AFRICAN SCHOLARS JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING & RESEARCH TECHNOLOGY (AJERT-6)
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ANALYSIS OF COMBUSTION BEHAVIOUR OF RICE HUSK PELLETS OF DIFFERENT BINDER LEVELS WITH CHARCOAL
1UNWAHA, J.I AND 2BABAJO, S.A
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola
Rice husks are generated from Paddy Rice (Oryza sativa). The residue is usually dumped and flared on the farms, where it constitutes fire, environmental and health hazards. Rice husks are potential feedstock for fuel energy generation. This research work present experiment carried out to determine the combustion behavior of rice husk pellets of different densities with charcoal .the characteristics of the pellets determined are proximate analysis, physical properties, combustion rate, flame temperature, flame height, durability(or shatter index), maximum and relaxed densities. Emission test also conducted for the pellets and charcoal. The use of different compaction pressure and % binder ratios in producing pellets resulted in different physical and energetic properties of pellets. The results from the combustion rate test of 40g shows that rice husk pellets produced with tamarind starch and cassava starch attained higher temperature (about 620°C) in less than 7 minutes than the charcoal (about 375°C) and both can give high temperature with higher quantity of fuel. The caloric values of charcoal and rice husk pellets with cassava starch tamarind starch are 30.57 MJ/kg, 18.82MJ/kg and 17.39MJ/kg respectively. These results show that the pellets are capable of generating heat that is sufficient for cooking, space heating and baking with suitable appliances. The pellets can serve as substitute for charcoal users since it shows superior combustion characteristic less emission of CO (0.3ppm) and SO2 (0.5ppm) over charcoal which has CO emission of 4.2ppm and SO2 of 1.2ppm. the pellets produced with tamarind starch( Non-edible starch) exhibited good physical and energetic properties that are better than the pellets produced with cassava starch (Edible starch). The tamarind starch (from waste seeds) can therefore be used as a replacement for cassava starch which has competitive need.
Keywords: Pellets, rice husk, emission, cassava starch, tamarind starch and binder ratio
ENHANCEMENT OF POWER QUALITY BY DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER (DVR) USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK ALGORITHM
1 IDRIS MUHAMMAD 2 HAMISU USMAN AND 3 AMINU HAMISU KURA
1Dept. of E Engineering, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria 2,3Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, College of Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna
Frequent use of power electronics equipment have leads to the degradation of power system supply to both consumers and utilities. With the application of voltage –sensitive equipment, such as: hospital equipment, Rectifiers, adjustable speed drives (ASD) which increases in the present trend in the modern markets have resulted in poor power quality of the supply. This sensitive equipment has leads to power quality deterioration such as: Voltage sag, voltage swells, transients, interruptions and harmonics. Among these power quality problems, voltage sags and voltage swells are the most severe ones. In order to mitigate voltage sags and voltage swells, Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is employed to improve the voltage quality or voltage profile of the supply system. In this paper, back propagation algorithm is used to train the Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Simulation is achieved using MATLAB/SIMULINK environment in order to obtain the desire mitigation of sags and swells voltage quality. However, the proposed controller has shown a dynamic and fast response in mitigating the desire sags and swells which improved the power quality of the supply.
Keywords: Dynamic Voltage Restorer, Power Quality, Harmonics, Voltage Sag and Swells.
EFFECTS OF MACHINING PARAMETERS ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF AISI 1027 STEEL IN TURNING OPERATION:
TUMBA, J. & BABA, M. T
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, PMB 35 Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria
The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of machining parameters (cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut) on surface roughness (Ra) of mild steel products. The values of the machining parameters used are the values within the range specified by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) for turning of mild steel. The adopted machining parameters values are: 40 meters per minute (mpm), 50mpm and 60mpm for cutting speed, 0.120 millimetres per revolution (mm/rev.), 0.435mm/rev. and 0.750mm/rev. for feed rate, 0.5 millimetres (mm), 1.0mm and 1.5mm for depth of cut. The Experimental samples (AISI 1027 Steel) were turned on E3N-01 lathe machine. The surface roughnesses of the turned samples were afterwards determined with the aid of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results which range between 1.0167μm and 11.9843μm for surface roughness were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA) as a statistical tool with 95% confidence level (p=0.05). The results showed that the significant value (p) for cutting speed is 0.036 which is less than 0.05 (p=0.03<0.05), 0.482 for feed rate and 0.402 for depth of cut (p>0.05).
