Journal of African Sustainable Development (JASD) Vol. 14 No. 7

African Scholar Journal of African Sustainable Development (JASD-7)

VOL. 14 NO. 7 ISSN: 2010-1086 MARCH 2019


Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies, University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.

Copyright © 2019 African Scholar Publications and Research International.



Analysis of Health Care Facilities and Human Resources Concentration in Nigeria


Abubakar Abdullahi, Umar Yusuf Abdullahi, Adam Modu Abbas, Umar Muhammad Bibi and Aminu Bara Adamu

Department of Geography, Federal University of Kashere, Gombe, Nigeria.


Population study in relation to resources allocation and distribution is very vital for our societal growth and development, especially when that study is related to healthcare; because health is wealth. Hence, this research provides empirical analysis of health care facilities and human resources concentration in Nigeria. The research examines absolute location and concentration of health care facilities, as well as human resources concentration in health care centres of some selected states in Nigeria. Six (6) states (one from each geo political zone in Nigeria) were selected using purposive sampling technique. Secondary data were obtained from Nigerian MDGs Information System (NMIS), Health Facility Data (2014) and National Population Commission (2006).  Data were analysed using Geographic Information System (G.I.S) techniques and the use of Location Quotient (L.Q) formula. Results indicate that, only Nasarawa State among the six (6) sampled states has sufficient number or concentration of both healthcare facilities and health personnel, but all other states are deficient in one or more health facilities or human resources. Hence, this study recommends the provision of more healthcare facilities in Ekiti, Ebonyi and Bayelsa States, more medical Doctors in Zamfara, Ebonyi and Bayelsa States, more Nurses and Midwifes in Gombe, Zamfara and Ebonyi State and more Community Health Extension Workers (C.H.E.W) in Ebonyi and Bayelsa States. It is also recommended that population experts should be co-opted to guide the process of allocating and distributing resources in any region.

Keywords: Healthcare facilities, Human Resources, G.I.S and Location Quotient.




Effect of Migration and Brain Drain on the Development of Sending African Countries


Osunyikanmi Pius Olakunle, Ph.D

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Abuja



This paper examined from a critical perspective the phenomenon of migration accompanied by massive brain from Africa with its debilitating consequences for African development. International migration, particularly from Africa, has over the decades created a conduit pipe for African professionals to abandon their countries where they are most needed for national development for Europe and America for greener pasture. The literature revealed that migration and brain drain from Africa will continue unabated for as long as African leaders fail to create a congenial atmosphere for African professionals to work at home and contribute to national development. This will mean getting African political leaders to develop a high degree of political will and patriotism needed to fast track national development in their respective countries. The leaders should take it up on themselves to and judiciously utilize the country’s natural and human resources to achieve development objectives and goals within reasonable period of time. It is therefore recommended that rather than waste time and energy to put an end to brain drain, African leaders should speak with one voice and push for brain gain as a compensation for brain drain, while working assiduously to develop their economies.

Keywords:   Migration, Pull and Push Factors, Brain drain, Brain gain, National development, Referendum.




The Role of Language and Literature in Sustainable Nation Development as a Tool for 21st Century Sub-Saharan Awakening


Habiba Mohammed

General Studies Department (GSE), Federal College of Education, Zaria


Sub-Saharan Africa is the second largest and second most populous continent in world and is comprised of 48 countries. Nigeria has the largest population within the region. This region is still faced with challenges such as poverty; the average income for capital is lower than at the end of 1960s. Income, assets and access to essential services are unequally distributed. The region contains a growing share of the world’s absolute poor, who have little power to influence the allocation of resources. The Sub-Saharan region is faced with many development problems such lagging primary school enrollments, high child mortality, and endemic diseases including malaria and HIV/AIDS. Making the matters worse, Africa’s place in the global economy has been eroded, with declining export shares in traditional primary products, little diversification into new lines of business, and massive capital flight and loss of skills to other regions- Now the region stands in danger of being excluded from the information revolution. According to Anyanwu (2007) reveals that Nigeria as one largest country in Sub-Saharan region domain is faced with challenges in all three dimensions. Development – Economic, Social and environmental. More than half of the populace is living in abject poverty, and income inequality and this has resulted to a lot of social problems, and unsustainable consumption. Hunger and malnourishment remain persistent in Nigeria and most countries in the Sub-Saharan region, also other issues are insufficient food supply and security issues continue to be major setbacks to Nigeria and Saharan region. Therefore, this paper advocate for language and literature as indispensable tools for national development and rebrand; it is a bridge to wider opportunities. The English Language play a pivotal role in development be it educational, social, economic and so on of Nigeria and Sub Saharan region as a whole.

