AFRICAN SCHOLARS JOURNAL OF AFRICAN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (JASD-7)
VOL. 8 NO. 7 ISSN – 2010-1086
African Scholar Publications and Research International,
Centre for African Studies, University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.
Copyright © 2017 African Scholar Publications and Research International.
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MOTIVATING NIGERIAN ELITE PERFORMANCE IN OLYMPIC GAMES BY DE-EMPHASIZING PERFORMANCE ENHANCING DRUGS: COUNSELLING IMPLICATIONS.
M.S. MUHAMMED (Ph.D) AND I.G. USMAN (Ph.D)
Faculty of Education and Arts, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai Niger State of Nigeria.
This paper dwelt in the historic analysis of Nigeria elite performance in Olympic games and highlighted the areas of poor performance and causes of lapses such as inadequate funding, planning preparation politics and corruption in respect of elite athletes, organizers and the government. Counselling strategies were highlighted to address the lapses among stakeholders. The paper also discussed trends of motivation theories including, among others; intrinsic, extrinsic and self-determined, which are pertinent to elite players. It emphasized that each and every individual player has untapped energy resource in his or her untapped endowed potentials that can be drawn to bring about superior results. The concept of enhancing is fundamentally about a change of attitude, developing a positive ‘can do’ mindset and engaging in systematic behaviours that facilitate attitude formation. It advocated that Nigerian elite athletes should always strive to be original and innovative in the application of motivation techniques discussed in this paper. The paper further emphasized the use of performance enhancing substance drugs and elucidated the effects of these drugs on the users. Counselling strategies and recommendations to address lapses in the areas of preparation of elite athletes, organizers and sponsors were proffered. These include the adoption of long-term intrinsic motivation strategies, provision of adequatefunding by government, provision of incorruptible expert and competent coaches managers and other organizers, which can positively impact on elite performance in Olympic games. By this, high spirit of sportsmanship, motivation and dividends of reward of gold medals and national honour can be actualized.
Keywords: Olympicgames, Elite performance Motivation, Enhancing drugs, Counselling implication.
SOCIOECONOMICS AND PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS OF ARTISANAL FISHERIES IN MAHIN LAGOON, ONDO STATE, NIGERIA
BOLARINWA J. B, 2 E.A FASAKIN and 3 O.A FAGBENRO
1,2,3 Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.
The study of the socioeconomic status of the fisher folks and profitability analysis of artisanal fisheries in Mahin lagoon, Ondo State, Nigeria conducted for 18 months (June, 2011 – December, 2012) showed that the artisanal fisheries was male-dominated( 81.4% ). Majority of the fisher folks were married. Gill net fishing was mainly practised (54%) , followed by cast netting (23%). Over 70% of the artisans used paddled canoes as against 26% used motorised boats. Access to credit, extension services and improved fishing inputs were very low at 7%, 5% and 7% respectively. Most fisher folks showed poor recording habit. About 92% of the fisher folks did not keep records of transactions and catches despite the relatively high level of literacy (60% of them had minimum of secondary education). Majority complied to the use of 50.8mm mesh size showing responsible fisheries activities. Dearth of infrastructural facilities like health centres, training centres, post- harvest storage facilities, electricity and water supply was observed in most of the fishing communities. The two major challenges facing them were high incidence of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) and oil spillage. This calls for governmental intervention in the area of training and provision of infrastructures that would increase the living standard of the artisanal fisher folks. Financial analysis showed the use of paddled canoes by 74% of the fisher folks was less profitable than use of motorised canoes by 26% of the fisher folks. Annual Gross Revenue was N 546,000.00 for paddle canoe owners as against N 910,000.00 for those using motorised boats. Earnings before Tax for fishing with paddle canoes and motorised canoes were N 186,000 and N 370,000.00 respectively. Return On Sales (ROS) for paddled and motorised canoe users were 31% and 36% respectively. Return on Investment (ROI) was 49% for paddled canoe fishing and 93.1% for motorised boat fishing and while the Benefit-Cost ratio was 1.52: 1 for paddled canoe fishing as against 1.69 : 1for motorised canoe fishing. The diverse challenges facing the fisher folks calls for provision of a conducive enabling environment by the government. There is a need for training and sensitization of Mahin fisher folks. Fisheries policy makers should also adopt a ‘ Bottom-up approach’ to accommodate the specific needs of the artisanal fisher folks who were the major stakeholders.
