AFRICAN SCHOLAR JOURNAL OF ENV. DESIGN & CONST. MGT. (JECM-3)
VOL. 9 NO. 3 ISSN – 1896–6783
African Scholar Publications and Research International,
Centre for African Studies, University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.
Copyright © 2017 African Scholar Publications and Research International.
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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES ON TROPOSPHERIC OZONE SHIELD CONCENTRATIONS AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTIONS IN NIGERIA
ADAMU BABA ABDULAHI Ph.D AND COL. (DR.) WILLIAM BUTU & *MAREN STEPHEN
*Dept. Of Geography, FCT College of Education Zuba Abuja **Dept. of Geography, Nigerian Defence Academy Kaduna
This research investigates and made a comparative analysis of the impact of anthopogenic activities on Tropospheric Ozone Shield Concentration and Environmental Pollutions in Nigeria. The objectives of the research among others are to examine the nature of anthropogenic activities in the study area, how human activities affects environmental pollution, examine the level of emissions of industrial pollutants to both Niger Delta region and North Central Nigeria and make a comparative analysis. Observations were made from aircrafts (MOZAIC) and satellites TES simulations with GEOS-Chem chemical transport model CTM were used, SPSS point Biserial Correlation Coefficient were used for the analysis. The results revealed that industrial emissions from Niger Delta Region are higher than North Central region of Nigeria. Recommendations were made to mitigate the problems of environmental pollution in Niger Delta region.
Keywords: Comparative Analysis, Impact of anthropogenic activities, Tropospheric Ozone shield concentrations, Environmental Pollutions, Nigeria.
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE VEHICLES CONDITIONS AND CONTRIBUTIONS TO ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS
MOHAMMED YA’U AND JIBRIN UMAR,
Department of Civil Engineering Technology Federal Polytechnic Damaturu
Road traffic accidents don’t just happen, but they are caused basically due to human recklessness, carelessness or negligence as a result of oversight in checking and maintaining the vehicle at appropriate time. It is generally linked to the combined effect of road users, vehicle conditions, road surface and environmental factors. Vehicle conditions and defects generally are assume to contribute to the occurrence of road traffic accident, but identifying such impaired conditions and defects is a challenge to vehicle owners. This paper attempted to conduct a visual inspection survey and assessment of vehicle roadworthiness in three selected most patronised motor parks in Damaturu metropolis, Yobe state, Nigeria. In this process Twenty Five commercial vehicles were selected randomly in each park, and a total number of 75 private owned vehicles were also randomly in order to inspect defects in the following vehicle components: Tyres, windscreen, headlights, wipers, side mirrors and seat belts. The results of the analysis revealed that, in all the defects categories inspected, commercial vehicles have the highest percentage defects of about 95% defective against 65% recorded for private vehicles. It is therefore recommended that, there is need for sensitization campaign by appropriate authorities on the importance of vehicle maintenance on accident reduction.
Keywords: Accident, vehicle defects, Private and Commercial Vehicles
IBADAN FLOOD DISASTERS: CAUSES, VULNERABILITY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS.
OGUNTUNDE, DAVID OLAOLU, & ADEYEMI-DORO, O.B.A;
Department of Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Studies, the Polytechnic Ibadan, Main Campus, Ibadan.
Flood Disaster, a re-occurring phenomenon in Ibadan, Nigeria, now becomes a signal of magnitude of grave problem in the city of which its hazards on the environment have been making front-page news. With increasing frequency, it wreaks havoc on properties and lives, causing disruption, immobilization, grief, fear, social dislocation and host of others on the urban residents. So, the need for digging deep into the vulnerability, causes of floods and its effects on socio-economic activities of the neighbourhoods arise. This study focused and unraveled on the protracted causes of flood disaster in Ibadan, its consequences and socio-economic effects on the residents of the affected areas. Data for the study were gathered from secondary sources, personal observation & assessment and primary data collected from the residents of four (4) selected study areas of devastated occurrence of 2011 flood disaster in Ibadan, – Apete, Bodija, Onipepeye and Babanla/Ogbere in Ido, Ibadan North, Ibadan North-East and Ona-Ara Local Government Areas respectively. Data collected were analyzed using simple percentages and it was found that flooding has effects on the transportation system, housing and infrastructures which also results in the loss of lives and properties, social dislocation, grief, community disruption and immobilization.