Keywords: Cutting speed, Feed rate, Machining, Mild steel, Surface roughness and Turning
ANALYSIS OF TOUCHSCREEN TECHNOLOGY
1 OPARAH CAMILLUS C, 2 OYEDEPO VICTORIA A., 3 UGOCHUKWU-IBE IJEOMA M & 4 NWODUH UDOCHUKWU J.
1,2,3,4Department Of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri
First computers became more visual, then they took a step further to understand vocal commands and now they have gone a step further and became “TOUCHY”, that is skin to screen. In this paper we will throw light on significance of touchscreen technology, its types, components, working of different touchscreens, advantages and disadvantages and their applications. Recently touchscreen technology is increasingly gaining popularity as these can be seen at ATMs, cell phones, information kiosks etc. Touchscreen based system allows an easy navigation around a GUI (Graphic User Interface) based environment. As the technology advances, people may be able to operate computers without mouse and keyboard. The touchscreen is an assistive technology. This interface can be beneficial to those that have difficulty in using other input devices such as a mouse or keyboard. When used in conjunction with software such as on-screen keyboards, or other assistive technology, they can help make computing resources more available to people that have difficulty in using computers. Currently various researches are being made to develop touchscreen video projectors. The ability to transform any surface in a touchscreen means lower costs, making the technology more cost effective.
Keywords: Touchscreen Technologies, Resistive Touchscreen, Capacitive, Surface Acoustic Wave, Touchy
A NOVEL FINITE IMPULSE RESPONSE FILTER DESIGN USING WINDOWING
- H. ALI1, ALIYU SISA AMINU2 HANKOURAOU SEYDOU3
1Department of Physics, Bayero University Kano, Kano, Nigeria 23Department of Physics, Gombe State University. Gombe, Nigeria.
The ever increasing demand for digital products with programmability are growing day by day. Digital filters are broadly used in digital signal processing and communication systems in application such as channel noise reduction which is the major setback in the system. In the field of digital signal processing the function of a filter is to remove unwanted part of a signal that is undesirable. In this paper, we present the design of such filter using a novel approach of Fourier series with windowing. The filter performance based on the design specification is tested using filter design and analysis tool (FDAT) of the Matlab. The FDAT is used to define the filter order, response and coefficients. The implementation of the designed filter using Digital Signal Processing (DSP) blockset of the Simulink has shown that the design specification of the transversal Filters were achieved and its performance is at the optimum level.
Keywords: Digital Filters, FIR Filter, Matlab Simulink, FDAT, DSP blockset
MODELING AND SIMULATION OF A FLANGE TUBE USING CAD/CAM TOOLS
1, MUSA ALHAJI IBRAHIM, 1 SAIDU BELLO ABUBAKAR, 2 MUSTAPHA MUKHTAR USMAN, 1ABDULRAHMAN AHMED SHUAIBU
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Technology, Kano Polytechnic, Kano.
Modelling and mold design of a flange tube has been carried out. Proper application of CAD/CAM tools in manufacturing processes minimizes to a greater extent the production cost, lead time and delivers good quality products. CAD/CAM Pro/E software package was used in the creation of the part and the design and assembly of the mold for the created part. Two molds were created due to the complexity of the part to ease its manufacture. These were achieved based on the dimensions and specifications of both the blank and the finished drawings. Finally, NC machining simulation for the wax pattern injection mold cavity was done.
Keywords: CAD/CAM, Pro/E, Mold, NC Machining, MasterCam 4.0
LOAD BALANCING IMPROVEMENT IN VARIOUS USER DISTRIBUTION LTE ADVANCED HETNETS THROUGH A HYBRID CHANNEL-GAIN ACCESS-AWARE CELL SELECTION SCHEME
#AJAGBONNA BABATUNDE, ABDOULIE TEKANYI, MAN-YAHAYA, ALIYU GADAM
Department of Electrical and computer Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
Long Term Evolution (LTE)-Advanced Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets) deployment was introduced to address the increasing demand for Quality of Service (QoS), high data rates, and coverage extension. However, load balancing still remains a critical problem in HetNets. Adopting the conventional Reference Signal Receive Power (RSRP)-based cell selection in HetNets causes most user equipment (UE) to connect with the Macro eNodeBs (MeNBs) due to their higher transmit power as against that of the Pico eNodeBs (PeNBs), thus leading to serious load imbalance in HetNets. Therefore, this hybrid algorithm combined the channel gain-aware and the access-aware cell association metrics as a single metric for UE to base station association in LTE-Advanced HetNets deployment scenarios. The scenarios considered are the HetNets configuration 1 with uniform user distribution, which comprises of 4 PeNBs and 25 uniformly distributed UEs and configuration 4b of hotspot distribution, which comprises of 4 PeNBs and 30 UEs, two-third of which are clustered around the the PeNBs as defined by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standard. The developed Hybrid Channel Gain Access Aware (HCGAA) scheme improved load balancing performance by 25.4% and 12.1%, respectively compared with the 3GPP RSRP and RSRP +CRE cell selection. Also, an enhanced pico connection ratio of up to 1.40 times and 1.21 times that of the RSRP and RSRP +CRE cell selection schemes was achieved by the HCGAA algorithm. These improvements translate to the efficient utilization of the network resource and prevent crowding of certain cells in the network.