Keywords:  Language, Literature, Sustainable, Nation, Development.




The Educational Impact of Traditional Games: the Role of Dambe Sport in Educating Children in Northern Nigeria.


Alairu Aminat,

Physical Health Education Department. Fce (T) Bichi Kano.



Game Dambe a particular traditional games in northern Nigeria, can be seriously studied as the most important and attractive way of improving physical, mental, affective, and social health of members of society. A traditional game maintains physical health, improves spiritual and mental state, and institutionalizes cultural values.  The review looked at achievement of Dambe sports are among the most popular traditional sports that have long been practiced by people of Northern Nigeria emphasis on magnanimity, bravery, integrity, nobility, and moral fiber has contributed to the long life of a great Nigeria heritage, namely sport Dambe. Dambe became known as a place where the most elegant characters, like magnanimity, combating ignorance, bravery and adherence to moral principles and virtues, were fostered. Every single element of Dambe sport is imbued with agility strength development, one of the finding is improving physical stamina and endurance and encouraging politeness and sportsmanlike behavior in addition to physical improvements are among the prominent features of this traditional sport. Moreover one of recommendation is that Dambe help in strengthen and coordination among body parts lead to proper fitness and increased efficiency. The present paper aims to explore the educational impacts of Dambe sports on children by drawing on attractive features, background, and potentials of this traditional game.

Keywords: Traditional Games; Dambe; Northern Nigerian; Culture




Implementation of Inverted Pendulum Using Fuzzy Logic


Orisanaiye B.A.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria



The control strategy employed in implementing an inverted pendulum depends to a large extent on the ease or simplicity of the methodology adopted. Fuzzy logic provides a simple approach in the control of rather complex systems like the inverted pendulum. In this paper an inverted pendulum is implemented using Fuzzy logic as the control platform. The inverted pendulum presents a non-linear situation and requires a non-traditional approach in addressing the control requirements of the system. This paper presents a step by step analysis of how fuzzy logic can be used to achieve this. Its application today is widespread, like in the Segway self-balancing scooter and hover board technology.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic, Inverted pendulum, MatLab, Simulink, control




Internally Displaced Persons and Media Impacts in Nigeria towards Conflict Resolution: Issues Causes, Challenges and Prospects


Mustapha Ayodele Haruna

Department Of Social Sciences, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State.



Arguments and issues degenerate into quarrel, crisis and even war depending on the magnitude and enormity of its scale between and among people over scare resources, ideology and the struggle for power. War and armed conflict all have at least one thing in common: violence which like no other means destroys everything from people, crops, infrastructures, material resources to institutions and displaced people from their ancestral homes as refugees or internally displaced persons with no certain ray of hope of their return to the natural base. Consequently, camps for internally displaced persons have been built in different locations in Nigeria by the Government to sustain their lives there under the watch of the National Commission for Refugees, Migrants and Internally Displaced Persons saddled with such responsibility. Media has played significant roles in crisis and conflict resolution as it informs the public in the level of crisis or war in a community where involved. It carries different shades and colours of information both positive and negative, it increases the capacity to influence debate and shape public opinion. Despite all these provisions for internally displaced persons and the media impacts, cases of food shortages/shortchanges, rape cases, suicide bombing and insecurity have been recorded in various camps across the country, while the media has not been totally immune from being instrumental in formenting conflict and violence in low intensity conflict and troubled spot areas. The paper recognizes the nexus between crisis and information with relations to conflict resolution. The paper posits that internally displaced persons can be better managed with proactiveness of the media. The paper recommends constructive and good welfare policies/packages with utmost diligence on the part of the government officials managing it and the media upholding objectivity, perception and surveillance. The paper adopts development media theory to x-rays the use of media as a support to national development programmes aimed at improving the quality of lives of people struggling under camps conditions with accurate, informative and objective information.

