African Scholar Journal of Environmental Design & Construction Management (JECM)
Vol. 12 No.3 2018 ISSN 1896–6783
African Scholar Publications and Research International,
Centre for African Studies, University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.
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Challenges of Globalization and Land Tenure System in Nigeria: A Geographical Perspective.
*Adamu, Sani Jauro: **Firuza, Begham Binti Mustafa; ***Danladi, Musa
*Department of Geography, Gombe State University Tudun-Wada Gombe, Gombe State, Nigeria. **Department of Geography University of Malaya-Malaysia. ***Department of Urban and Regional Development, Federal Ministry of Power,
Works and Housing Kano Field Office, Kano State, Nigeria.
The history of land utilization and development in Nigeria dates back to the pre-colonial era. One of the cardinal principles of land management in Nigeria is that, lands belong to all the people which may be held by individuals and or jointly (in Southern Nigeria), and by families or Gandu (in Northern Nigeria). The family head normally the oldest man was regarded as the administrator of the land since he is the one who allocated plots of the family land (Adamu et al, 2014). In Nigeria, people exert tremendous energy to have land claims recognized as rights with a variety of political, administrative and legal institutions. The recognition of the duality of the Nigerian legal system; that is the administration of both the customary laws and the received English laws with respect to land has resulted in the existence of customary and non-customary land tenure system in Nigeria.
Keywords: A Geographical Perspective, Challenges of, Globalization, In Nigeria, Land Tenure System.
The Impact of Maga Dam Construction on the Downsteam Hydrological System, Economy and Security: A Case for Kala-Balge and Ngala Lgas, N. E. Borno State, Nigeria.
Abbas, Adam M. (PhD)
Department of Geography, Federal University Kashere, Gombe-State, Nigeria.
The role of water resources in the economic development of a nation cannot be overemphasized. It constitutes the most important necessities to man. This study looks at the consequences/effects of the Maga Dam construction in the Republic of Cameroon on the development of the downstream areas of Kala-Balge and Ngala Local Government Areas of Borno State Nigeria. The negative effects result from drying of one of the richest sources of Nigerian rivers draining into the Lake Chad. It is called River El-beid and locally known as Ebeji which also forms the larger part of the border between Nigeria and Republic of Cameroon (along the two LGAs) for more than 400 km until Lake Chad. To arrive at results showing the magnitude of the effects, a household survey was conducted in the area 0-5 kilometers away from the boundary. A total of 150 households were considered for the interview survey. Field observation and in-depth interviews were also conducted on some stake holders. The results indicate that, economic activities such as farming, fishing, livestock, tourism, trade and transport/navigation, boat carving industries as well as problem of border porosity and security of the area and Nigeria at large have been affected, with resultant effect of poverty, forced out migration and social vices. It is recommended that, in order to restore the river to its normal state some of the waters of Surbewel should be channeled by construction of a navigable canal 0to River El-beid which could also be dyked through the assistance of Lake Chad Basin Commission and Chad Basin Development Authority (CBDA).
Keywords: Water resource, Boundary, Dam, Downstream, Poverty, Lake Chad
An Investigation of Road Traffic Incidents and Accidents along Nigerian Lagos-Ibadan Expressway
Hammed, T. A.; Oni, A. F. and Oni, S. I.
Department of Geography, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
Overtime, Lagos-Ibadan expressway has witnessed uncontrolled road traffic mishap causing deaths, injuries and physical impairment. In this regards, this paper investigates the road traffic incidents and accidents along the Lagos-Ibadan Expressway. Relevant primary and secondary data were acquired and analyzed using qualitative and quantitative analytical techniques. The study realises that several factors have contributed to Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) along the corridor. The study shows bad state of the road as a major factor responsible for road accident while the least was careless pedestrians. Reckless driving-induced accident is predominantly alarming among male drivers compare to their female counterparts. The Multiple Regression coefficient (R2) of Fatigue Induced Accident implies that 78.0% of the variables are explained by the independent variable while 22.0% are attributed to the stochastic variation. The t-value coefficients are statistically significant at 5.0% and 10.0% levels, which implies, the duration of driving, sleep deficit, stress and alcohol contributed significantly to the variations in drivers’ fatigue. The findings show that, the increase in duration of driving, sleep deficit, time of the day, stress and alcohol in-take contributed more to fatigue, which eventually lead to accidents, whereas the drivers’ family responsibility and experience attachments minimize the degree of fatigue along the corridor. There is a positive relationship between traffic volume and rate of accident along the corridor. Likewise, existing road infrastructure and furniture are in deplorable conditions. It is thus imperative to improve the traffic situation for the present and future transport needs along the corridor.
