Journal of African Sustainable Development (AJASD) Vol. 12 No.7

African Scholar Journal of African Sustainable Development (AJASD)

 Vol. 12 No.7 2018 ISSN 2010–1086

Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies, University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.

Copyright © 2018 African Scholar Publications and Research International.




Numerical Simulation of Power Generating Companies under the Nigeria’s Power Sector Reform.

Bazuaye F.E

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Portharcourt, Rivers State.



This paper proposes a novel approach to the modeling and analysis of power generating companies under the Nigeria power sector reform. In particular, a model that describes the relationship between the generating companies was presented using the Lagrange multiplier method regarding the Kuhn-Tucker conditions without taken into consideration the transmission limitations and losses. The numerical experiments indicate the five GENCOS with different cost functions. The optimal solution of power output from each generating company is presented.

Keywords: Gencos, Power reform, Optimization. Kuhn-Tucker, Lagrange Multiplier, Optimal solution



The susceptibility index and effects of Necrobia rufipes on smoked Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822), Synodontis nigrita (Valenciennes, 1840) and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Umar, H. Ma. Kabir, B. G. Jb., Mohammed, Z. Ba., Mshelia, M. Ba and Hassan, Ma.

aDepartment of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. bDepartment of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria



The susceptibility index and effects of Necrobia rufipes on smoked Clarias gariepinus, Synodontis nigrita and Oreochromis niloticus was carried out in University of Maiduguri. The aim was to investigate the effects of cured fish species on the biology of Necrobia rufipes. Adult insects were collected from fish sellers and later cultured in the laboratory to raise population for experimentation. Culturing procedure entails placing 20 unsexed adult on 100kg smoked fish contained in 1.5L capacity culture jars. Cultures were set-up weekly for three consecutive weeks to ensure availability of experimental insect. For every experiment same aged adults (1-7 days) old were used. The experiments were set using three treatment and three replications. The data collected on progeny, emergence of adults, length of development, susceptibility index and weight loss was subjected to two way analysis of variance. The result shows that, there was significant difference (P< 0.5) in the number of progeny production by N. rufipes on the three fish species with Clarias, Tilapia and Synodontis having mean number of 13.0, 9.0 and 8.5 respectively. The highest mean length of development of N. rufipes in three fish species was observed in Tilapia of 29.3 days and 27.3 days respectively. The susceptibility index indicates less susceptibility index in Synodontis to N. rufipes (3.3%). Highest susceptibility was recorded in Tilapia followed by Clarias with values of 4.7 and 3.8 respectively. Weight losses were higher in Clarias (7.3%). Tilapia and Synodontis recorded 6.0 and 3.1% respectively.

Keywords:  Necrobia rufipes, Clarias gariepinus, Synodontis nigrita, Oreochromis  niloticus, susceptibility Index



Welding Sequence Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Bs460b Medium Strength Offshore Steel

  1. Babatunde, O. Adedipe, S.A. Lawal, O.A. Olugboji

Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Infrastructure, Process Engineering and Technology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria.



This project focus meanly on establishing an optimum welding sequence to enhance the mechanical performance of offshore structure fabricated with medium carbon steel. This was achieved by investigating the influence of altering the sequence of welding on the mechanical properties of three welded separate thick plate of dimension 120 x 120 x 120 mm from the same material, the same double “V” edged preparation, the same electrode, using the manual metal arc welding process [SWAM] with the same welding parameters. The butt weld of these three plates were carried out using the model developed by [8] in this order: The first plate tag welding sequence one was fully welded in the up groove before the down groove, the second sequence was half up weld then half down weld before the upper groove completely welded and finally complete filling of the lower grove. The third plate was half way up fill follow by complete filling of the down groove before the upper groove was completed. Specimens for tensile, compressive, impact and hardness strength test were extracted from the weld metal zone and similar specimen on the heat affected zone. The result of the Mechanical tests carried out on these specimens revealed that welding sequence two possess the highest tensile strength of 686 Mpa and 421 Mpa in un-weld metal region [HAZ].  The weld metal regions of the same welding sequence two possess the optimal performance in compressive and impact strength but least average hardness value. The conclusion drawn from the results of this investigation shows that welding sequence two is the optimal welding sequence for offshore steel investigated.

