Journal of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology (AJAAT) Vol. 12 No.7

African Scholar Journal of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology (AJAAT)

Vol. 12 No.7 2018 ISSN 2010–1086

Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies, University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.

Copyright © 2018 African Scholar Publications and Research International.




Comparative Study of the Morphology and Histology of the Testes of Wild and Cultured Male African Catfish, Clariasgariepinus(Burchell, 1822)In Maiduguri, Nigeria

Mshelia, M. B1., Lawan, I1.,Vandi, J2. andWanas, N. L1

1Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medical sciences, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria



The Comparative study on the morphology and histology of the testes of wild and cultured male Clariasgariepinus(Burchell, 1822) was carried out in Maiduguri. The aim was to examine and compare the testes of both cultured and wild Male Clariasgariepinus in Maiduguri. Ten (10) mature male catfish,Clariasgariepinuswere obtained from Lake Alau and another ten (10) Clariasgariepinuswere obtained from a reputable farm in Maiduguri. The testes of the fish samples were removed and morphological parameters (shape, weight, length, and diameter) of both testes were observed and measured. The Paraffin technique as histological method was used and Haematoxylin and Eosin (H & E) was used as staining solution. All the slides were examined under the light microscope at 200 magnifications and the histological features of the testes were evaluated. The data obtained were analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Least Significant Difference (LSD) was used to compare the mean differences in morphological examinations. The peak value of Gonado-somatic index (GSI) was observed in cultured samples. The wild fish was considered as a resting season of the gonad where the testes showed degeneration except intact spermatogonia. The cultured fish was considered as the spawning (breeding) season. There were morphological differences between the testes of wild and cultured, Clariasgariepinus(P < 0.05). There was no histological difference in the testicular structure of both the cultured and wild strain of Clariasgariepinus(P>0.05), they were only histologically altered. It was concluded that readiness for spawning depends more on size, feeding and environmental changes than age alone, since in the same season the cultured fish showed readiness for spawning than the wild ones. However, it is recommended that male Clariasgariepinus in the cultured environment could be used for breeding as it is viable all year round and has good quality milt for expanding fish culture in Nigeria and beyond.

Keywords: Histology, morphology, testes, Clariasgariepinus, spermatogenic cells, spermatogonia



Performance and Feed Economy of West African Dwarf Bucks Fed Cassava Peel Meal Based – Diets Supplemented With African Yambean Concentrate

Anya, M. I. and *Ozung, P.O. 

Department of Animal Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria



This study investigated the growth performance and feed economy of West African Dwarf goats (bucks) fed cassava peel meal based- diets supplemented with varying levels of African yambean seed meal (AYBM). Twenty (20) intact bucks with average body weight of 8.37±1.56 kg were randomly distributed after weight equalization to four dietary treatments designated as A, B, C and D containing 0, 10, 20 and 30% AYBM respectively in a Completely Randomized Design. The study duration was 90 days after an initial adjustment period of 21 days. Growth performance and economics of feed inputs were determined as the feeding trial lasted. Results showed that all the growth performance characteristics and feed cost (economics of feeding) per kg gain recorded significant (P<0.05) differences between dietary treatments. The total feed intake was highest in the AYBM diets (25.98 – 27.59 kg/buck) compared with the value (22.17 kg/buck) obtained in the control diet. The total weight gain also followed the same trend with the AYBM diets having higher values (5.53 – 6.99 kg/buck) compared with the value (2.02 kg/buck) in the control diet. In terms of overall growth performance and cost of feeding, bucks fed diet with 20% AYBM recorded the best feed/gain ratio (3.88) and least feed cost per kg weight gain (N 94.71) compared to other dietary treatments. The study concludes that feeding bucks with cassava peel meal based – diets supplemented with African yambean seed meal (≤ 20%) would support optimum growth performance at least cost. Livestock farmers are therefore advised to adopt this feeding strategy as a way of boosting goat production and optimizing the utilization of agro – industrial by – product (cassava peel meal) supplemented with an under exploited legume (African yambean seeds) in the tropical climes.

Key words: Growth, economics, goats, cassava, yambean



Effects of Cowpea Aphid-Borne Mosaic Virus Infection on Growth and Seed Weights of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp) Genotypes

*Salaudeen, M. T., Sala, J. Y., Gana, A. S., Ibrahim, H., Bello, L. Y. and Muhammad, A. N.