Keywords: Flood Disaster, Properties and lives, Urban residents, vulnerability, Socio-economic effects.
FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA) (A CASE STUDY)
DOMINION AGWELA ANOSIKE
Department of Estate Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria.
Feasibility study is an integral part of an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) which provides the necessary information on the possible environmental consequences of a proposed development project. It involves a study into the economic, environmental and social impact of such projects. It also handles site selection problems, as well as a few technological considerations. This research involves a comparison of three alternative locations for siting an abattoir in Bauchi, Nigeria.The zero alternative (present site of abattoir) and two alternative locations. The positive and negative consequences of the proposed project were predicted, characterized and analyzed. Based on the EIA, the best alternative site with the most beneficial consequences on the environment and on the human well-being was selected.
Keywords: Feasibility study, Environmental Impact Assessment, Social Economic Impact, predictions, pollution, negative and positive consequences.
APPLICATION OF CONFORMAL MAPPINGS TO BOUNDARY- VALUE PROBLEMS
Department of Pre-Nd and Remedial Studies, School of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.
We examine certain general problems of the employment of analytic functions in the solutions of boundary-value problems involving Laplace’s equation (i.e finding a solution in the boundary), considering Dirichlet’s, Neumann’s and Mixed or Gauss’s problems. Conformal mapping is used to map a given complicated domain onto a simpler one, where the solution is known or can be found easily. This solution is then mapped back to the given domain; this is the idea that works due to the fact that harmonic functions remains harmonic under conformal mapping. And we proceed to show that for a mapping to be conformal in any domain, it is necessary and sufficient that be analytic in that domain and that for all in the domain, and also shows that a mapping which preserves the magnitude of angles but not necessarily the sense is non-conformal rather Isogonal.
Keywords: Problems, Conformal, Mappings, Boundary, Value.
EFFLUENTS AND THEIR IMPACTS ON WATER QUALITY OF RECEIVING RIVER NGGADA, MAIDUGURI, NIGERIA.
DEBORAH J.MALGWI1, AHMED .T.GUBIO1, ZARA K.KOLO1, FANNA. A. KYARI1 AND A.Y SANGODOYIN2
1Department of Civil Engineering, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Nigeria 2Department of Agricultural and Environmental Resources Engineering, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
An evaluation of abattoir effluent, waste generation and management operations on receiving stream of Maiduguri main abattoir (Kasuwan Shanu) Borno State , 2013. Water samples were taken from water sources in the abattoir and were assessed for Biological and chemical analysis, Using the standard methods of examination of water and waste water (APHA,1992). The biological and chemical parameters range between 2 – 18mg/l DO, and 10 – 45mg/l BOD5 98 -789mg/l CL, 29.8 – 855mg/l SO4, 3.50 – 19mg/l PO4 for different sampling point in the study area and were above the WHO Standards for effluent discharge from industries. The rise and fall pattern of Do and BOD confirms the process of self purification of the receiving stream with distance. The result implies that no sufficient measures or facilities to treat abattoir wastewater for environmental safety in Maiduguri abattoir. Thus, the need to treat this wastewater rather than discharging it to the environment is needed.