Keywords – welding sequence [WS], mechanical properties, medium strength Steel, offshore structure



Bridging the Gap between Educational Theories and Practice: A Key to Effective Management of Universities in Nigeria

*Umar Muhammad (Phd) ** Ibrahim Ango ,Mailafiya

*Department of Educational Foundations, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto **Department of Education Kebbi State University of Science & Technology



Bridging gap between theory and practice in university education in Nigeria becomes necessary. Because University education in Nigeria and indeed any other part of the world plays a crucial role in the supply of highly skilled manpower to manned different sectors of the nation’s economy. The gross under-funding of the education sector in the country has been rendering the university system incapacitated. This paper examines Bridging Gap between Educational theories and practice: A key to effective Management of universities in Nigeria. On the basis of this, issues such as, University Education in Nigeria, Concept of Theory and Rationale for theories in University Administration, Concept of Practicum in Educational Management, Scientific Management Theories, Examples of the limitation of Management Theories in the Nigerian workplace, Problems Facing University Education and its Products, University Management in Nigeria, Problems of University Management in Nigeria, The weakness of Scientific Management Theory to Educational System, and  finally, Tertiary Education Trust Fund (TETFund) were discussed. This paper concluded that management of higher education in general and university education in particular has been bedeviled by inadequate funding. The Paper recommends that education sector should be adequately funded by allocating at least 30% to education sector and 50% of this allocation to universities and also sourcing internal revenue from individual contributions, and corporate bodies should be encouraged. And finally, it is recommended that a university/Industry Partnership should be established because it is a hall mark of national development and progress. This would give double benefit to industries by helping universities to produce graduates for their consumption.

Keywords:  Educational Theories, Effective Management, Nigeria, Practice, Universities.



Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Based on Occupation and Toilet Types among Pregnant Women Attending Ante- Natal Care in Lokuwa Maternity Mubi North L.G.A, Adamawa State-Nigeria.

Elihu, A1., Wabu, Y.S2., Umar, I1

1Department of Zoology Adamawa State University Mubi, Adamawa State- Nigeria. 2Family Health International (FHI 360)



Urinary tract infection (UTI) also known as acute cystitis or bladder infection is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. Lower urinary tract infections is also referred to as a bladder infection. E.coli is the cause of 80-85% of UTI with Staphlococcus saprophyticus being the cause in 5-10%. Urinary tract infection occur more commonly in women than men, with half having at least one infection at some point in their lives. This study was aimed to assess theprevalence of UTI based on occupation among pregnant women attending ante-natal care at Lokuwa Maternity.  A total of 100 samples were collected. A simple random sampling method was used; at least 10 pregnant women were recruited daily until sample size was reached. A standardized questionnaire was filled for each patient that consented to obtain their socio-demographic information. The result of the study shows that public servants record the highest prevalence of UTI (52.9%) followed by housewives (50.2%) and business women (42.9%) while the least recorded prevalence was farmers (0.0%). Chi-square analysis revealed that there is no significance difference in urinary tract infection based on occupation (P>0.05) but it shows that there is significant difference in Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) based on the type of toilet used. (P<0.05).It was concluded that the knowledge, awareness, prevention and control of urinary tract infection is insufficient among the participants.

Keynote: Prevalence, Urinary tract infection, occupation, toilet types, pregnant women, Mubi



Divulging the Idea of Analytical Search Strategies as a Quest for Improving African Scholars Awareness

Ibrahim Abdullahi Mayobani1 Gloria Bello Durman2 Fasuma Haruna3

1&2Department of library and information science federal polytechnic Mubi Adamawa state. 3Professor Jibril Aminus Library Federal Polytechnic Mubi Adamawa state.



Considering search strategy as a sensible designed process for accomplishing information retrieval via complete range of information resources from various sources, this paper divulges the steps necessary to design an effective search strategy, in order to retrieve information. It expresses the details ways in which search may be executed and the critical appraisal of search process that takes place upon its completion. It shows why is essential to design a search prior of its accomplishment considering; search approaches, Subject approaches to information seeking, Search design, subject specification, formulating the search, selecting of bibliographic information sources and concluding the search. The paper determines that it is always important to carefully note the fine points of search as it proceeds for on several occasions is problematic to remember precisely how searches was formulated and details of the results after the outcomes.