Department of Crop Production, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria





Cowpea is an important food source and livestock feed in sub-Saharan Africa. It is also integrated in the traditional cropping system with the aim of improving soil fertility. Unfortunately, growth and seed production are hamphered by several viruses, one of which is Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV). To date, use of resistant varieties is the best management approach. The objective of this study was to identify cowpea genotypes with desirable growth and seed weight. Twenty four cowpea genotypes were evaluated against CABMV using completely randomised design with three replications. Cowpea seedlings were mechanically inoculated with virus extract at 10 days after sowing. Plant height, number of leaves per plant, leaf diameter and seed weight per plant were recorded. Data were subjected to analysis of variance at p≤0.05 and mean separation was accomplished with Duncan Multiple Range Test. The virus impacted severely on the cowpea plants. However, the cowpea genotypes 98K-1092-1 and 11D-24-40 were the best for seed weight per plant (1.4 – 1.6 g). Therefore, both genotypes are recommended to farmers in areas that are prone to CABMV infection order to enhance food sufficiency and nutrition security.

Keywords: Seed weight, resistant varieties, cowpea, CABMV, nutrition security



Physicochemical and Sensory Qualities of Biscuits Produced from Blends of Wheat, Millet and Selected Legumes

Iorkohol Alex Terlumun

Centre for Food Technology & Research, Benue State University, Makurdi



The study investigated the physicochemical and sensory qualities of biscuit produced from blends of wheat (W)\ Millet (M) and Selected legumes (Bambaranut, Soybean, Cowpea and groundnut). Formulations were done on the wheat to millet ration as 40:30 and 50:30 and these were compensated with the legumes at 70:30 and 80:20 cereal to legume respectively. Biscuit was baked from 100% wheat flour to serve as the control. Physical properties of the biscuit investigated were the particle size, spread ration and break strength proximate composition of biscuits was investigated to determine the moisture content, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, carbohydrate and ash content. Sensory evaluation was investigated to determine the acceptability of the products. Particle size analysis showed most of the flour bends retained at sieve size greater them I50p. While the 100% wheat flour was retained on sieve 150p. Spread ration of the biscuits rouge from 5.84± 0.3 to 7.80± 0.6 breakstrength range from 1.42± 0.1 to 1.83± 0.1. Proximate composition showed protein range from 10.97 to 20.63 the sensory evaluation showed no significant difference (PM).05) between the samples showing the products having the potential to be accepted as a commercial product.

Keywords: Physicochemical, Sensory, Particle size, break strength,  Bambara groundnut



Potential Commercial Production of Forages in Adamawa State, Nigeria

Babale, D.M1., Madugu, A.J.2and Yahya, M.M3.

1Department of Animal Production Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria. 2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria. 3Department of Animal Science and Range Management, MAUTECH Yola, Nigeria.



A study was conducted to assess the potential commercial production of forages in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The data of this research were drawn from field survey conducted in the 21 Local Government Areas of the State. Well structured and detailed questionnaires were randomly administered to respondents of various sexes, religious, educational and socio-economic backgrounds. The questions contained in the questionnaire focused on five broad issues or parameters namely, socioeconomic statuses of respondents, Forage use and source, forage harvesting, preservation and transport, Marketing, Potentials and constrains to commercial forage production. In all of the Local Government areas, 250 questionnaires were randomly served to respondents. Out of these, there were 203 (81%) retrievals. Results revealed that 62% of the respondents were males with 38% females. Elderly people of 26 years and above were 52%. Those married were 52% out of which 48% were farmers. All the respondents (100%) had gone through formal education. It was also revealed that 82% obtained the forages from uncultivated sources with only 7% cultivated. The remaining 11% got theirs from in-between crops. Most of the respondents (77%) cut and sell forages in the dry season of which, 76% obtain them from river banks. About 83% sold them to ruminant feeders with only 17% to equine feeders. While 51% cut the forages for sale, 49 % use them at home or are used by employers. Means of transporting the forages to end users were mechanical (65%) and 35% manual. Most of the forages cut were mixture of grasses and legumes (38%), sole legumes (28%), sole grasses (24%) with 10% browse plants. They were sold in forms of hay (47%), fresh (42%) and silage (11%). Main customers were ruminant fatteners (88%), with 12% Emirate councils. Most of the customers (42%) prefer mixtures of grasses and legumes while 31% prefer legumes only. Majority of the respondents (55%) cut and sale the forages as main occupation while (45%) as part time to get additional income. While 85% got ready market for their products, 15% did not. With these findings, it could be concluded that there is high potential for commercial production of forages due to rising interest in ruminant fattening. It is therefore, recommended that a campaign should be done to create awareness on the importance of artificial production of these forages in raising meat production and incomes levels.

Keywords: Commercial, Forages, Potential, Constrains.



Prevalence of Trichomonas Vaginalis among Pregnant Women Attending Ante-Natal Clinic in Mubi General Hospital Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.