Keywords: effluent discharge, self purification, river Ngadda
SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION MAPPING OF PREDATION PREY RELATIONSHIP FOR MARINE RESOURCES SUSTAINABILITY
Oladunni Oyetola Opatoyinbo1 and Samuel Sunday Soladoye2
1Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria.2Department Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Nigeria
Spatial distributions can be used to assess sustainability of marine resources population in an ecosystem. Accurate descriptions of species relationship and spatial distributions are fundamental to understanding patterns of feeding and what they feed on. However, spatial data for the vast majority of species are exceedingly rare, resulting in information about species distributions to be inadequate for many applications. This study therefore used mapping parameters model to depict the spatial location of predation-prey relationship in terms of what they eat for marine resources sustainability. The spatial attributes data required for these spatial analyses were secondary data generated from literature. With the use of mapping parameters, ninety (90) key fish species were focused on and categorized into six sub-communities. A chi square goodness of ﬁt test was conducted to determine whether the sample provides a spatial relationship between the different categories of fish species sub-community food web. The result revealed that, relationship exists among the various predation- prey fish species. The findings from this study would provide invaluable insights into species interactions as applicable to marine management for effective marine resources sustainability.
Keywords: Predation-prey Relationship, Sub-community food-web, Marine resources, Sustainability
FACTORS ENHANCING THE CODES OF ETHICS APPLICATION IN THE CONSTRUCTION ORGANIZATION
KATUN M.IDRİS1, MUDASHİRU M. RAJİ2, IBRAHİM E. YAKUB3
1&2Faculty of Built Environment, Department of Quantity Surveying, the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi 3Faculty of Built Environment, Department of Building Technology, the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
Ethical codes is a way of providing appropriate guidance for professionals in determining appropriate action. It ensure stability and consistency in deciding about moral issues. Ethical codes do not solve moral quandaries only but also assist in raising awareness and encourage ethical practise. The study is sets to describe a method that will enhance application of codes of ethics in the Nigerian construction organizations. Extensive literature review and quantitative research method were adopted. A total of 152 survey questionnaires were distributed to various professional in the construction organization and the study adopted a model by European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) as a tool to encourage ethical behavior in the Nigerian construction organization, with the emphasis on the enabling factors of the model. The factor’s loadings for the variables measures were significant and Cronbash Alpha factors of .879 were achieved. The findings review that leadership, employees, organizational strategy and policy are the leading enablers factors in relation to the application of ethical codes. The study proves how ethics can be attain in the construction organization by suggesting a framework to enhance codes of ethics in an organization. The paper recognizes present research gaps and forthcoming chances for both practitionars and academia.
Keywords: codes of ethics; construction; enablers factors; organization
CONSTRUCTION CONSIDERATION ANALYSIS FOR SOIL BLOCK BUILDINGS:-A PRACTICE IN MANY NIGERIAN SETTLEMENT
- ENGR. GANA A.J. & ENGR. BRAIMOH .O.S
Civil Engineering Department, Collage of Science and Engineering, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara state
The Prevailing Economic Recession which has affected many aspect of human’s lives has given room and opportunity for improvement in the area of local technology practice in many parts of Nigeria community and settlements generally known as Village and Rural Areas. The availability of Local Building Construction materials, e.g such as soil which had been known for ages still provides the needed solution for prevailing housing problems in many local communities and settlements in Nigeria. This study examines how Compressed Soil Blocks can be used for Buildings; Methods for soil stabilization, construction of floors, walls, roofs, foundations, Structural Consideration for Soil Block Buildings and also proffered Recommendation and conclusion for the study
Keywords: Construction Consideration, Soil Block Buildings, Nigeria Settlements.
AN INVESTIGATION INTO SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN SOME SELECTED HOTELS IN BAUCHI STATE
*FLORENCE ELMA LAGASI **JOSEPH ELMA LAGASI & *CHOJI DORCAS NDONG
*Department Of Hospitality Management Federal Polytechnic Bauchi Nigeria **Department Civil Engineering Federal Polytechnic Bauchi Nigeria
This study is mainly an investigation into practices of solid waste management in some selected hotels in Bauchi state. The study made an audit of the types of solid waste generated in large, medium, small and unclassified hotels; Thus, solid waste management practices in some selected hotels in Bauchi state have been established. In this study, six hotels were sampled out of thirty-six registered hotels within the study area. Quantitative survey method was adopted and questionnaires were administered to three units of the hotels. The result revealed that 55% of the volume of waste generated is from food. 21.1 %, others account for 23.9%. 20% of the hotels have waste disposal policy against 20% that do not have policy on waste disposal. The study also revealed that 75% of the hotels do not have policy on waste disposal. The study recommends that the hotels develop waste management policies that can guard against indiscriminate disposal. Bio-degradable waste generated should be processed and used as nutrient rich food for plants.