Keywords: Idea, Analytical, Strategies, Improving, African Scholars Awareness.



The Legal Frame Work for the Protection of the Right of Refugees

*Mahmud Musa, *Mohammed Umar, *Adam Idris and **Umar Ibrahim Wunti

*School Of Legal Studies, A.D. Rufa’i College For Legal Studies, Misau, Bauchi State **Department Of General Studies Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi



This paper examined the right afforded to the refugees for their protection as the law provides same mechanism within which to regulates and give some kind of protection and respite to those stranded or been forced from their home country as a result of war. The increase chaos in the world make several people without shelter, good food to eat, decent accommodation, and are vulnerable to contagious diseases as a result of lack of nutritious, medicine and school for children and women who always fall back for assistance even in time of peace. A refugee generally speaking is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely, such a person may be called an asylum seeker until granted refugee status by the contracting state or UNCHR if they wrongly make a claim for asylum. In an attempt to expand the scope of this paper the authors employed the doctrinal research method, the study employed contributions from various sources ranging from the primary source i.e. the statute, contained in the  various Articles of the UNCHR, UDHR, ICCPR etc. the secondary sources was also given a consideration such sources includes books, journals, articles and unpublished thesis and other relevant information sourced form the internet and other related source. The main function of this research paper is to pin-point to the reader the various rights and protection as afforded and encapsulated by the Geneva conventions and the likes, UN Commission on Human Rights (CHR), United Nations Human Right Commission for Refugees (UNCHR), United Nationals Conventions on  Migrants Rights. The vulnerability of refugees or asylum seekers to violation of human right were well spelt out and the way out as the humble view of the authors of this paper. This paper contained a well expanded introduction of the topic, define who is a refugee, internally displaced persons were highlighted and discussed. The development of the international legal framework for the protection of refugees, various rights of refugees under International Human Rights Law refugee protection under international humanitarian law were discussed by the authors.

Keywords: Legal, Frame, Protection, Right, Refugees.



A Review of Organisational Change Management Models and Approaches

Ramatu Abdullahi & Hadiza Baba Ajiya

Department of Business Management Education, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola.



Today, organizations face difficulties as a result of unfriendly economic situations and requirement for suitable management capabilities. As a result, many of these organisations embarked on radical changes in their operations is an effort to improve performance. This paper shows an overview of what are regarded as the most suitable change management models for an efficient improvement of organizations; As per a few studies published in the previous decades by experts in the field of organisational change management, the vast majority of the change undertakings come up short (approx. 70%); the main responsible factor is represented by resistance to change coming from people involved in the process, employees and managers. In view of the above, the paper presents three of the most widely known and used theoretical models for change management: Kotter (1995), Ackerman and Anderson (2010) and Prosci-ADKAR (2006), aiming to provide professionals a starting point for the effective management of organizational change projects. These models approach change management in different ways, but all agree that managing the human side of change is the key to success. It was also discovered that implementation of change often results in periods of organizational tension because it involves moving from the known to the unknown and therefore risky, stressful and complex. The paper then suggests various measures to be taken by organisation wishing to embark on any change. Some of the recommendations include taking cognizance of their environment via scanning as this is the only way by which pressure on it can be reduced during change; training of workers on change programmes among others.

Key words: change management, models, approaches, strategies, programme



Assessment of Residents’ Perception of Environmental Impact of Tourism Activities in Southern Kaduna Region, Kaduna State

1Baba, Ezekiel Bahago; 2Silas, Deborah David (Mrs)

1Department of Urban and Regional Planning, CES Campus, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna 2Department of Research and Statistics, Kaduna State Urban Planning and Development Authority, Ahmadu Bello Way, Kaduna