Keywords:   Refugees, Citizenship, National Security, Communication, Conflict Management.




Evaluation of Factors Contributing to Tax Evasion and Avoidance in Katagum Local Government Area, Bauchi State


1Habu shehu 2Shehu Shu’aibu 3Abubakar Ahmed    

Department of Economics, Aminu Saleh College of Education Azare, Bauchi state.



This study was designed to examine the contributing factors that cause tax evasion and avoidance among self employed in Katagum Local Government Area, Bauchi state. The study adopted descriptive research design with the sample of 219 self employed individual selected through purposeful sampling. Structured questionnaire designed by the researchers was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics were used in analysing the data collected. The findings revealed that there wase low extent of tax payment; The study also discovered that inadequate tax education and awareness, failure to render tax returns inform of public goods and services, corruption by tax officials and lack of enforcement for tax default are the key contributing factors that cause tax evasion and avoidance in the study area; The study equally disclossed that door to door visit, amenesty for tax evaders, incentives to tax compliars, juducious use of tax revenues on public goods and services, restructure and adequate finance for tax collectors to minimise corruption and tax education and awareness were the key contributing factors (mechanism) that can curb tax evasion and avoidance in the study area. We therefore, recommended among other that government should embark on public enlightenment campaign on the need for tax payment and make juducious use of tax revenues in providing public goods and services to the study area.

Keywords: taxation, tax evasion, tax avoidance, self employed, revenue.




Beyond the Direct Theoretical Significance of Credit Management on Enterprise: Empirical Moderating Impact of Bakery Entrepreneurs in Suleja-Niger State


Dr. Julius Adima Osaremen, & Mr Denedo Charles

Federal Polytechnic Bida Dept. Business Administration & Management, PMB 55 Bida, Niger State, Nigeria.



The nexus between financing institution and enterprise growth and performance is to a great extent dependent, via loan, leasing, investment, venture capital, and line of credit. And each of this product has its band-weight and elasticity. Neglecting this unique feature resulted to the practical gap in enterprise practice to sustain the symbiotic relationship between the financial institution and the enterprise, due to the shortcoming of undermining credit efficacy, by limiting the elasticity rich potential of a credit card to debit card in Nigeria financial institution. Negate the exploration and maximization of the full benefits of credit management, somewhat cannibalizing the debit card instead and practically conceptualizing debit card as a credit card in Nigeria. This divergence has found to be systematically responsible for the dwindling enterprise performance and cash-starved in Nigeria and Sub-sahara, It is the anchor of this study to investigate Beyond direct theoretical significance Of credit management on enterprise: zooming on the moderating impact of credit management on enterprise performance independent variables, using a structural models to explore this inherent literature gap. The study employed primary and secondary data, hypotheses, literature review, and adopted questionnaire of 210 sample size, stratified random sampling, Partial Least Square SEM analytical methods. The study revealed that Favourable significant moderating impact of credit management exists on the relationship between credit policy compliance, promissory loan, transaction loan, credit policy compliance on bakery enterprise and enterprise performance, profitability, growth, and development. And the researcher strongly recommends the adoption of credit card ideology instead of the debit card ideology practiced by Nigerian financial institution, as this will involve every active citizenry to fully participate in real enterprise activities either as a consumer, investor, suppliers, mediators, etc.

Keywords: Credit-management, credit-card, debit-card, Bakery enterprise, enterprise performance, & moderating-impact.




A Comparative Biometric Study of the Female Reproductive System of Local Domestic Rabbit


AShehu, S.A; *A Bello, A.; DMagami, I.M. AHena, S.A; CSuleiman, H.M.;B Abdullahi, A.U.

aDepartment of Veterinary Anatomy, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; bDepartment of Animal science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; CDepartment of Veterinary Anatomy, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria. d Department of Biological science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto.