Keywords: Waste, Management, Bio-degradable, nutrient, Hotel.
MODERN ISSUE IN HOUSING FINANCE HOUSING URBAN POOR IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
ILEKOIN OLUTOBA AYODELE, BHADMUS RASHEED TUNDE & ALHASSAN JOESPH KUYEDAH
*Estate Management Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State. **Quantity Surveying Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State.
This paper is an appraisal of current problems in housing finance that affect the adequate provision of housing to urban poor in developing countries. It scrutinizes that for the urban poor to be well accommodated , there is need for the urban poor to have access to housing funding that is suitable, easily accessible at low interest rate. The paper recognized the following as the major currents issues that are stopping the governments of developing countries to provide accommodating its urban poor, the factors are : Financial issues ,Debt issues, Equity issues , Information and Knowledge issues, Financial issues , Mortgage Related Laws issues, Perfection of cost Titles issues, Cooperative Societies issues, Government Budget allocation issues, Inflation issues.
Keywords: Housing, Finance, Modern, Housing, Urban Developing Countries
THE CHALLENGE OF URBAN GROWTH AND URBANIZATION: A CASE STUDY OF IBADAN, NIGERIA.
DAVID OLAOLU OGUNTUNDE (1); ADEYEMI-DORO, O.B.A (2).
Department of Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Studies, the Polytechnic Ibadan, Main Campus Ibadan.
Urban growth, which is mostly due to natural increase, is inevitable. However, the speed and size of the growth are not fixed, and vary widely among regions. Therefore, since the end of World War II, Urbanization and Urban growth in developing countries has accelerated greatly, with an increasing proportion of the urban population in each country concentrating in large urban agglomerations. Nigeria is not an exception. Since the beginning of twentieth century, Ibadan in Nigeria has experienced accelerated growth in population and spatially. In this paper, the historical patterns of Urban growth and Urbanization, the City Economy focusing manufacturing Industries and services and the implications of the deterioration in Nigeria Economic in the past years will be analyzed. Also, the research explores changes in the Political and Administrative structure, the implication for Urban management and the problems of Urban management on the most important elements of infrastructure and the built environment: transportation, water supply, electricity, telecommunications, environmental sanitation, health care and housing. The demands posed by rapid growth, attempts to deal with them, and constraint/challenges on successful approaches are examined. It is concluded that the vitality of Ibadan economy and its nodal position in the national economy and transport networks explain its large-scale and continued growth, despite the partial or complete breakdown of many basic infrastructure services and the difficulties caused by this for both economic enterprises and individual residents.
Keywords: Urban Growth, Urbanization, City Economy, Urban Management, Basic Infrastructure.
ANALYSIS OF SOLID WASTE REDUCTION PRACTICES IN KADUNA METROPOLIS
1OLATELU, ADEMOLAMUKAILA, 2OLASEHINDE FELICIA IYABODE
1&2Urban and Regional Planning Department, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna
Waste reduction is a contemporary issue in waste management. Though, the practice of waste management in general is still a challenge of the third world nation despite the high generation capacity of the waste in most urban areas. Kaduna metropolis is one of the urban areas in Nigeria and has been facing this kind of challenge. Waste reduction is one of the solid waste management practices of the metropolis which ensure that waste is not generated at all. This practice has been on-going in Kaduna metropolis which brought about this paper. The paper aim at evaluating the solid waste management practice especially the Reduction aspect of the waste management practices of the metropolis with the view of determining the scale, the pattern as well as the determinants and the implication of the reduction practices across the five districts of the metropolis. The study uses correlation analysis technique as a criteria for establishing the rate of reduction in the solid waste management practices of the metropolis. At the end of the paper, it was revealed that Barnawa District has the highest rate of involvement in Solid waste reduction practices of the metropolis. This was the fact that the inhabitants of the area are of high income group and have high knowledge in the solid waste reduction as a management practices of the metropolis compare to other districts. The paper also established that educational and economic status of any area has effect in the practices of solid waste reduction. Based on these established facts, it was recommended that there is the need for an increased awareness of the practice of solid waste reduction in the metropolis and there is also the need for the establishment of government policy for waste reduction in the metropolis and also there should also be provision of facilities that support the practice among others in the metropolis.