Keywords: Fisher folks, socioeconomics, infrastructure, Benefit-Cost analysis, artisanal, lagoon.
L’ANALYSE DE LA TECHNIQUE DU ROMAN POLICIER DANS BRANLE-BAS EN NOIR ET BLANC ET TROP DE SOLEIL TUE L’AMOUR DE MONGO BETI
MAGNUS, TERNA ATE, PH.D
Department of Languages and Linguistics, Benue State University, Makurdi
Mongo Beti, un écrivain engagé et un critique du gouvernement en Afrique commence à dévoiler et à critiquer le système d’administration à travers Branle bas en noire et blanc (2000). Mongo Beti fait une critique des régimes des leaders africains après les indépendances en Afrique. Cet écrivain noir francophone a écrit des romans de nature policière pour projeter l’image réelle de l’Afrique noire. Il est évident que l’élite politique africaine qui est favorisée par la situation politique du pays ne s’intéresse qu’à la poursuite de l’argent et des avoirs matériels. À travers cet ouvrage Betienne, ces leaders se considèrent privilégiés de se trouver au pouvoir, ce sera désormais l’ère du tribalisme, de la corruption et du bureaucratisme en Afrique. Selon Jacque Chevrier (1990), le temps des indépendances est aux yeux des écrivains francophones, la période de la corruption et de l’injustice perpétrée par les nouveaux maîtres africains. C’est à cet égard que Sony Labou Tansi (1979) dans sa pièce, La vie et demie dramatisé le malheur de l’indépendance sous forme de la violence politique et le tribalisme, c’est à vrai dire l’état honteux d’une Afrique indépendante où les nouveaux maîtres africains se mettent contre leurs propres peuples africains. C’est à travers tous ces malheurs des régimes des maîtres africains que l’écrivain Mongo Beti a jugé très nécessaire d’écrire cette œuvre qui est des natures policières pour exposer tous ces malheurs en Afrique. Mongo Beti à travers ce roman policier descend au niveau intellectuel du son peuple. Il se comporte comme porte parole pour les Africains, il les faisait découvrir que l’Afrique est mal lotie et que cette situation en Afrique indépendante devient plus en plus complexe c’est à travers tous ces complicités des dirigeants africains que l’écrivain Mongo Beti a pensé très nécessaire d’employer la technique du roman policier dans ses dernières œuvres policiers pour exposer tous ces malheurs qui trappent en Afrique post indépendante.
Keywords: Policier, L’analyse, Mongo Beti, Technique, Branle-Bas.
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODOLOGICAL RELEVANCE TO PUBLIC POLICY ANALYSIS AT NILEST, ZARIA
MARKUS MALACHY, OBAFEMI ANTHONY AND OLATUNJI TUNDE EZEKIEL
General Studies Department, Directorate of Leather Technology, Nigeria Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Zaria
The need for information for policy making has been intensified as a result qf increasing complexity of modern society. This has led to the development of public policy analysis with the aim to provide decision makers with reliable policy-relevant knowledge directing towards solving socio-political and economic problem. This paper elucidate on the recurrent methodological debates among policy epistemic communities about an appropriate methods to conduct research in public policy analysis. It relies on secondary data and the content analysis of books, journals and internet sources. It is discovered that the methods wars between quantitative and qualitative research have continued unabated and is reflected in positivism and post-positivism arguments. The quantitative research otherwise referred to as the rational positivist approach to policy analysis is involved in empirical analysis through objectives hypothesis testing of rigorously formulated models to arrive at findings. The fundamental positivist principle in policy analysis is to separate/acts and values, by this, normative issues are translated into technical considerations. The critics whose researches are based on qualitative research argued that social phenomenon cannot be isolated from the researcher and that, it is impossible to separate facts from values. This paper contributes to the debate by trying look at the relevance of these methods to research in Africa. It further discovered that the relevance of these methods to policy making in Africa is limited as Africa remained underdeveloped. This has’ been attributed to colonialism and post colonialism activities which made African researches to the intellectually dependent. The study therefore recommends that Africa should look inward for appropriate method capable of solving her plethora of policy problems. This will improve the lots of policy making that will better the lot of the citizens in Africa.