Keywords: Transport Needs, Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs), Fatigue, Injuries, Deaths
Community Participation in Facilities Provision for Urban Development in Bauchi Nigeria; a Case Study of Yelwa
Bogoro Audu Gani, and Lumi Zaman
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria.
Community participation projects are projects undertaken by the communities for the purpose of development of their area because of failure or inability of government to provide basic facilities. This study aimed at assessing the extent of participation of the Yelwan Bauchi residents in the provision of basic facilities. Questionnaires, interviews and physical observations were used as tools for data collection. The study reveal that some facilities such as water, refuse dump, electricity, road grading were provided at different locations through community participation. It was found that the major problems confronting community participation in the study area include lack of general participation, inadequate of skilled worker and fund, lack of support from the government. The study recommended recommends strong government support in term funding and skilled manpower among other things.
Key words; Yelwan Bauchi, community, participation, facilities, government
An Appraisal of Road Transport Facilities along Independence Way, Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna
1Baba, Ezekiel Bahago; 2 Galadima Abok; 3Gumau, Binta Garba (Mrs)
1&2Urban and Regional Planning Department, College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna; 3Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi
The main purpose of road transport facilities is to ease traffic flow within an area that is why with the ever-growing nature of traffic on roads in the global urban centers, there is hardly any urban area that can function efficiently and effectively without adequate, reliable, safe and affordable road transport facilities. The study aims at assessing the road transport facilities of the Independence Way with the view of giving recommendation for improvement in the area. The study used ARCGIS 10.0 Software model as a means of accessing the raster image of the study area while GPS was used to establish the ground conditions and the coordinate of the road transport facilities in each sport in the area. At the end of the study, it was revealed that the road transport facilities along Independence Way are inadequate. This has caused the ever-increasing rate of traffic congestion in the area. This conclusion was drawn when the result of the study revealed that out of 739 different categories of road transport facilities that are supposed to be in the area as at the time of the study only 9.20% (68) are in the study area giving the shortfall of 671 facilities. This shortfall comprising of bus-stop 75 facilities, Bus-stop shades and tricycle stop having 76 facilities each. Other includes traffic light 42 facilities and street light having a shortfall of 402 facilities. Based on this discovering, the following recommendation was given for improvement. These include; the need for the federal and state government to make more provision for road transport facilities in the area to ease traffic flows; the need for the provision of road transport facilities in accordance to the established requirements of this study so as to avoid shortage in the area; State and local government in control of the study area should encourage public-private participation in the provision of road transport facilities to encourage acceptability of government projects in the area; there is also need for enlightenment campaign for road users on the need to obey road transport signs; and effort should be made to repair grounded road transport facilities and also existing ones should be properly maintained by the agencies that are responsible for the control and management of road transport facilities.
Keywords: Road Transport Facilities, Its Adequacies, Independence Way
An appraisal of quality management systems in the delivery of building projects in Nigeria
Olaleye Yetunde Olanike1 & Madaki Kingsley Rebecca2
Department of Quantity Surveying, College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
Quality has become a very popular subject in the recent years due to conceptual changes in the construction industry. A general decline in performance of the construction industry has been observed in recent past, perhaps exacerbated by the rash of collapse buildings, prevalence of abandoned construction sites and general poor quality of completed project The aim of this study is to appraise quality management systems in the delivery of building project in Nigeria. This was achieved by an examination of the concepts of quality management systems adopted in the Nigerian construction projects and by investigating the level of implementation of ISO system in the Nigerian construction projects. The survey research method was used for the study. The population of the study constituted the management and non-management staff and of selected construction firms in Kaduna. A purposive sampling technique was used with a sample size of 140.The structured questionnaire was administered to 140 respondents and 109 filled and returned representing 78% of the questionnaire administered. Cronbach alpha was used to determine the reliability of the data. SPSS version 21 was used to analyse the data collected. The finding shows that quality standard implementation, benchmarking, process design, quality training, auditing are concepts of quality management system adopted in the Nigerian construction projects. The research recommends that there is need for the establishment of quality control departments in construction firms to ensure strict adherence to standards and quality.
