AFRICAN SCHOLARS JOURNAL OF MGT. SCIENCE & ENTREPRENEURSHIP (JMSE-5)
African Scholar Publications and Research International,
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DIVERSIFYING THE OIL-DEPENDENT NIGERIAN ECONOMY GIVING CONTINUOUS DROP IN CRUDE OIL PRICES: THE PROSPECT OF AGRICULTURE.
RUKAIYAT ADEBUSOLA YUSUF
Department of Accounting, Kaduna State University.
The Nigerian economy is highly dependent on a single commodity, this has adverse effect on its people who live in abject poverty and its economy which continues to suffer from oil price shocks, mismanagement etc. This paper examined the international oil prices in relation to agricultural contribution to Nigeria’s GDP within the period 1960 till date. Times series data from national bureau of statistics (NBS), Central bank of Nigeria CBN and CIA Fact book were used, analysed using descriptive statistics and trend analysis. The results shows a downward trend in agricultural contribution to the country’s GDP most especially in periods of oil boom characterised with high oil prices. The study therefore recommends the creation of an enabling environment by the government particularly for agriculture to thrive in a bid to move away from oil dependency through increased budgetary allocation, provision of essential amenities in the rural areas to reverse rural-urban migration, bringing back extension officers, innovative farming, relaxed export conditions for agricultural produce and conducive policies framework that will enable the country to diversify its economy as soon as possible. Other sectors like tourism can also be an option through relaxed tourism conditions. Above all a general change in attitude is of utmost importance before diversification is achieved.
Keywords: oil prices, Gross Domestic Product, Agriculture, economic diversification, Nigeria.
DYNAMICS AND IMPLICATIONS OF AFRICA INCORPORATION INTO THE WORLD CAPITALIST ECONOMY
* A. M. LETSWA & ** M. N. EDITA
*Department of Political Science, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai
Africa since post-independence era has been faced with the challenges of development, these challenges according to many scholars specifically dependency theorist is the contact the continent had with technologically advanced nations. The pre-colonial and the post colonial structures of socio-economic contact such as slave trade, cash crops economy, monetization, international trade and current winds of globalization has far reaching implications for African States. This paper critically examines the dynamics and implications of Africa incorporation into world capitalist economy taking into consideration the historical antecedent and implications of each stages of incorporation. The paper relied principally on secondary sources of data as method of its analysis. Dependency theory is employed to analyzed Africa incorporation into world capitalist economy. It is argue in this paper that African states who are incorporated into world capitalist economy failed to develop because of the hegemonization of capital by developed nations and unequal exchange of goods and service between the centre and the metrople. It recommends that for Africa to develop it must inculcate good governance, restructure its economy among others.
Keywords: Dependency, Monetization, Economy, Development, International Trade.
ASSESSMENT OF TRAINING NEEDS AMONG NON-TEACHING STAFF OF THE FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA
Department of Public Administration, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri
This study assessed the training needs of non-teaching staff in the faculty of agriculture, University of Maiduguri. The objectives of the study were to categorize the demographic characteristics of the respondents, assess the training needs of respondents and investigate other problems that hinder job performance of respondents. Study population was derived from the list of all non- teaching staff of the faculty through random sampling procedure. From the list, 27 workers were randomly chosen from the various job professions. Information was collected from the sampled respondents through structured questionnaires. The datawere analyzed using percentages and frequency distribution tables. The results indicated that respondents were mostly (59.3%) males and aged between 36 and 55 years (85.1%). The results also showed respondents have attained various educational qualifications with only 14.8% having Bachelor’s Degrees. Majority of the respondents (63.0%) received training at least once since their appointments most of which were in form of short courses (44.4%). Assessment of periodic training revealed 40.7% received training only once in a period of five years while 51.9% did not receive training at all within the same period. The result also indicated the fields in which training is required and this was preferred to be achieved through short courses, workshops and conferences. Apart from training, respondents also indicated inadequate working facilities, lack of nonpayment of overtime allowances and electricity as the major problems that hinder job effectiveness. The study concludes that workers in the faculty of agriculture need periodic trainings in their respective job responsibilities. Apart from the periodic training, workers’ productivity is also hampered by lack of working facilities. The study recommends that workers should be trained periodically in their various professional fields. Working facilities that are lacking should be provided and motivation in terms of payment of statutory allowances be strengthened.