Keywords: Heterogeneous networks, LTE-Advanced, cell selection, load balancing, pico connection ratio, uniform and hotspot LTE configurations
ENZYME SYNTHESIS BY FERMENTATION METHOD: A REVIEW
- C. RENGE, S. V. KHEDKAR AND NIKITA R. NANDURKAR*
Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering and Technology, N.H. No. 6, Murtizapur Road, Bhabulgoan (JH), AKOLA – 444104 (M.S.) INDIA
Enzymes are proteins, which act as catalysts. Enzymes lower the energy required for a reaction to occur, without being used up in the reaction. Many types of industries, to aid in the generation of their products, utilize enzymes. Examples of these products are; cheese, alcohol and bread. Fermentation is a method of generating enzymes for industrial purposes. Fermentation involves the use of microorganisms, like bacteria and yeast to produce the enzymes. There are two methods of fermentation used to produce enzymes. These are submerged fermentation and solid-state fermentation. Submerged fermentation involves the production of enzymes by microorganisms in a liquid nutrient media. Solid-state fermentation is the cultivation of microorganisms, and hence enzymes on a solid substrate. Carbon containing compounds in or on the substrate are broken down by the microorganisms, which produce the enzymes either intracellular or extracellular. The enzymes are recovered by methods such as centrifugation, for extracellularly produced enzymes and lysing of cells for intracellular enzymes. Many industries are dependent on enzymes for the production of their goods. Industries that use enzymes generated by fermentation are the brewing, wine making, baking and cheese making.
Keywords: Enzyme, Fermentation, Solid state fermentation, Submerged fermentation.
APPLICATION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING: A REVIEW
1Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering, Federal, Polytechnic, Mubi, P.M.B, 35. Adamawa State 2Government Technical College, Karkarna. P.M.B 7087, Dutse. Jigawa State
Nanotechnology is an emerging field that covers a wide range of technologies which are presently under development in nanoscale. It plays a major role in the development of innovative methods to produce new products, to substitute existing production equipment and to reformulate new materials and chemicals with improved performance resulting in less consumption of energy and materials and reduced harm to the environment as well as environmental remediation. Although, reduced consumption of energy and materials benefits the environment, nanotechnology will give possibilities to remediate problems associated with the existing processes in a more sustainable way. Environmental applications of nanotechnology address the development of solutions to the existing environmental problems, preventive measures for future problems resulting from the interactions of energy and materials with the environment, and any possible risks that may be posed by nanotechnology itself. This paper gives a review on environmental remediation by nanotechnology. Various environmental treatments and remediation using different types of nano-structured material from air, contaminated waste water, ground water, surface and soil are discussed. Categories of nano participles studied include those which are based on titanium dioxide, iron, bimetallic, nanotubes, dentrimer, and nanosponges, magnetic and nanomembrane.
Keywords: environment, application, bimetallic, nanotechnology, materials.
ASSESSMENT OF AGEING EFFECT ON THE CIRCUIT BREAKERS OF IBEDC ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM RELIABILTY
TIJANI, B O*, OLADOSU, D A** & ASHIM, M O*
*Department of Electrical Engineering, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, ** Department of Computer Engineering, The Polytechnic, Ibadan.
Electric supply relies heavily on a number of conditions of operation of electric power equipment; hence this work investigates the performance of some old Circuit Beakers of Ibadan Electricity Distribution Company using availability as the indices of system reliability. The historical data as regards the operational and maintenance performance of the Circuit Breaker was gathered over a length of time and the data collected was tailored towards the calculation of the component’s availability and values obtained were then plotted as the variation of the reliability against the years. It was discovered that the system availability of circuit breakers decreased from close the standard value of between 0.9950 and 0.9999 to as low as 0.9050 over a period of ten (10) years, as for Dugbe and Molete business units, 50٪ of their circuit breaker are very old while there is a poor maintenance policy in Ojoo business unit. This is an indication that the old equipment breaks down very often and that the utility should adopt more effective maintenance policy to reduce the system down time. If not, the findings show that in the next decade most of the assets of the utility would enter their wear out period and will be due for replacement with huge financial and technical commitments.
