. Poor Market Sanitation has contributed to the spread of infectious or communicable diseases and environmental degradation in Nigeria. This study aims at assessing the Sanitary Condition of Kaduna Central Market with a view to provide recommendations for improving the sanitary conditions and services. In order to elicit information in the study, questionnaire with fourteen items was administered to 100 respondents using available sample technique. Also, oral interview was conducted to some traders, customers and the market managers. The result was presented using simple percentage analysis to make empirical inferences from the data collected. The findings revealed that though, sanitary facilities are available in the market, the facilities and services are not adequate and evenly distributed within the market. It further revealed that the market layout is distorted by illegal trading, parking and dumping of refuse around the market. Also, there is no adequate drainage and water supply to the market. Therefore, there is the need to build more facilities and improve on the existing ones to bring them to the required standards.

Keywords: Market Sanitation, Sanitary Facilities, Waste Disposal, Health Hazards, Environmental Degradation.

 

 

THE ROLE OF TRADITIONAL AND NON-TRADITIONAL INDUSTRIES IN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF MUBI REGION OF ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

Tpl.   Rabiu Mohammed Usman

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

Abstract

Traditional and modern industries play a vital role in the local economy of many regions in Nigeria. This study is aimed at carrying out an inventory of the resource base of Mubi region. These resources include both Human and natural. This aim was achieved through the identification of types and location of existing industries, the characteristics of existing industries in terms of employment, types of markets in the region as means of distribution of finished goods and finally, sources of raw materials for the different types of industries in the region. Data required for the study were obtained through primary and secondary sources.200 settlements were identified in the region.300 questionnaires were administered in the Five Local Government Areas. Sampling techniques applied were clustered and systematic sampling techniques in which ten per cent (10%) of the 200 identified settlements were selected in the ratio 1:10 so that fifteen questionnaires were administered in each of 20 settlements selected in the whole region. It was found that the area is endowed with both Human and natural resources which include clay, sand, food/cash crops and a vast agricultural land. Recommendations proffered include rehabilitation and construction of feeder roads by the local government councils in the region, Establishment of more Health centres by the Adamawa State Hospital Management Board, Rehabilitation of Gombi-Mubi-Sorau road by the Federal Government through the Federal Roads Maintenance Agency (FERMA) and finally the extension of Adamawa State Broadcasting Corporation Service beyond its 100 kilometre radius so as to reach Mubi region.     

Keywords: Traditional industries, Non-traditional industries, Infrastructure, Markets, Raw Materials.

 

 

IMPACT OF EFFECTIVE STRESS IN UNSATURATED SOIL ON THE COLLAPSE AND SWELLING POTENTIALS OF DESERT SAND

*Jibrin Umar, *Nura Hassan, *Mohammed Yau **Audu V. E. Michael

*Department of civil Engineering Technology, School of Engineering Technology, the Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu **Department of civil Engineering Technology, The Federal Polytechnic, Mubi

Abstract

Unsaturated soils are widely spread all over the world, and their behaviour is generally influenced by the physicochemical interaction between water, air and soil solids. This study is to use suction stress approach in establishing suction stress characteristic curve (SSCC) based on the soil water characteristic curve (SWCC). Experimental water retention data on desert sand and collapsible soil were used. The results obtained were best fitted using two models (van Genuchten and Fredlund and Xing) to establish suction stress characteristic curves (SSCC). The results obtained showed that suction stress characteristic curves (SSCC) can be established from soil water characteristic curves (SWCC). It also shows that with increase in the magnitude of suction stress based effective stress causes a wide range of increase in collapse and swelling characteristics at lower values. This clearly indicated that effective stress has an impact on the collapse and swelling potentials of the selected soils, though a further study on the adopted approach is recommended.

Keywords: Collapse, Swelling, Suction, Effective stress, Suction stress

 

 

THE IMPACT OF MATERIAL MANAGEMENT ON CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS DELIVERY IN NIGERIA

Samaila Garba, Khalid Abubakar Munkaila, Bhadmus Rasheed Tunde, Abdullahi Yusuf.

Depatment of Quatity Surveying, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State.