INFLUENCE OF NEED PATTERNS ON STAFF- MANAGEMENT RELATIONSHIP
DR CHIAHEMBA AUNDE IGUNGU
Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja
Winch and Kisajnes (1965:41) define a need as “a goal- directed drive, native or learned”. Needs are drivers which demand satisfaction. When needs are not satisfied, a person becomes restless, tense and may exhibit abnormal behaviour. He may remain in a state of disequilibrium until the needs are met wholely or at least partially. This goal-directed drive enables an individual to organize his resources and work hard to overcome unsatisfying situations. The importance of examining need patterns is best described by Hamphill (1958) when he states that if we concern ourselves with staff as individuals, we must consider, among other factors, the values, their traits and their need dispositions. This, in effect, means that there is a demand for information that clarifies the relationship between need satisfaction and perceptions of individuals in industrial, business and other social organizations like the schools. Furthermore, it may be hypothesized that if managers and administrators are cognizant of the need patterns of their staff, and if such patterns are known to be aids in predicting individuals’ behaviour, it might be possible for them to prepare to maintain group cohesiveness and direction towards institutional goals.
Keywords: Need, Parten, Behavior, Theory, Psychology
FISH FARMING ENTERPRISE: AN ALTERNATIVE TO POVERTY REDUCTION IN NORTHERN ZONE OF ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA
RONALD KADALA NDAMU
Department of Co-Operative Economics and Management, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria
The paper investigated the impact of fish farming on poverty reduction in the northern region of Adamawa State. The study specifically examined the poverty status of the fish farmers before and after engaging in the farming activities and the extent to which fish farming reduced poverty among the fish farmers in the study area. Sample size of 162 farmers was drawn using simplifies Yamane model. Questionnaire was the major instrument used to collect the required date and was administered personally by the researcher. Out of the 162 questionnaires administered, 153 were dully completed, returned and were found useful for the study. Descriptive tools, Foster-Greerer-Thorbeck, Gini-coefficient and logit regression models were the statistical techniques used to analyse the data collected. The result shows that on a whole, fish farming impacted positively on the life of the farmers, there by reduces poverty among them. On this note, it was recommended that government particularly in Adamawa State should double its efforts in the development of Aquaculture sub-sector of the economy.
Keywords: Fish Farming, Alternative, Enterprises, Poverty reduction, Northern zone, Adamawa State
HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING (HRP) AND BUDGETING: AN AGENDA FOR A FUNCTIONAL PUBIC SERVICE
AHMED S. 1, MODU A.U 2, MODU. K.3, HARUNA I4
1-2Department of Business Administration and Management, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria 3Department of Public Administration, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria 4Department of General Studies Education, College of Education Waka Biu, Borno State
For the public service to remain relevant and functioned, in the discharge of its responsibilities, the government needs to critically review its human resource planning and budgeting activities. A realistic budget, serving as both planning and control techniques, can enhance effective human resource planning and utilization in the public service. This paper begins by offering a conceptual clarification of HRP and budgeting, and notes the significance of developing and maintaining q functional public service. It further discusses the budget as a planning technique as veil as budget premises, in HRP. The paper concludes by emphasized the need for the public service, like the private sector, to develop realistic staff budgeting to be able to effect the HRP and achieve maximum efficiency and effectiveness
Keywords: Human, Resources, Planning, Budgeting
GENERATING AND MANAGEMENT OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES TO ACHIEVE EDUCATIONAL GOALS IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN GOMBE METROPOLIS OF GOMBE STATE
1DANKUMO ALI MADINA, 2STEPHEN JAMES ZIRA, 3JACOB ITSE DABO
1Department of Economics and Development Studies, Faculty of Humanities Management & Social Science Federal University Kashere, Gombe State 2Dept. of Economics, School of Management and Information Technology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola 3Department of Education, Bauchi State University, Gadau
Schools could be viewed as a factory that requires resources (human and material) to aid its production. The school plant (physical facilities) must be adequately financed and managed in order to ensure both effectiveness and efficiency of the system i.e. achieving educational goals. The study investigated the source(s) of generating financial resources and the problems associated with its management using generating and management of financial resources questionnaire (GMFRQ). Gombe state have about 421 public secondary schools spread all over the state, with 84 concentrated in the metropolis. Out of these, 8 schools were selected at random and questionnaires (GMFRQ) were administered to the school Principals, Teachers and Accountants. The study revealed School Fees, Educational Levies, PTA, Alma-mata, borrowing, etc as the sources of finances. Corruption, poor maintenance culture, exorbitant award of contracts, poverty, negligence attitude of staff and lack of proper supervision were discovered to be the various ways of under-sourcing and mismanagement of funds, which, according to the study has seem to be responsible for lack of teaching/learning materials, decaying state of infrastructures and disincentive to teachers among others, by and large, inhibiting the achievement of set educational goals. In view of this, the paper recommends for; increase government funding, schools’ engagement in other ventures to mobilize more funds, while, government introduces proper checks and balances to ensure appropriate utilization of funds.