Keywords: Construction Industry, Quality, Quality Management System
Intelligent Housing: A Panacea to Crime Prevention in Ibarapa Region, Oyo State
Lasisi, Kamil Oluranti and Alao, Ademola Aderoju
Department of Urban & Regional Planning, the Polytechnic, Ibadan.
Crime can ruin lives, but it also carries a significant financial cost – so reducing crime saves money. In fact, it’s been calculated that implementing Secured by Design pays for itself as this is why the benefits of CPTED are being recognized globally. This paper is an attempt to synthesize how housing designs and layout systems can have either positive or negative implications on the actual prevention of crime in less developed nations using Ibarapa Region in Nigeria as a case study. Some of the objectives pursued are to examine the existing housing condition (physical structure); examine the environmental quality surrounding the houses in the study area; analyze the various types of security measures adopted in the study area that make it vulnerable to criminality; and to suggest actionable measures to ameliorate the problems of insecurity and its delinquencies in the study area. The primary source of data for the study was gathered through direct survey of the area, personal interview, maps and questionnaire administered to the residents of the study area using a multi-stage sampling technique.. Data collected from the field observation were analyzed using SPSS. The study is anchored on the concepts of Urban Governance and Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED). The study revealed that the structure of the physical environment can reduce or enhance the probability of a crime being committed and can either limit or facilitate the detection of offenders. This finding corroborates the assertion made by Angel (1969) that the physical environment exerts a direct influence on crime settings by delineating territories, by reducing or increasing accessibility through the creation or elimination of boundaries and circulation networks, and by facilitating surveillance by the citizenry and the police. The study suggested government intervention, provision of jobs, law enforcement and access control to mention but just a few.
Keywords: Intelligent Housing, vulnerability, criminality, surveillance
Biodata Mapping Integration for Sustainability of Dry Season Farmers along River Kaduna Floodplain
Oladunni Oyetola OPATOYINBO1 and Mamman Saba Jibril Ph.D2
1Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria. 2Department of Geography, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, Nigeria.
This study seeks to emphasize the need for biodata mapping to sustain dry season farmers on river floodplain. More specifically, questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection to supply the necessary biodata and other information pertaining to dry season farmers’ socio-economic characteristics along River Kaduna floodplain. Descriptive statistics, involving percentage and chi-square goodness of fit statistical model were used to analyze the socio-economic data of the dry season farmers for dry farming sustainability. Result revealed that biodata mapping is significant to dry season farming along River Kaduna floodplain.
Keywords: Dry season farmers, River floodplain, Socio-economic data, Biodata mapping,
Motivation Theory Development: A Model of the Relationship between Motivation, Resistance and Productivity
Afuye, Funso1, Munala, Gerryshom2 and Letema, Sammy3
1Department of Building Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Idah, Kogi State, Nigeria 2Centre for Urban Studies, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi 3Department of Environmental Planning and Management, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya
Researchers are yet to agree on an acceptable motivation theory. The reason advanced for this disagreement has to do with issues that acceptable theory should consider. Thus, this paper attempts to establish a model for understanding the relationship between motivation, resistance and productivity to further the development of theory around motivation. The target population for the study is the craftsmen in construction firms in Lagos, Nigeria. Variables for the study were identified through literature. 16 motivating and 31 resistance variables were identified and used to design questionnaire for the study. The questionnaires were designed in Likert scale of 1-5 with 1 representing very low and 5-very high. 295 questionnaires were administered to the target population, while 150 were filled and returned. Data were analysed by Exploratory Factor Analysis and multiple regression analysis tools. The outcome of the analysis reveals that there is a strong relationship between motivation and productivity with value 0.897 and a weak relationship between resistance and productivity with a value of 0.071. The paper also developed an equation to establish relationship between motivation, resistance and productivity. The regression equation showed that productivity = Motivation x Resistance. The regression equation is Productivity = -1.694 + (.907) b1 + (-425) b2. The paper concludes that the influence of resistance is not sufficient to impair productivity and that the predictor of productivity is motivation (M) X resistance (R).