Keywords: Debate, Method, Positivist, Post-Positivism, policy, Research
RURAL WOMEN AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN NIGERIA: ANALYSIS OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT PROGRAMMES IN THE 4TH REPUBLIC
IFEANYI NWAEBOH (PH.D) & GORDON COOL BOZIMO
**Liberty Centre for Human Rights and Sustainable Development, 68 Otiotio Road, Yenagoa **University of Port Harcourt, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political and Administrative Studies
This research investigated the political participation of rural women since the inception of Nigeria’s fourth republic in 1999 by analyzing state capacity building programmes that have empowered rural women as political voices in Nigeria’s geo-political space. The major purpose of the research is to discover to what extent women especially those dwelling in rural areas has been empowered to participate in politics. The research triangulated quantitative and qualitative research methods to improve the validity of findings.The research discovered that Nigerian women has been marginalized not just during pre-colonial and colonial periods but from independence till the period of the research. The study also discovered that women marginalization is extensive and have structures enabled by societal mores and laws. Despite empowerment programmes like poverty alleviation and National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (NEEDS) programme, women remain politically marginalized in Nigeria due to political, cultural, religious and economic factors. Among other things the study recommended that Political parties should enforce gender quotas for party offices, political elections and appointments to achieve gender equity and affirmative action of 30% political representation by women. Also, the study recommended that Government should make and implement gender specific policies to educate women, and empower them with entrepreneurial skills and financial resources.
Keywords: Rural Women, Women Empowerment Programmes, Political Participation
THE ETHIC OF RECIPROCITY AND THE ISSUE OF HUMAN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH
PROF. KANU IKECHUKWU ANTHONY, O.S.A.
Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Tansian University, Umunya, Anambra State.
The ethical conduct of human biomedical research in Third World Countries has been an area of interest for many Third World scholars. Scholars have been attending to this issue from various perspectives, however, as it concerns the abuse of the human rights of their country men and women, who as a result of poverty and ignorance, depend on developed countries for research in health care concerns. This notwithstanding, there is the criticism that developed countries do not meet the ethical standards that are applicable in their own countries when it comes to human biomedical research in Third World countries. This has resulted in the gross abuse of the human rights of their victims. In the face of the evaluations of human biomedical research in many Third World countries, this work argued that the ethic of reciprocity when employed in addressing the issue in question would bring about the recognition that everyone, independent of human and geographical differences, deserves to be treated with respect and love.
Keywords: Ethic, Reciprocity, Biomedical, Research, Africa, cultural, Human Rights.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF TWO INTERACTING LEGUMES IN THE EVENT OF CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIO
ATSU, J.U.1. AND EKAKA-A, E.N.2
1Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria 2Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Nkpolu, Port – Harcourt, Nigeria
The effect of climate change on the growth of two interacting legumes when the length of the growing season is taken to be 90 days is discussed in this paper. The aim is to compare the yield of the two interacting legumes in the absence of a climate change effect and in the event of a climate change. We have also proposed an intervention strategy in the event of a severe climate change effect.
Keywords: climate change, interacting legumes, inter-competition, intra-competition, intervention strategy, numerical simulation
CONTRIBUTIONS OF DIFFERENT LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGIES TOWARDS ENHANCING POVERTY REDUCTION AMONG FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN SOUTHERN KADUNA.
SHEYIN E.A1 ; 2DAMINA, AYUBA; 3ZAGI IDRIS
1School of Agricultural Technology, Samaru Kataf Campus. Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic Zaria.