Keywords: Generating, Financial Resources, Management, Achievement, Educational Goals
NATIONAL POVERTY ERADICATION PROGRAMME (NAPEP) AND THE CHALLENGES OF POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN NIGERIA
* M. IDOKOAKOR (PHD) & ** ZEKERI MOMOH,
*Department of Political Science, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. **Global Network for Peace and Anti-corruption Initiative (GNPAI), Abuja – Nigeria.
The National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) was established by the former Obasanjo administration in 2001 to address the increasing rate of poverty in Nigeria. Over a decade that the NAPEP programme was established it is expected that the programme should have achieve its goals. The aim of is to unravel the challenges of the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) in alleviating poverty in Nigeria. It employed the Political economy and analytical tool in its investigation. However, it was discovered that the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) programme have not fared well in achieving it goals due to ineffective strategies, corruption, wrong policy priority and poor implementation among others. It suggested that NAPEP programme should focus on poverty alleviation rather than poverty eradication which is unattainable and that genuine poverty alleviation in Nigeria involves identifying those who constitute the poor, by providing a comprehensive framework that will capture what constitute poverty as well as those who are poor based on the living standard in Nigeria not by the living standard in somewhere in Europe or America. Lastly, the paper suggested that the entire NAPEP programme should be re-directed in order to have the targeted poor as it focus, the those who constitute poor should be identified and be included in formulating and projects that will address their plight or else the government effort are alleviating poverty in Nigeria will be a myth.
Keywords: National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP), Poverty, Poverty Alleviation, Nigeria,
ENTREPRENEURIAL ATTITUDE TO STARTING A BUSINESS IN THE THIRD WORLD COMMUNITIES: DETERRENTS AND SOLUTIONS
1ACHAMA GODWIN IKECHUKWU 2OBIAH MMADUBUIKE EMMANUEL .U.3 ODUAGWU VIVIAN CHIOMA
1Department of Business Administration and Management 2Department of Accountancy 3Department of Business Administration and Management Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo
Business which is important for societal survival has evolved in the third world communities over several centuries. Yet, there are a lot of business opportunities waiting for exploration and exploitation to ensure sustainable development, in spite of various motivating efforts by different governments created to encourage investors. The entrepreneurial attitude towards exploiting various opportunities has not been exhaustive. Entrepreneurial attitude is the orientation or psychological disposition of mind of an entrepreneur to starting and running a business to enhance self-reliant and national development. This paper was therefore aimed at examining the deterrents and possible solutions to improving entrepreneurial attitude to starting a business in the third world communities. The study adopted the content analysis approach of qualitative research design to source, adopt and justify the relationship and effects. Secondary data were generated from the review of related literature relevant to the study. The study showed among others that entrepreneurial attitude to starting a business has been poor and discouraging primarily due to investors’ inability to taking risk. The paper suggest by request a proper inculcation of entrepreneurial spirit and mindset into our potential entrepreneurs. It should not be overemphasized that the Bank of Industry is expected to do more in terms of providing the necessary credit facilities.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial Attitude, Entrepreneur, Business, Opportunities, Risk.