This study was conducted to establish the normal dimensions of the different segments of the female reproductive tract of the Local Domestic rabbits. The reproductive tracts of 25 adult non-gravid, female Local Domestic rabbit were collected and biometric parameters of different segments of the female reproductive tracts i.e. vulva, vagina, cervix, uterine body, uterine horns, oviducts and ovaries were measured .The lengths of the right and left ovaries were 1.453±0.034 and 1.410±0.026 cm, respectively. Mean weight of left ovary was 0.5944±0.06 gm and that of right ovary was 0.614±0.07 gm in Local Domestic rabbit. The average numbers of follicle in right and left ovaries were 4.123±0.230 and 3.893±0.229, respectively. The mean lengths of the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterine body, uterine horns and oviduct were 2.671±0.063, 7.132±0.165, 3.348±0.113, 2.50±0.112 and 12.287±0.270 and 10.150±0.228 cm, respectively. The width of the vagina, cervix, uterine body and uterine horn were 3.972±0.098, 1.7551±0.042, 2.739±0.079 and 2.805±0.069 cm, respectively. The average number of curuncle in uterus was 54.714±1.70. Base on the research study, anatomical data of the female reproductive system of the local domestic rabbit have been obtained in the present study. The data may be of clinical value in the understanding of the biology of the female local domestic rabbit, which may further facilitate its domestication, breeding and production in the area.

Keywords: Biometry, Comparative Anatomy, Local Domestic Rabbits, Female Reproductive System




Examination of the Relationship between Compliance with Due Process Proceedings and Successful delivery of Public construction projects in Bauchi


Ibrahim Garba1 , Salisu Magaji2, Hafsatu Jidere Bala3, Saje J. Kumo4 and Ilekoin Olutoba Ayodele5

Estate Management and Valuation Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi – Nigeria



This study attempted to assess the extent at which the due process policy is adhered to in Bauchi Construction Projects. A literature review reveals a limited amount of research in the area of assessing the extent of stakeholder’s compliance with due process policy on construction projects. Questionnaire was distributed to 150 officials to obtain primary data for this study. The data was statistically analyzed to showcase the extent of stakeholder’s compliance with due process in construction projects. The findings indicated that the construction projects in Bauchi has high compliance rate. Findings from this study can be useful to the policy makers, companies and other relevant authorities in their efforts to enhance the effectiveness and adherence with due process.

Key words: Due Process; Construction Projects; Compliance






1Osunkunle AbdulMageed 2Bello Musbau Adewumi 3Lodson Joyce 4Hamidu Shitufa 5Nazif Barau Yakubu

1,3,4&5Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi 2Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Offa



Diversification and innovation starts with an opportunity. Opportunity is enhanced by an idea. The idea is the catalyst of opportunity. Architecture and Ecotourism development is the opportunity. The idea motivated the architect using remodelling- an approach based on the act of changing or altering the structure, style, or form of historical structures. The purpose showcases the Babban Gwani architecture and tourism in Bauchi. Bauchi state is home to the Yankari Game Reserve, first tin mining beacon, rock paintings at Geji and Shira, the state museum, Babban Gwani architecture and among others. It is also one of the thirty-six political administrative states in Nigeria offering good opportunity for human settlement due to its peaceful atmosphere with less security challenges, attractive terrain and adequate destination market for ecotourism business to thrive. The problem in study area under investigation further discusses issues of expected contribution to architecture, ecotourism and sustainable development potentials by special attention to preserve, protect and promote our culture and tradition. The methodology uses qualitative approach of case studies, interviews and photogrammetrics. Hence, the contribution of this work can never be over estimated as the results and findings were all relevant to professionals and other future possibilities in terms of attainment of tourism and opportunities in Bauchi state and Nigeria in General. It has been recommended that government should strictly enforce the law that provides strategies, enabling environment and logistics for remodelling of architectural monument sites in Bauchi State.