Danladi, T., 1Salamatu, A. T., 1 Elihu, A., 1Wahedi, J.A., 2 Elkanah, S. O. And Zainab, MC.

1Department of Zoology, Adamawa State University, P.M.B. 25, Mubi, Adamawa State. 2Parasitology and Public Health Unit, Department of Biological Sciences, Taraba State University, P.M.B. 1167, Jalingo, Taraba State. 3Department of biological science, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.



A survey of the prevalence of Trichomoniasis was carried out in Mubi North and South Local Government Areas of Adamawa State. A total of 150 varginal swaps from women attending ante-natal clinic in Mubi General Hospital were examined with overall prevalence of 29(19.3%). The highest prevalence in relation to age group was recorded in women aged between 26-30 years with the highest rate of infection 21.4% while those between the ages of 41-45 years had the lowest prevalence rate of infection of 14.3%. However, there was no significant difference in relation to age (p>0.05). In relation to socio-economic status of the women, those that use pit toilet had the highest rate of infection with 21.1% of occurrence compared to 16.7% occurrence recorded in women that use water cistern. Chi square analysis shows a significant difference in relation to socio-economic status of the women (p<0.05). In relation to occupation, business women recorded 24.0% prevalence rate as the highest while the lowest was recorded among students who had 15.0% prevalence, even though there was no significant difference(p>0.05). The implication of the findings in relation to the health of victims and distribution of Trichomoniasis was further discussed in the work.

Keywords: Prevalence, Trichomonas vaginalis, Pregnant Women, General Hospital Mubi.



Utilization of Groundnut Haulm on the Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens in the Semi-Arid Region of Nigeria

  1. A. Makinta1, A.A.Benisheikh1 and Abdul M1

1Department of Animal Production Technology, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria



Four weeks experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Animal Production, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri. The experiment was design to evaluate the utilization of groundnut haulms on the productive performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. One hundred and twenty straight strain chicks were used for the study. The chicks were brooded for four weeks during which they were fed commercial starter diet and later fed with formulated finisher diets and clean water were provided ad-libitum. Vaccination programme are strictly adhered. One hundred and twenty chicks were randomly allotted to four treatments and each treatment was replicated four times with twenty four birds per replicate using complete randomized design. The groundnut haulms were included at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% for treatment: 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively at finisher phases. The parameters considered in this study were performance, carcass components and organ weights. There were no significant difference (P>0.05) observed among treatment 2, 3, and 4 except treatment 1 which differed significantly (P<0.05). The highest value for the dressed weight recorded in this study were in diets 2, 3 and 4 while the least value were in diets 1 respectively. The result of this study showed that groundnut haulm inclusion has not shown any treatment effects on daily weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. There were no significant difference (P>0.05) observed among the treatments (2, 3, and 4) except treatment 1 which differed significantly (P<0.05). From the foregoing study, groundnut haulms inclusion at 10% level in broiler diets could replace groundnut cake without any treatment effects on performance, carcass components and organ weights.

Keywords: groundnut haulm, performance, carcass, organ weight, broiler diets



Impact of Landfill Leachate on Groundwater Quality: Critical Review

Sheriff, B1., Grema L.U2., Kurigado B1,, Ado G.A3., and Zanna A.K.M3

1Department of Agricultural Engineering Technology, Ramat Polytechnic Borno State, Nigeria 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ramat Polytechnic Borno State, Nigeria. 3Department Agricultural Technology. College of Agriculture Gujba. Yobe State, Nigeria.



The paper aim is to critically review an existing literature on impact of landfill leachate on groundwater quality in order to identify various extent of groundwater contamination at different distances between the landfill and the water well during the dry and wet season. To address the aim more than ten (20) academic articles were reviewed. According to the different analysis results from different sources revealed that, the landfill leachate impact is slightly higher during the raining season and the extent of the contamination is also depends on the closeness of the groundwater to the landfill. According to studies of Kassega & Mbuligwe, (2009) results during the dry and wet season were found to be no significant difference between dry and wet season results in terms of heavy metals based on ANOVA analysis meaning having almost the same levels of contamination. However, the effect seems to be higher during the rainy season.

Keywords: Groundwater, Landfill, Leachate, Quality, Waste.



The Effects of Garcinia kola leaf Powder on Fungi Associated with Infected Potato Tuber (solanum tuberosum l.)

Oladejo A.O.,  Ishaya M., Shikiru G.K. and Olorundare O.O.

Pest Management Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos Nigeria.