Keywords: Solid Waste, Reduction Practices, Kaduna Metropolis
THE IMPACT OF WAZIRI UMARU FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC BIRNIN KEBBI ON THE RESIDENTS OF THE AREA
ABDULKARIM ABDULMUMIN MANGA AND SULEIMAN HARUNA RASHEED
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B 1034, Birnin Kebbi
The influx of people into the study area as a result of sitting of the institution has resulted to demand for housing which led to shortage and overcrowding of residential houses and over utilization of facilities, utilities and services. This study examines the physical and socio-economic impact of Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic Birnin-Kebbi on the livelihood of the inhabitants of the surrounding settlement. It assesses the adequacy of infrastructural facilities in the study area. Data was collected through the use of questionnaires, formal interviews, and field observations. The analysis was carried out using descriptive statistical tools and T-Test was used in testing the hypotheses. The findings revealed among others that the establishment of the institution has resulted to demand for housing accommodation to both the staff and students of the institution which resulted to over utilization of facilities and services but also providing a means of livelihood to the inhabitants. Possible recommendations were proffered which are aimed at minimizing the negative impact and maximizing the positive impact for harmonious development and improving the standard of living of the people in the surrounding settlement.
Keywords: Physical, Socio-economic, Impact, Residents, Institution
DEVELOPING A FRAMEWORK FOR THE MARKETING OF QUANTITY SURVEYING SERVICES
OLANIYI OWOJO JOSEPHINE1 AND YAKUBU GIMSOM MUSA-HADDARY2
1Department of Quantity Surveying, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Kaduna state, Nigeria. 2Department of Quantity Surveying, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria.
The Quantity surveyor who plays a key role in building and engineering project, managing the cost from inception to the completion as cost controller has been reduced to a cost monitor (McGraw, 2007). The study developed a policy guideline for the marketing of Quantity surveying services using the 7ps of marketing. The objectives were to investigate available strategies for marketing professional services, and examine the effectiveness of these strategies for Quantity surveying services then developed a framework of strategies for marketing quantity surveying services . A cross sectional, exploratory design was used to carry out the study. Structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant data from 38 registered Quantity surveyors, randomly selected in Kaduna city of Nigeria. Data collected was analyzed using frequency table and mean in statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 20). The findings of the study showed that the available marketing strategies for marketing professional services among others from the 7p’s (product, price, people, promotion, place, process and physical evidence) marketing mix, are quality of services, perceived usefulness, packaging, technology used, cost effectiveness, skimming, internet facilities, location of offices, multichannel, membership of association, current contract with certain client, brochures, news watch, management, organization culture, infrastructure, and service delivery. From these array of strategies, it was found that the effective strategies for marketing Quantity surveying services in order of ranking ,among others are : Perceived Usefulness, Quality of services, Facilities, services delivery, Technology used, Membership of association, Organization, Management, Proposals , Orientation, Cost effectiveness, Current contract with certain client, Infrastructure, Organization culture, Packaging, Design of service, Internet facilities, Conferences/seminars, convenience of use. The framework was developed for the effective marketing of Quantity surveying services in Nigeria and could be a platform for the development of curriculum for marketing for the training of prospective Quantity surveyors.
Keywords: Cost Monitor, Framework, 7ps of Marketing, Quantity Surveyor, Strategies.