KEYWORDS: Architecture, ecotourism, government, remodelling, security




The Implication of Financial Performance on Tax Compliance among Small and Medium Enterprises in Bauchi Metropolis, Bauchi State


Ayanwuyi Johnson, Farayola, Ayo Ade, Emmanuel Uareme Iriabije, Eikhomun Ehi Daniel

Department Of Accountancy, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi



This paper is titled “The Implication of Financial Performance on Tax Compliance among Small and Medium Enterprises in Bauchi Metropolis, Bauchi State”. The objective of the paper is to determine the effect of Profitability, Market share and Customers satisfaction on Tax compliance of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Bauchi metropolis. The study employed the descriptive research design, a simple sampling technique was used to collect primary data from a population of 364 SMEs registered with Small and Medium Enterprises Development Agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN) in Bauchi metropolis. The study applied the regression and correlation statistical models to analyze the data (using SPSS version 21.0). The study revealed that there is a significant relationship between Profitability, Market share and Customers satisfaction on Tax compliance among SMEs in Bauchi metropolis. The study recommends that SMEs in Bauchi metropolis should adopt organizational policies that encourage market turnout in their businesses, as this will bring about not only larger profit margin but will also give room for Tax compliance in the case of expansion.

Keywords: Financial performance, Tax compliance, Profitability, Market share, Customers satisfaction, Small and Medium Enterprises.




AU and the Challenges of Democratic Governance in Africa: The Need for a Comprehensive Approach


Abdulrahman Dangana Lukman

International Relations and Strategic Studies, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria



Until recently, respect for national sovereignty and the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of other states, coupled with the negative role of external actors gave rise to autocracy in Africa in the decades following independence. In other words, the most striking new emphasis in discussion on the nature of politics and the challenges of democratic governance in Africa is the unanimous agreement on what has come to be known as the primacy of the polity. This however undermined the development of democratic governance on the continent. Some of the Africa’s governance challenges include constitutional amendments, mismanagement of diversity, weak civil societies, fragile institutions, and failure to institutionalize effective policies. Where governments refuse to give up or share power, there has been a tendency for civil conflict and insurgency as in Somalia, Liberia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Thus, poor governance practices in Africa have given rise to the phenomenon of popular uprisings as in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya in 2011 and in Burkina Faso in 2014. This study adopts the Participatory Democratic Theory which assumes that majority rule, fundamental human rights, equality, fairness, rule of law and distributive justice form the gamut of democratic governance. It employs the quantitative research method for proper analysis. Finding shows that, even though the AU has developed norms and principles that provide a platform for more participatory and improved governance, there are serious challenges. National sovereignty remains jealously guarded while the continent’s institutions continue to lack resources, collective authority and popular legitimacy. Some African leaders manipulate their national constitutions in a bit to bypass presidential term limits (what is termed as the phenomenon of “Constitutional Coups” or “Third-termism”). Another significant trend is the use of security measures to stifle genuine dissent and civil liberties, in the context of a growing threat of terrorism on the continent. The study recommends that, for any governance reforms in Africa, measures which include  building resilient institutions, having visionary and impulses leadership, active citizens, empowered civil societies, innovative political systems suited to African contexts, and sustainable domestic funding for elections must not be taken for granted.

Keywords: African Union, Democratic Governance, Participatory Democracy, Rule of Law and Fundamental Human Rights.




Production and Quality Assessment of Locally Produced Chocolate


1Adebusoye Michael Sunday 2Lawal Rukayat Ajoke; & 2Samuel .O. Emmanuel  

1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. 2Department of Food Science & Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi



Cocoa and chocolate have been acclaimed for several years for their possible medicinal and health benefits. It is only recently that some of these claims have been more clearly identified and studied. Chocolate has been consumed as confection, aphrodisiac, and folk medicine for many years before science proved its potential health benefiting effect. This study production and quality assessment of home produce chocolate, produced three samples; Sample A contain; powdered milk – 50g cocoa powder – 220g margarine – 120g  roasted peanut paste – 50g roasted soybean powder 30g sugar -120g shea butter – 20g sample B contain; powdered milk – 50g  cocoa powder – 220g margarine – 130g water -230ml roasted peanut paste – 30g roasted soybean powder 30g sugar-120g shea butter 20g sample C contain ; powdered milk – 50g cocoa powder – 220g margarine – 120g water -230ml roasted peanut paste – 160g roasted soybean powder 30g sugar -120g.   From the result of the sensory evaluation it has been revealed that locally produced chocolate was highly acceptable by the populace using T- test and ANOVA. The proximate analysis shows that the locally produce chocolate has high moisture content (113.41%), carbohydrate (117.68%) and protein (74.67%) but low ash content (0.80%) crude lipid (5.2%) and fiber (0.60%) for the three parameters. Based on these findings it has been concluded that chocolates enriched with peanut and soybeans will be highly acceptable by consumers. Therefore, enrichment of locally produced chocolates using available ingredients will help in reducing malnutrition because of high nutrients content in the locally produced chocolate.

KEY WORD: Cocoa powder, chocolate, quality assessment




Quantifying the impact of least sensitive model parameter value on biodiversity conservation


  1. C. Nwachukwu1, E. N. Ekaka-a2, A. Musa1

1Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria 2Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria



A deterministic bifurcation analysis from a biodiversity gain to a biodiversity loss due to a variation of the least sensitive fishing effort has been studied using a computationally efficient numerical method of ODE45. The novel results that we have obtained can provide further insights in the fishery management with respect to the sustainability of biodiversity.

Keywords: sensitivity analysis, biodiversity loss, bifurcation, least sensitive model parameter




Privacy Preserving Multi Domain Data in Cloud over Deduplication


1Ismail Zaharaddeen Yakubu, 2Lele Muhammad, 3Zainab Aliyu Musa

Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.


Secure information deduplication can altogether decrease the correspondence and capacity overheads in distributed storage benefit and have potential applications in our enormous information-driven society. In this paper, we analysis multi-domain data process, and propose an efficient and privacy-preserving big data Deduplication in cloud storage. EPCDD achieves both privacy-preserving and data availability, and resists brute-force attacks. The procedure of information deduplication is intended to recognize and kill copy information, by putting away just a solitary duplicate of excess information. As it were, information deduplication procedure can essentially diminish capacity and transfer speed necessities .However, since clients and information proprietors may not completely trust distributed storage suppliers, information are probably going to be scrambled preceding outsourcing. This confuses information deduplication endeavors, as indistinguishable information scrambled by various clients will bring about various cipher texts. We prove the security of our construction, and the theoretical analysis and experimental results show that our construction is efficient in practice

Keywords: Secure data deduplication, multi-domain deduplication, cloud storage, dynamic proof of storage.




Studies on the Physico-chemical Parameters of Jebba Lake, Niger State, Nigeria


1Mshelia, M. B., 2Balogun, J. K., 2Auta, J. and 3Bankole, N. O.

1Department of Fisheries, University of Maiduguri, P. M. B. 1069, Maiduguri, Nigeria 2Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria 3National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research, New Bussa, Niger State, Nigeria