SKILL ACQUISITION, SELF-RELIANCE AND JOB CREATION THROUGH PRACTICAL COMPUTER TRAINING
ASEMEWALEN, NELSON OSEZELE
Department of Computer Science, School of Sciences, F.C.E Katsina
The problems of mass unemployment which has led to recession is biting hard on many economies of the world, particularly in Africa and many other developing countries. The researcher in this paper examines the causes, effects and possible solutions using Computer technology. He emphasized on reinforcing practical teaching as a means of building relevant Computer Science skills in both Computer and non Computer students so as to prepare them for the future and also to help them become entrepreneurs, creating jobs instead of becoming unemployed job seekers. The implication of this research is that more jobs will be created, unemployment will be minimized and recession will be put behind us while the nation moves forward.
Keywords: Unemployment, Recession, Computer, Practical, Teaching, Skills, Acquisition, Jobs
THE ROLE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN FINANCING SMES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
- NIYI, A. AGUDA & MUSIBAU BABATUNDE SALAWU
*Banking & Finance Department, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria **Keystone Bank Ltd, Kebbi State, Nigeria.
This research work seeks to carry out an empirical investigation of the role of commercial banks in financing SMEs for economic development in Nigeria. The study employed annual secondary data which contained information on variables such as unemployment rate, per capital income and commercial banks loans to the SMEs. The data collected cover the period between 1990 and 2015. Ordinary least square (OLS) simple regression analysis was employed to examine the impact of commercial banks’ financing of the SMEs on the Nigerian economy. The findings revealed that increased funding of the SMEs has a statistically significant impact on improving the unemployment problem in Nigeria. Loans to the SMEs also turned out to bring about increase in Per Capital Income in the country. It was recommended that the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) should continue to encourage the commercial banks of the need to channel a significant portion of their loan to the SMEs industrialists. The efforts of the various actors must be matched to realize maximum benefits from the SMEs. All necessary infrastructures should be provided by the government to reduce the various risks associated with the sector and make it more credit attractive.
Keywords: Unemployment Rate; Per Capital Income; Commercial Banks; Loans; SMEs; Economic Development
IMPROVING NIGERIA’S ECONOMY THROUGH ENTREPRENEURIAL AGRICULTURAL DIVERSIFICATION
* ISERE, VICTORIA OSHUARE ** OTTI, VICTOR UZOMA(PH.D) & *** AGU, CYRIL OBIORA
*Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of General Studies, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi **Department of Public Administration, School of Business Studies, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi***Department of Business Administration, School of Business Studies, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi
This paper has a major aim of unearthing the basic indicators of improved economy. The paper has reviewed empirical works on the role of entrepreneurial agriculture and diversification on the Nigerian economy. Issues of poverty, hunger, food security and economic growth were raised. A deliberate attempt at diversifying the Nigerian economy was advanced. Problems of poor funding, sustainability, monocultural economic policy, poor infrastructure and entrepreneurial skills as truncating Nigeria’s bid for economic development were raised. This paper concludes by making some recommendations that government should encourage agropreneurs to participate in the agricultural sector development, total ban on importation of agro products; youths must be targeted and encouraged to go into agriculture and total diversification of the economy above all.
Keywords; Entrepreneurial, Improving, Nigeria’s Economy, Diversification, Agricultural.