The study was carried out to isolate and identify fungi associated with fungi infection of Potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum) and to test the effect of Garcinia kola leaf powder on fungal infection of Potato tubers. This was done in Jos North L.G.A of Plateau state, Nigeria June 20 and July 4th 2016. Fungi were isolated from infected Potato tuber samples, cultured and identified using morphological characteristics. Garcinia kola leaf powder were tested on 500g Potato tubers in the quantities of 5, 7.25, 10grams and 0gram (control). Each treatment was replicated three times. Two fungi species (Rhizopus stolonifera and Aspergillus niger) were identified as fungi associate with Potato tubers in this study. The experimental design used was completely randomized design (CRD). The percentages of infection caused by the two fungi showed no significant difference (p≤-0.5) in the quantities of powder used except the control. However, treatment 3 (10grams) of the plant powder was able to control the two species of fungi identified (Rhizopus stolonifera and Aspergillus niger) to 0.09% and 7.15%, respectively. This showed that Garcinia kola leaf powder has the fungicidal effects on Rhizopus stolonifera and Aspergillus niger, common fungi that affect stored Potato tubers. Based on this study, it is therefore recommend that Garcinia kola leaf powder be used as an alternative to synthetic chemicals in the control of fungal infection during storage.

Keyword: Fungi; Potato tubers; infection; Garcinia kola; leaf powder



Influence of Organic Materials on Consumptive use of some Selected Crops

1Bunu M., 2Dibal J.M., 1Lamuwa, G., 1Gado B.K., and 1Alkali M.

1Department of Agricultural Engineering Technology, School of Engineering, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri P.M.B 1070, Borno State, Nigeria. 2Department Agricultural and Environmental Resources Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Borno State Nigeria

The research was carried out to determine the influence and sustainability of organic materials on crop consumptive use of Maize, Millet and Sorghum in semi-arid region of Nigeria. In order to ascertain the influence; a   drainage type lysimeter of 0.6m height, and 0.3 diameter with cross-sectional area of 0.85m2 were used.  The organic materials used were; Moringa Olifera Groundnut Haulm and Maize Leaves, were grown and incorporated into the soil at tonnage of 0.45kg/m2.  The organic materials (treatments) were laid in Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD. For consistency water application, an irrigation interval of 4days was maintained. Furthermore, the highest evapotranspiration of the three crops millet, maize and sorghum per day were found to be 17.7mm/day, 18mm/day and19.3mm/day. Therefore, the study indicates that Moringa recorded the highest influence on the evapotranspiration and yield of Millet, followed by Maize and Sorghum.  Nevertheless, the statistical analysis (ANOVA) showed that there is no significant difference between the means of the yield parameter and yield. Regression revealed that number of cobs per plant is the highest independent variable influencing the millet yield with the highest regression coefficient of 0.33 followed by plant cob diameter with regression coefficient of 0.06, for crop evapotranspiration (ETc) signicant difference was observed only on Millet. Similarly, accumulated measured Evapotranspiration (ET) for Maize, Millet and Sorghum for the month of March and April was found to be 311 mm, 285mm and 253mm.

Keywords: Drainage, Evapotranspiration, Lysimeter, and Organic Matter



The Impact of Macroeconomic Variables on Food Security and Nutritional Status of Farming Households in Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.

*Ogunde Olukemi Oluyemisi(Mrs) & **Sosanya Mercy Eloho (Mrs)

*Department of Banking and Finance, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria **Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria


This study investigated the impact of macroeconomic variables on food security and nutritional status of 145 farming households (average of 8 persons per household giving an estimated number of 1,160 persons) in Bauchi LGA of Bauchi State, Nigeria as a new government emerged in Nigeria (conducted in 2016), using regression analysis, and correlation analysis. Data used for this were from Semi- structured questionnaire administered to farming households in Bauchi LGA of Bauchi State and secondary data on GDP growth rate, inflation, exchange rate, lending rate, and value of non-oil export were sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin. Result from the regression analysis indicated a positive relationship between the farmers output, GDP growth rate, exchange rate and non-oil exports and a negative relationship between farmers’ output, inflation rate and lending rate. Correlation result showed a significant positive association between farmers’ output, food security status, weight-for-height (wasting), income saved and cash spent on food weekly. A significant positive association was also established between cash spent on food weekly, quantity of farm output and income saved. Food security, height-for-age (stunting) and weight-for-height (wasting) also showed a significant positive correlation. It also showed an elastic demand for most of the 145 household investigated. It is recommended that government should not allow politics and political affiliation to make them abandon good projects that was started by previous administration and measures should be put in place by the government to ensure a better performance of the macro economic variables.

Keywords:  Farming households, politics, food security, Nutritional status


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