Studies on the physico-chemical parameters of Jebba Lake, Niger State, Nigeria was carried out from January to December, 2011. The aim was to investigate some of the physic-chemical parameters relevant to life and health of fish in the water body. Six (6) sampling sites were selected at random which covered Northern (Faku and Awuru), middle (Old Gbajibo and Shankade) and southern zones (New Gbajibo and Jebba dam} of Jebba Lake. Sampling was carried out for the period of 12 Months. The Physico-chemical parameters that were considered were water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, water transparency, phosphate and nitrate. They were all measured using standard methods. The results showed that water temperature values ranged between 26.06 ± 0.15a in Jebba lake site to 27.34 ± 0.12b in Shankade sampling site, depth varied from 8.08m to 31.64m, water current was between 20.10.62 cm/sec and 26.46  cm/sec, Secchi disc transparency ranged from0.46±0.01 m in New Gbajibo, while the highest mean value was 0.53 ± 0.04  m in Jebba dam., pH varied from 6.49 ± 0.01 and 7.59,5.35±0.03a mg/l in New Gbajibo and 6.75 ± 0.03 mg/l in Faku.The dissolved oxygen varied between 5.35±0.03a mg/l in New Gbajibo and 6.75 ± 0.03 mg/l in Faku.,The mean conductivity value was highest in Faku and Jebba with 128.8 ± 0.32 and 128.8 ± 0.42homs/cm) respectively, Alkalinity ranged 43.00±0.02 to33.30±0.32 mg/l., The nitrate-nitrogen range (2.37 ± 0.08 – 6.40 ± 0.50mg/l)., The mean values of phosphate-phosphorus (PO4-P) recorded varied between 0.18 ± 0.00 mg/l in Faku to 0.47 + 0.10 mg/l in Old Gbajibo.The highest mean value for total dissolved solids was 57.88 ± 0.28 mg/l in Shankade, while the lowest mean value of 39.17 ± 0.42 mg/l was recorded in CO2 ranged from 1.75 mg/l to 2.94 mg/l, Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was between 4.25 mg/l and 5.41 mg/l and nitrate-nitrogen concentration was between 2.37 mg/l and 6.40 mg/l. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) between these parameters in relation to stations. Generally, the physico-chemical characteristics of lakeJebba were within the productive values for aquatic systems, and strongly indicate that the lake is unpolluted

Keywords: Jebba Lake, mercury-in-glass thermometer, physicochemical characteristics.




Determining the Applicability of the Postulations of the Monocentric City Model to Land Uses & Rental Values in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria


Gwamna Emmanuel1*, Usman Musa1, Salihu Nasiru2, and Danjuma Jacob3

1Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru, Nigeria 2Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria 3Department of Quantity Surveying, Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru, Nigeria



With the vast majority of urban dwellers worldwide found in developing countries’ cities, their urban experiences still remain almost invisible in key theories or concepts in urban studies, with a clear bias shown toward the cities of developed countries. Furthermore, no study has analysed the situation of land uses vis-à-vis residential property rental values in Kaduna metropolis of Nigeria under the theoretical framework of the Monocentric city model, a land use model that is applied and tested worldwide. There is dearth of research that seeks to apply the Monocentric city model to analyse land use dynamics in developing countries like Nigeria. This issue provided the motivation to undertake a proper research study on the applicability of the Monocentric city model to land uses and rental values in Kaduna, a metropolis in Nigeria. Survey research design was adopted with questionnaires administered to officials of Government agencies and registered Estate Surveyors and Valuers. Neighbourhoods that experienced considerable occurrences of land use changes were identified and residential rental value trends and their percentage changes were the bases of data analysis. Looking at the rental value trends and results from the analysis of data, the submissions of the Monocentric city model are not applicable to the dynamics of land use and rental values in Kaduna metropolis for a number of reasons bordering on distance to the CBD, utility levels not based on transport costs, dwelling spaces, and proliferation of human activities and overcrowding. The study will be beneficial to town planning authorities, built environment professionals, real estate investors and policy makers who are stakeholders interested in the situation of land uses and the condition of property values.

Keywords: Monocentric city model; Land Uses; Rental Values; Central Business District; Nigeria




Access to Information: Role of Public Libraries in Nigerian Society


*Abubakar Alhaji **Ebunuwele Grace Eseohe and ***Isaruk, Ikpoko-Ore-Ebirien Dike

*Take Tsaba, Collage of Agriculture and Animal Science Bakura, Zamfara State **Ambrose Alli University Library, Ekpoma ***Department, Neuropsychiatric Hospital Rumuigbo, Portharcort, Rivers State, Nigeria



The public library plays an important role in access to information. All countries have always considered the library to be central and essential for accessing information because the library only knows and understands the type of information it must provide to meet the needs of information seekers. Information is a basic human right and is absolutely important in the development of any society. Access to information means unlimited access to information. In today’s society, information is needed at all times for citizens, as it is an incentive for social, economic and political development as well as good decision-making. Access to information is access to the Internet and is a way of overcoming the inequality of information in society. When ICT is used, access to information is also changed. Many users go to the public library to access the Internet, and the Internet allows users to access large amounts of information to choose the appropriate skills. The purpose of this document is to review the literature on access to information. The study identified access to information and discussed freedom of information, as well as public libraries in Nigeria.