INFLATION AND THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY, ITS EFFECT AND CONSEQUENCES
SAGIR A. MAHMUD1*, HAMISU IDI2, IBRAHIM Y. INUWA3, RAPAEL R. NENLAT4
**Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
The study examined the impact of inflation rate on the economic growth in Nigeria. The study explored secondary data obtained from CBN Statistical Bulletin in conjunction with National Bureau of Statistics for the period of 1995 to 2014, and used SPSS V. 21 statistical packages and analyzed the data using regression analysis. The Nigerian economy had faced with inflationary trends over the years and the various government policies to deal with it eluded long-term solution needed to bring about increased standard of living. Hence, the need for an investigation into the multi-dimensional and dynamic factors that affect inflation with a view to device a means of reducing it to the bearest minimum. Findings showed that fiscal deficits, money supply, interest and exchange rates) significantly and positively impacted on the rate of inflation in Nigeria, and economic growth at large. The explanatory variables accounted for 96.2% and 87.6% inflation and GDP respectively during the period with the error terms capturing 3.8 and 12.4%. Result showed that there is an inverse relationship between inflation and economic growth (GDP). This implies that a percentage increase in inflation rate will lead to 20.5 percent reduction in economic growth. The results also revealed that inflation had a negative impact on economic growth. The study also showed that inflation possessed a positive impact on economic growth through encouraging productivity and output level and on evolution of total factor productivity. A good performance of an economy in terms of per capita growth may therefore be attributed to the rate of inflation in the country. A major policy implication of this result is that concerted effort should be made by policy makers to increase the level of output in Nigeria by improving production of domestic products in order to boost the growth of the economy.
Keywords: Inflation, Economic growth, Effect.
AN OVERVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
ILIYA SIMON PUKUMA
Department of Business Administration and Management Studies, Numan Campus, Adamawa State Polytechnic Yola,
Entrepreneurship activities have been found to be capable of making positive impacts on the economy and quality of life of the people, which that stimulate economic development growth, employment generation at the immediate environment. It is as a set of factors or conditions that influences its operations whether positively or negatively. The objectives of the study is to determine how these factors affects efficiency operations, challenges they face, strategies to adopt for smooth operation, relationship of the factors to its growth and survival in the turbulent environment and to make necessary recommendation. The methodology use to collect data were descriptive decisions and secondary methods. Various literature were reviewed. The findings were analyzed and revealed that these environmental factors affect growth and development performance of the enterprises generally in Nigeria.
Keywords: An overview of environmental factors effects, performance development on entrepreneurship in Nigeria.
INFLUENCE OF MARKER BRAND SKILL AND ITS ENACTMENT ATTRIBUTES ON SUCCESSIVE NEW BRAND ACCEPTANCE: AN APPRAISAL OF ENTREPRENEURIAL MARKETING OF NEW PRODUCTS
AMINU YAKUBU ABUBAKAR Ph.D, 2ACHAMA GODWIN IKECHUKWU, 3 DR. OZO JOHNSON UBAKA 4 VITUS UGOCHUKWU IZUAZU
Entrepreneurship Development Centre, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State. 2Department of Business Administration and Management Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo. 3.Marketing Option in the Department of Management, Marketing and Entrepreneurial Studies, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. 4 Department of Animal Production and Health Technology, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo.
The paper focused on entrepreneurial marketing and product development with the intention to determine the effects of post brand experience and performance on subsequent new brand acceptance. The overall objective was to evaluate the effect of brand experience on consumer “intention to purchase attitude” towards acceptance of new products in the market. The study adopted the field studies research design, which invariably combines variants of both exploratory and explanatory designs. The Delphi technique, a variant of the panel design was particularly used to effect participation and product testing by test –takers (respondents) in order to effect a comparative analyses to generate primary data for testing hypothesis. Consumer preferences and acceptance of a new product was evaluated with an effective method of product testing (Round Robin test) in a panel of test takers. The questionnaire questions evaluated the test product on a 5-point scale and the t-test, multiple regression and ANOVA test statistic were adopted for analyses. The stratification sampling design was considered necessary to ensure good sample representative and increased desired statistical precision. The study revealed that the critical dimensions of product development which will ensure acceptance of new products are the products potential performance variables which consist of those intrinsic attribute of the product that are capable of creating satisfaction and subsequently, utility to the consumer. Among others, the study recommended that consumer acceptance of new product should always be subjected to comparing the new brand or product performance (both sensory effects and long term effects) against similar parameters of the market leader. Similarly, entrepreneurs as a matter of importance should undertake research to understand the needs and wants of consumers before developing or modifying the existing ones.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial marketing, Product attributes, Consumer intention, Total Product, Round Robin test, Expectancy.