This study examined livelihood strategies and their contribution to poverty reduction among farming households in Southern Kaduna. Primary data employed in the study was obtained from 164 farming households selected through a multi-stage sampling technique. The data was analyzed using the following tools: descriptive statistics and Censored Tobit regression Model. The study revealed that the major factors which negatively influence the choice of livelihood strategies was household size and nearness to market while factors such as age, gender, education, income of the farmer and credit received had positive effects on the adoption of the livelihood strategy respectively. The relative contribution of non-farm income to livelihood diversification amounted to about 56.14% of total household income while about 43.86% of the total household income was from farm income sources. It was found that the major constraint to livelihood diversification were lack of access to formal loans. Therefore, from a policy perspective, state government should try as a matter of urgency to provide quality education to her citizens in the study areas.. This is because households with more educated members tend to be more efficient in agricultural production or off farm activities. Also, there is the need for government to empower women in terms of equal access to productive resources and employment opportunities. This could increase the off-farm activities that could generate more income thereby enhancing poverty reduction among households. Furthermore, government at the State level should provide sufficient resources to develop infrastructure, organize public services and implement development programs in the study areas.
Keywords: Poverty reduction, Livelihood diversification strategies, Tobit regression model, Farming households, Southern Kaduna.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF NON-INTERACTING PARALLEL DATA USING A COMPUTATIONAL ODE45 APPROACH: INTER-COMPETITION BETWEEN LEGUMES
*ALAPUYE GBOLU ELEKI, **ENU-OBARI N. EKAKA-A, **A.O. NWAOBURU,
*Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Port Harcourt Polytechnic, Rumuola, Port Harcourt, Nigeria **Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Nkpolu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
The existence of non-interacting parallel data in the field of crop science would require a sound statistical analysis. We have utilized a computational ODE 45 approach to analyze this problem. The novel contribution of this study is presented and discussed in this paper.
Keywords: Statistical, Analysis, Non-Interacting, Parallel, Computational.
ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS SATISFACTION WITH ICT SERVICES IN FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC, MUBI-ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA
RONALD KADALA NDAMU & ISHAYA AUDU
*Department of Co-operative Economics and Management, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi-Adamawa State. **Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi-Adamawa State.
The paper was analyse student satisfaction with ICT services in Federal Polytechnic, Mubi. It was specifically aimed at examining the extent to which students were satisfied with ICT services during registration process, teaching and or practical sessions. Data were elicited through questionnaire administration from a sample of 367 respondents determined using Krejcie and Morgan (1970). Out of the 367 questionnaire administered, 341 were dully completed and returned. The data collected were analyse using percentage, mean score and chi-square statistical tools. The analysis and the test of hypotheses generally revealed that students are satisfied with ICT services in Federal Polytechnic, Mubi. However, in its specific term, it was found that students indicates dissatisfaction with effectiveness of network service, connectivity speed, period spend on registration and adequacy of power supply. Based on the findings, the following measures were recommended that the management should continue in it effort to sustain and improve on the status of ICT services in the institution, that management should go into partnership with critical internet service providers with proven record of quality service and moderate fee of partnership,
Keywords: Students, Satisfaction, ICT services, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State.
VERACITIES OF INFORMATION LITERACY IN THE CONTEXT OF INFORMATION SEEKING BEHAVIOUR AND NEEDS TOWARD PROVISION OF INFORMATION SERVICES TO USERS.
*IBRAHIM ABDULLAHI MAYOBANI **BABAYO MUHAMMAD BAJOGA
*Department of Library and Information Science Federal Polytechnic Mubi. PMB 35 Mubi, Adamawa State. **College Librarian, College of Legal and Islamic Studies, Nafada Local Government, Gombe State.
This article discusses the central role of the user in the process of providing information services. Information seeking behaviour and needs are examined with reference to the complex role that users’ individual characteristics play, such as their knowledge levels, personality and cognitive style and affective characteristics. The aim of focused on providing users with the ability to evaluate the sources of information and the manner in which information may be mediated in response to the full range of information needs, both organisational and individual. With the aim to evaluate critically the major tools of bibliographic control of monographs, journal literature, online resources and other significant categories; to evaluate the execution and the results of specific searches for information; appraise critically the role and value of information services in a variety of settings; to justify the use of the most appropriate sources of information in a range of different contexts; to analyse the needs of user communities in order to design and implement effective information provision.
Keyword: Information services; Information seeking behaviour; Information needs; Cognitive style; Personality style; Affective characteristics.
LE LITTERATURE ET LES CRISES ECONOMIQUES GLOBALES
College of Education, Agbor.