Abstract

The cost of construction material in a construction project may range from 30 – 80 % of total construction cost making it a prime uncertainty in a construction project. Nigeria being a big nation with a domestic market; shortage of skilled manpower; difficult transport and communication and heavy dependence on imported construction material amplified the problem of material management. The main aim of this research paper is to examine the current material management practice and its impact on the delivery of building construction projects in Nigeria. A questionnaire survey administered to a purposive sample of 20 main contractors and 20 sub-contractors, eliciting current material management practices through semi structured interview and obtaining their perception root causes of ineffective material management toward 34 causes that were extracted from an extensive literature review. Moreover the relationship between different material management practices and project delivery in terms of cost overrun and delay were acquired from this questionnaire. The study found 3 distinguish material management practices that were followed. The top 3 most common root causes of ineffective material management identified were matching price to competitor’s price; time spent investigating non-qualified suppliers and unavailability of material. Moreover the findings indicated that material management practices that are depending on the limited local supplier shops suffered Worst delay problems while material management practices that relied on phase-by phase delivery experienced severe cost overrun. This research was conducted in NIGERIA on building construction projects and similar research needs to be conducted in other types of construction projects to cross-reference and validate the result more widely.

Keywords: Construction projects, Material management, Cost overrun, Delay, Main contractor, Sub contractor

 

 

SPATIO-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT BLACK SPOTS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

Maliki Adeku Joseph

Department of Geography, Federal College of Education, Zaria

Abstract

This study analyzed the spatio-temporal pattern of road traffic accident black spots in Kaduna. Among the objectives were to determine the spatial pattern of road traffic accident black spot, examine its temporal variation, characterize road traffic accidents as well as assess the road way nature at the black spots. Road traffic accident data were collected from Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) from year 2006-2014. Also field survey was carried out through which the geographic coordinates of road traffic accident locations were taken as well as on the spot field observation. Data were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.1 environment to determine the road accidents black spots and frequency distribution tables and SPSS and Microsoft Excel. The findings show that the black spots along Zaria-Kano road includes, Yan Karfe, Dogarawa, Zabi and Anur Mosque while Polo Field, MTD, Palladan and Zango account for those along Zaria-Sokoto road. The temporal variation reveals that year 2012-2014 has the highest number of road traffic accidents black spots of 10 locations accounting for about 63% of the total number of accidents recorded, while the least was between years 2009-2011 with 5 black spots representing only 23% of the total number of accidents. The study reveals that about 85% of the death cases as a result of road traffic accidents at the black spots were recorded along Zaria-Kano road. Regarding the road designs, most black spot locations were characterized by sharp bends, U-turn and intersections. Also, other road conditions like presence of potholes, eroded road shoulder and stationary vehicles were found at the various black spot locations. The study recommended among others, emergency healthcare services to be provided at the various black spots locations on the highways.

Keywords: Spatio-Temporal, Analysis,  Road Traffic Accident, Black Spots, Kaduna State

 

 

ANALYSIS OF THE SPATIAL GROWTH OF KUJAMA TOWN, CHIKUN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

1Ibrahim Samaila 2Abdulazeez Mohammed Jajere 3Mansur Bello

1Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, Kaduna State University. Kaduna, Nigeria. 2Department of Social Sciences, College of Administrative Studies and Social Sciences, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria 3Department of Urban And Regional Planning, College of    Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria.

Abstract

Urban growth and expansion is among the major phenomena of study globally. This study examines the urban growth of Kujama town Chikun local government area of Kaduna State, Nigeria between 2001 and 2015 .Three satellite imageries (LandSat ETM 2001, LandSat 7 ETM+ 2008 and NigeriaSat-X 2015, provided the data for the analysts. Supervised image classification, using maximum likelihood algorithm were applied to the three images. Five land use classes were identified, these are: built up area, vegetation, bare surface, rock out crop and water body. Accuracy assessment was performed on the output images of 2001, 2008 and 2015 classified using error matrixes, to ascertain the accuracy of each classified image. Results from both image data of the three different dates, that is 2001, 2008 and 2015 image were merged as an input to produce one image of change detection results. Post classification analysis was used to quantify the changes that took place during the period of the study. The findings revealed that there was a significant increase in built-up area from 1.84km2 to 3.83km2 and 5.78 km2 in 2001, 2008 and 2015 respectively. This represents a difference of 1.99km2 from 2001 to 2008, and 1.95km2 from 2008 to 2015, which indicated an overall increase of 214% in 2015 meaning that the area extent of Kujama has more than tripled within the period of study. Some of the implications includes, decrease in agricultural, land loss of vegetation uncontrolled growth has led to the development of substandard, haphazard, buildings without planning permission, lack of proper accessibility and difficulty in the provision of public services and infrastructure. The study further made some recommendations, among which are proper planning layout, monitoring of any kind of developmental activities, environmental policies for resources sustainability, public enlightening, seeking planning permission before erecting of any kind of building and the need for further research.Keywords: Urban, Urban Growth, Spatial, Spatial Changes, Implications, Kujama

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