Keywords: Productivity, motivation, resistance, theory development, craftsmen
The Roles of Quantity Surveyors in Infrastructure Provisions within the Built Environment of Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria
Department Of Quantity Surveying, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria
Infrastructure is basic necessities necessary for human life and its provisions are paramount to human life and survival. Hence, the aim of this paper is to examine the services of quantity surveyors in infrastructure provisions within Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria. The Objectives are; to assess the roles of Quantity Surveyors in pre-infrastructure provisions within Birnin Kebbi; to assess the roles of Quantity Surveyors during infrastructure provisions within Birnin Kebbi and; to examine the factors undermining Quantity Surveyors in infrastructure provisions within the built environment of Birnin Kebbi. The data employed both primary and secondary method of data collection. Questionnaire administration was adopted as the instrument for data collection using Likert scale of Very Satisfied, Satisfied, Moderately Satisfied, Unsatisfied and Very Unsatisfied. The data was analyzed using the mean scores of the descriptive statistics and on these bases, a ranking established for rating the variables. The study revealed that the three most important roles of Quantity Surveyors in pre-infrastructural provisions within the study area are preparing expenditure statements for tax and accounting, advising on contractor selection method, advising on procurement method and obtaining or negotiating tenders. The study deduced that the three most important roles of Quantity Surveyors during infrastructure provisions are property condition appraisal, risk management and Environmental impact analysis. The research identified Capital flight, capital sink and capital stagnancy, death of visionary leaders and funding of membership for workshops, seminars and conferences as the most crucial factors limiting. The study is recommended to the federal and state ministry of works, ministry of lands, housing and urban development. It is also recommended to all departments of physical planning and Quantity Surveying at all levels of our tertiary institution.
Keywords: Infrastructure; provisions; services; roles; environment.
Assessment of Interdependencies of Related Municipal Services in Maiduguri Town.
Abdullahi Babagana and Babagana Dungus
Dept of Urban and Regional Planning, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri
This paper is focused on the dimensions of dependency of related services in Maiduguri town. Services are important elements for the survival of the city, analysing the way they relate and depend on themselves as a system in the city is of paramount importance as well. Literatures have shown how the effectiveness of one service boost the effectiveness of one or more other services and if, one of the services in the relationship circle faults it will result to a negative outcome on the other, whereby having devastating consequences on the city. A spearman’s rho correlation was run for the collected data which reveals that between water supply, electricity supply and waste water management services, there is a moderate positive relationship which is effective and is an asset for the town. On the other hand, it also reveals that, between fire service, water supply and telephone/internet there is a weak relationship signifying inefficiency and can lead to deterioration and reduction of environmental quality. Based on this, recommendations such as prioritising service provision, creation of city government, creation of a one-stop-shop, slum upgrading and preparation of development plan for the town are suggested.
Keywords: Interdependencies, Related, Municipal, Services, Town.
Design and Preparation of Cost Estimates for Low Income Housing Units in Nigeria: Use of Bamboos and Plasters
*Olowoake, M. A. (Ph.D) **Madariola, A. O. ***Ojo, M. S.
*Department Of Building Technology, School Of Environemntal Studies, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria **Department Of Architecture, School Of Environemntal Studies, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria ***Department Of Quantity Surveying, School Of Environemntal Studies, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria
Failure of 2000 world target of housing for all and other developmental plans before and after the declaration is a serious concern to all stakeholders. In addition, the need to close the gaps for a deficit of about 17 million housing units necessitates the need for the study on provision of low cost housing units by using alternative materials. Such buildings for low income earners could be embraced by all tiers of governments in Nigeria. The objectives of the study include: Provision of affordable housing units for low income earners by using bamboos, plaster and other conventional materials. The researchers analyzed archival records, and discovered the following as the findings: Several developmental plans on the provision of low income housing units failed to meet the targets due to factors, such as: Poor funding, political and economic instabilities, poor conception and implementation of plans, high cost of labour and construction materials and others. It is recommended therefore that, provision of low cost housing units using bamboos and plasters are cost effective and could be affordable to the low income earners. In addition, all tiers of governments in Nigeria and private concerns should invest to providing more housing units for low income earners.
Keywords: Affordable, alternative, cost, housing, and materials.