In physical development, the ultimate goal of any physical development is to achieve the set goal the project is meant for.  So, it is in the tourism sector. The study aims at assessing the resident’s perception of the environmental impact of tourism activities in the Southern Kaduna Region with the view to giving recommendation for improvement. The study uses SSPS 17 version in analyzing the perception of the resident on the environmental impacts of the tourism activities in the area. At the end of the study, the findings revealed that the overall assessment of the perception of the environmental impact of the tourism activities in the area is positive with mean score value of 0.1756. This indicates that the value of the mean score for the positive impact was 3.63814 which is higher than the value of the negative impact which was 3.4625.  Meanwhile when the value of mean score of the environmental impact was compared with the resident’s attitude to supporting tourism activities in the study area, the result also shows positive impact when the mean score of 0.2208 was realized because of its environmental impact it creates on the environment in the area. This indicates that the resident has been and will ever be supporting tourism activities in the area. Based on the established outcome of this study, the following recommendations were given. Among them includes the development of more tourism resource areas in the region; increase in the state budgeting for financing tourism development in the area; replacement of the dilapidated infrastructure on the existing tourist destination sites; the encouragement of the public private partnership in the development of tourism activities in the area; employment of the resident of the areas into the management of the tourism potential spots of the area; and the involvement of the southern Kaduna residents decision making body of the state that can enhance positivity of the tourism activities in various aspects in the area.

Keywords: Tourism Activities, Environmental Impact, Residents’ Perception



Phytochemical Analysis of Successive Extracts of Zanha golungensis (Hiern) LEAF

Sikiru Gbenga Kola, Obidola S.M, Emefiene M.E, Oladejo A.O, Olorundare O.O

Federal college of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria.



Zanha golugensis (family Sapindaceae) commonly called Smooth-fruited zanha (En), Mkalya or mkwanga (Sw) is an important multipurpose tree as all the parts of the plant possess nutritional and medicinal properties and wood for various uses in West Africa. Medicinal herbs have been used in traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times. Traditionally, bark decoctions of Z.golugensis are taken as a cure for malaria, powdered bark is sniffed against chest complaints and colds, and rub forehead to get relief of headache, and bark preparations are considered galactagogue. The aim of this study is to determine the phytochemical analysis of successive extracts of Z.golugensis leaf. Various food tests were also used to determine the nutritional value of the leaf extracts. Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous, ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform fractionated portions of the leaf extracts of Z.golugensis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and cardenolides. The result showed the presence of alkaloid, saponins and tannins in aqueous, ethanol and petroleum ether extracts only. Whereas cardenolides was present in all portions of the leaf extracts. Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fat and oil were also detected using different methods. The present information would be of help to isolate and characterize the diverse pharmacologically active principles of importance supporting their varied biological activities and the medicinal values. Z.golugensi could be a source of dietary supplement being rich in carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids.

Keywords: Zanha golugensis, Phytochemicals, analysis, Medicinal value, Food test



The Secretary and the Security of Digital Records

H.T. Irorakpor1, B.M. Esiefarienrhe2 and C. Ifesi3

1Department of Office Technology Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State. 2Department of Math/Stat/Computer Science, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State. 3Department of Office Technology Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State.



Digital records are information related to the various activities of the organization stored on the computer, network or the internet. It is the ‘secrets’ of the organization and hence should be protected. The secretary is the custodian of office records and the security of such records should be of utmost concern. The secretary should be equipped with tools and techniques to safeguard and manage records at their disposal. Unfortunately, the secretaries are ill equipped in computer based techniques for information management and thus compromise on security related issues. This paper discusses digital records and the various techniques such as data encryption, steganography, RSA algorithm, public and private keys management and hashing methods of digital records protection. The concluded on the role the secretary should play to safeguard digital records.

Keywords: Digital records, Security of information, Hashing, Data encryption, Steganography



Key to Sustainable Development in Nigeria

Gideon, V. O. Ph.D

Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER)



Research is a systematic, empirical and critical investigation of natural phenomena. It is an activity done to test theories and make inferences to update information on a base knowledge. Research involves the collection of data and its analysis that leads to findings and recommendations for solving specific identified problems. Sustainable development relates to improvement in the general wellbeing of the present generation without jeopardizing the wellbeing or satisfaction of a future generation. Basic development indicators include: effective communication, cordial relationship, good management, competence, equity, sustainability, productivity, empowerment, security and human rights. The types and importance of research are outlined in the investigation. Research solves human problems, authenticates and improves previous works. It corrects baseless beliefs, evaluates and predicts phenomena, promotes acquisition and dissemination of knowledge. It also facilitates educational development, awakens man’s curiosity and boosts policy development. There is a positive and significant relationship between research and sustainable development. It is therefore recommended that viable research institutes should be established and adequately funded for the promotion of sustainable development in Nigeria.

Keywords: Research, Sustainable development, Nigeria.


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