Keywords: information, access to information, public libraries.




Appraisal Performance and design of Automated Biomass Dryer for Chilli Pepper


Orisanaiye Bruno Akinjide

Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria



This work presented the design and construction of automated biomass dryer drying red hot chilli pepper. It uses the biomass heater for producing hot air that is channelled to the drying chamber accommodating the products to be dried. Performance characteristics of the biomass dryer including system efficiency has been evaluated experimentally based on drying of 5 kg of the chilli pepper. The dryer is capable of producing hot air continuously with temperature ranging between 56 to 79 °C. Performance analysis showed that the moisture reduction from about 90 % to 10 % was achieved within 11 hours in biomass drying and it took more than 24 hours of conventional open sun drying to achieve that. The efficiency of the bio-waste fired assembly,  was found to be 43 %. The main features of the dryer was to maintain an average constant temperature in the drying chamber through the use of mechanical temperature regulating device. The entire system is simple in construction and all used materials were locally sourced. Since the dryer does not use electricity and semi-autonomous, it can be very useful in rural areas in Nigeria to dry chilli pepper and other perishable items.

Key words: Chilli Pepper, Temperature Regulator, Biomass gasifier stove, Moisture content and Nasarawa




The Unconstrained Optimization and Improved Version of Conjugate Gradient Coefficient: Global Convergence Properties


Lele Muhammad 1*Olowo,  S. E, 1Abdulhadi,A .A, 2Suliaman, I.M 

1Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi (Nigeria) 2Department of Computer/Statistics, Federal College of Agricultural Produce Technology, 53/55 Hotoro  GRA, by CBN Quater. Hotoro. Kano 3Department of Mathematics, Kano University of science and Technology, Wudil. Kano 4Faculty of Informatics and Computing Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia 



Conjugate gradient (CG) method has played an important role in solving unconstrained optimization. Their wide application in many fields is due to their low memory requirement and global convergence properties. Numerous studies have been done recently to improve the CG method. In this paper, an improved formula for conjugate gradient coefficient  has been proposed which possesses the global convergence properties under exact line search. The result of the numerical experiment has shown that this new formula performs better than the classical CG methods.

Keyword: Conjugate gradient method; Conjugate gradient coefficient; Sufficient descent condition; Global convergence: exact line search.




Design Of A Single Axis Solar Tracking System


1Nasiru Abubakar, 2ZahraddinUmar Dahiru, 3Ahmad M.Y. Jumba 

1Works Department, Usmanu Danfodio University, Sokoto 2,3Departement of Electrical Electronic Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi  



Silicon solar cells produced an efficiency of about 20%, whereas there has been a steady increase in the efficiency of solar panels, but the level is still not at its best. Most panels still operate at less than 40%. As a result, most people are forced to either purchase a number of panels to meet their energy demands or purchase single systems with large outputs. The main objective of this paper is to develop an automatic solar tracking system which will keep the solar panels aligned with the Sun in order to maximize the efficiency of the solar power. The solar panel was used as the source of power for the tracker in order to make it independent of AC source. A 12V rechargeable battery is used to supply the circuit after which voltage will be regulated to 5V for the electronics component in the circuit. An LDR is used as the light sensor to detect the position where much light intensity is available. The control circuit is based on PIC16F877A microcontroller which acts as the main brain of the system. It convert the signal sent in by the LDR in to a digital varying voltage of either 1 or 0.Two relays were connected from the output of the controller to serve as a driver to the motor. The relay drives the motor either clockwise or anticlockwise direction. A DC geared motor is connected across the positive and negative terminals of the two relays. If the output of the controller is 1 the Relay 1 will rotate the motor in a forward direction and vice versa.

Keyword:  Solar tracker, Microcontroller, Light Dependent resistor, Geared Motor




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