Cet article porte sur la littérature et les crises économiques globales. Il est divisé en trois parties y compris l’introduction, relations entre la littérature et les crises économiques globales et la conclusion. Dans l’introduction nous avons essayé de donner un résumé global sur la littérature et aussi tenté quelques définitions des termes ou mot dés. La deuxième partie parle des liens ou relations entre la littérature et les crises économiques globales – c’est-à-dire les rôles que peut jouer la littérature face à ces crises. La conclusion qui en guise d’un petit résume et les références.
Keywords: Globales, Littérature, Crises, Economiques, Et Les
UTILIZING THE PRINCIPLES OF MISE EN PLACE FOR EFFICIENT FOOD AND BEVERAGE PRODUCTION AND SERVICE
CLARA KEHINDE ASOJO1, ESTHER ZWALNANBALE2, GOYANG LERITSHIMWA JOSEPH3
1Department of Hospitality Management, National Institute for Hospitality and Tourism, Bauchi Campus, North-east Zone 2Department of Home and Rural Economics, Plateau State College of Agriculture, Garkawa 3Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Environmental Health, Plateau State College of Health Technology, Pankshin
Many hospitality organisations , especially the small establishments do not practice adequate mise en place in food and beverage operation. Mise en place is a term used to denote all task performance preparatory to commencement of production in the kitchen and service in the restaurant. Inadequate preparation could hamper effective and efficient food and beverage service delivery. This study evaluates the utilization of the principles of mise en place in small, medium and large hospitality establishments with a view to establishing the relationship between practice and the size of establishment. A self- answered structured questionnaire was designed based on ordinal scale to collect data. A sample of sixty (60) respondents drawn from six hotels of different sizes participated in the survey. Data collected were analysed by calculating mean deviation to establish the strength of responses while a chi-square test was performed to determine the dependence or otherwise of the practice of mise en place on size of the establishment. It was found out that large hospitality food and beverage areas are more inclined to mise en place strategy than smaller ones. This could result in poor service delivery and inability to meet schedules timely. Therefore, it is recommended that supervisors must imbibe the culture of mise en place and enforce its practice as a daily routine and prerequisite for working in the food and beverage department.
Keywords: Mise en place, efficiency, timely food service
SAFETY ASSESSMENT, IN-VIVO ANTI-TRPANOSOMAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOL ROOT EXTRACT OF SECURIDACA LONGEPEDUNCULATA IN MICE INFECTED WITH TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI BRUCEI
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, P.M.B. 1144, Aliero, Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria.
Securidaca longepedunculata is a savannah shrub commonly used by traditional medicine practitioners in Nigeria; the plant is reputed to have over one hundred medicinal indications. In this investigation, its safety was established by determining the median lethal dose as 2.8 mg/kg body weight. The trypanocidal activity was studied using Swiss albino mice of both sexes: The animals were randomly selected and divided weight dependently into groups of 5 mice each, consisting of three methanol extracts groups of 5%, 10%, and 20% of the extract’s LD50 which is equivalent to (0.14, 0.28, & 0.56 mg/kg) respectively, and also a standard control drug (diminazene aceturate 3.5 mg/kg), infected and not treated group and no infection no treatment group. Except the no infection no treatment group, all other groups were infected with T. brucei. Invariably, each animal received inoculums of about 1.0 x 107 parasites per gramme body weight through needle passage and produced parasitaemia in the mice. On commencement of the medications (i.e. at peak parasitaemia) the methanol root extract of S. longepedunculata was given to the three groups in divided doses as shown below for seven days and the diminazene aceturate was given to the standard group at a therapeutic dose of 3.5 mg/kg just once, while the infected not treated and the no infection no treatment received no treatment, all the drugs were given through intra-peritoneal routes after confirming parasitaemia. The diminazine treated group cleared all the parasites the next day and there was no relapse parasitaemia, while dose dependent decrease in the parasites was observed in the extract treated groups but there was gradual relapse parasitaemia in the methanol extract treated groups probably due to the crude nature of the extract. However, S. longepedunculata root extract is perceived to be useful in the treatment of various ailments but should be used with caution particularly on chronic administration like in diabetic, cancer or hypertensive treatment
Keywords: Anti-Trpanosomal, Activity, Methanol, Extract, Securidaca.