Keywords: Ageing, Availability, Circuit Breaker, Equipment, Reliability.
A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE SPREAD OF TYPHOID FEVER INCORPORATING THE CARRIER COMPARTMENT.
ABDULLAH IDRIS ENAGI1, SULEIMAN AMINA SHAFII1, MOHAMMED OLANREWAJU IBRAHIM2, NINUOLA IFEOLUWA AKINWANDE1 AND MUSA BAWA3
1Department of Mathematics, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. 2Department of Mathematics, University of Illorin, Nigeria. 3Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Nigeria.
In this work, a mathematical model of Typhoid Fever was developed incorporating the effect of carriers on the spread. The population was divided into four compartments namely Susceptible, Infected, Carrier, and Recovered compartments. The stability analysis of the disease-free equilibrium and the Endemic Equilibrium states were carried out. The stability of the Endemic Equilibrium state implies that for as long as carriers exist in a population, Typhoid fever cannot be completely eradicated.
Keywords: Typhoid fever, Carries, Equilibrium state, Stability analysis.
HANDLING FRAGMENT ALLOCATION PROBLEM IN DISTRIBUTED DATABASE SYSTEMS USING CLUSTERING TECHNIQUE
* E. E. OGHENEOVO ** C. OKOYE
*Department of Computer Science, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. **Department of Computer Science, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
In this paper, an efficient technique for allocation of fragments to different sites on a network; in a distributed database system was proposed. The performance of a distributed database system is usually determined by the kind of design on which it was built, and the communication cost between the sites. Many researchers have been conducted in the area of finding the optimal technique for fragment allocation, but most of them have some constraints like: restriction on the number of network sites, too complex, impractical etc. Thus the clustering technique is applied for searching the best allocation solution for allocating data fragments and the placement of fragments of data on a network of computer nodes (sites) in order to minimize transactions communication cost, increase data availability and integrity, and minimize the transactions total response time is addressed. The network site clustering is done where sites are grouped in clusters. Each cluster composed of sites having comparable communication cost between the sites. After clustering, fragments are allocated to the clusters based on the allocation decision value; which was computed from the allocation cost functions. The results obtained shows remarkable improvement in response time, reduced costs, and increases data availability and integrity over existing works on data allocation in distributed databases.
Keywords: Fragment allocation, distributed database, clustering, genetic algorithm
INFLUENCE OF BODY NUTRIENTS AND AEROBIC EXPERTISE ON DESIRED BODY IMAGE AMONG ATHLETES IN LAPAI TOWNSHIP OF NIGER STATE.
MOHAMMED, M.S. (PH.D)
Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Faculty of Education and Arts, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University Lapai, Niger State.
The paper studied the influence of food nutrients and aerobic exercise on desired body image among students and adult players in Lapai township of Niger state. The study used data from stratified random sampling technique to select students and staff players who takes part in active sports from Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University Lapai and the staff of local government. A multi-stage sampling method was used to select staff from the local government, including married and unmarried. A total sample of 300 respondents were used from the population of 1,244. An instrument coined “Benefits of Aerobic Exercise Among Players” (BAEAP), was validated by three experts and test re-test method was used to obtain reliability of 0.79, which was found adoptable for the study. One research question and two hypotheses were formulated and the use of t-test statistical method was used to obtain the result of the study. The results proved that food nutrition is related to aerobic exercise and that aerobic exercise has a lot of benefits for athletes, including fat reduction, effective cardiovascular functions, reduction of chronic diseases and illnesses to mention a few. Conclusion and recommendations were presented in order to motivate athletes in participating in aerobic exercise to enhance their wellbeing.
Keywords: Body, Nutrients, Aerobic, Exercise, Athletes, Body Image.
FORECASTING ELECTION RESULTS USING THE LEAST SQUARE METHOD: THE APC BUHARIYYAH REGIME
*1 BAWA, M., 1 ADEWUYI, S. O., 2 ENAGI, A. I., 3 ABUBAKAR, B. & 4 WACHIKO, B.
1Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Nigeria 2Department of Mathematics, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria 3Department of Mathematics, Niger State College of Education, Minna 4Department of Primary Education, Niger State College of Education, Minna.
The subject of regression analysis concerns the study of relationship among variables for the purpose of constructing models for prediction and making other inferences. This research work develops a mathematical model equation that helps in forecasting election results using Least Square Regression. Data on 2015 Nigeria Presidential election results were sourced from the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) to validate the model and result revealed the global usefulness of the model with standard error of 49.46 and coefficient of determination 0.064. the equation of the fitted regression line is , with slope of -0.226.
Keywords: Buhariyyah, Using, Forecasting, Election, Square Method.