JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING & RESEARCH TECHNOLOGY (AJERT-2)


AFRICAN SCHOLARS JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING & RESEARCH TECHNOLOGY (AJERT-2)

VOL. 7 NO. 2 ISSN – 0127-8317



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies, University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.

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HYBRID RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEM FOR REMOTE AND RURAL ELECTRIFICATION DEVELOPMENT 

1ADAMU GARBA DALA & 2WAPERI ADZARI KAIGAMA

1,2Department of Physics Education, Federal College of Education (Technical), Potiskum, P.M.B. 1013, Potiskum, Yobe State

ABSTRACT

Despite the fact that energy plays a crucial role in any nations’ technological and socio-economic development; about two billion people across the globe who predominantly live in remote and rural areas have no access to electricity supply. The global energy development has been largely driven by fossil energy which is associated with environmental problems and resource constraints. These necessitated the use of renewable energy for power system. However, due to erratic nature of renewable energy, energy storage system is integrated into hybrid power system for mitigating renewable energy intermittency. The present study focuses on optimal sizing of wind, solar and compressed air energy hybrid power system from hourly wind speed, solar irradiation data and electric power demand from a particular location. The performance of the system was investigated using power balance analysis to enable finding approximate solutions of the system. A case study model is used to validate the optimisation method with respect to the input design parameters and variables. The design parameters were analysed in order to investigate their effect on the overall performance of the system. The study revealed that high wind resource with high solar profile can generate power to satisfy daily average load demand. The study recommends among others that government should provide enough funds for renewable energy projects and encourage local, national and international investors to partake in renewable energy development. 

Keywords: Hybrid Renewable Energy System, Compressed Air Energy System, Remote Rural Electrification, Optimization, Electrical Energy Storage System

 

 

MODELING AND SIMULATION OF A FLANGE TUBE USING CAD/CAM TOOLS

1,MUSA ALHAJI IBRAHIM, 1SAIDU BELLO ABUBAKAR, 2MUSTAPHA MUKHTAR USMAN, 1ABDULRAHMAN AHMED SHUAIBU

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Technology, Kano Polytechnic, Kano

ABSTRACT

Modelling and mold design of a flange tube has been carried out. Proper application of CAD/CAM tools in manufacturing processes minimizes to a greater extent the production cost, lead time and delivers good quality products. CAD/CAM Pro/E software package was used in the creation of the part and the design and assembly of the mold for the created part. Two molds were created due to the complexity of the part to ease its manufacture. These were achieved based on the dimensions and specifications of both the blank and the finished drawings. Finally, NC machining simulation for the wax pattern injection mold cavity was done. 

Keywords: CAD/CAM, Pro/E, Mold, NC Machining, MasterCam 4.0

 

 

CURBING NATIONAL SECURITY CHALLENGES IN NIGERIA THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF INTERNET OF THINGS (IOT)

SAMAILA DANIEL HASSAN,1 ELIJAH DAVID KURE2, ZAYANU NUHU3, KUJORE OPEYEMI EMMANUEL4,  

2,4 Computer Engineering Technology Department, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic Zaria 1,3Electrical/Electronics Engineering Technology Department, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic Zaria

ABSTRACT

In our today’s Information Technology (IT) industry, Imagine a world where billions of objects can sense, communicate and share information, all interconnected over public or private Internet Protocol (IP) networks. These interconnected objects have data regularly collected, analysed and used to initiate action, providing a wealth of intelligence for planning, management and decision making. This is the world of the Internet of Things (IoT). The security of lives and property is the key issue to be looked upon with keen interest by both Nigerian government and the populace, because a nation without adequate security of lives and property is a nation heading to doom. The security threat from different sects and groups to the nation is daily on the increase. This paper focuses on the application of this technology the Internet of Things (IoT) in curbing the security challenges in Nigeria.

Keywords: Information Technology, Security, Internet Protocol, Objects, Network.

 

 

A CRITICAL REVIEW OF THE MICROSTRUCTURE, POWDER CHARACTERISTICS AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ALSI10MG ALLOY PROCESSING BY SELECTIVE LASER MELTING PROCESS (SLM) 

WOLI T. O., OGUNDELE S. O & IBRAHIM T. O 

Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

This paper reviews the selective laser melting process of the alloys particularly ALsi10mg to understand the effects of laser processing and powder properties on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the manufactured part. Automobile and Aerospace industries are the key players in the application of Aluminum and its alloys due to their suitable properties. ALsi10mg is a suitable cast alloy with great strength, weldability and other mechanical properties that are good. Meanwhile, processing ALsi10mg powder by selective laser melting poses some difficulty due their high reflective and conductive properties coupled with the surface oxide films present in the powders. Findings reveal that the hydrogen porosity in the alloy can be reduced, achieving a pore density of 90% by internal drying by laser.  The hydrogen pores present in the powder due to moisture on the surface and the oxygen contained in the substrate can be reduced by drying the powder. External powder drying by 200 degrees Celsius reduced hydrogen pores by approximately 50%. Porosity absence in the alloy using single tracks and layers were achieved. The most influential process parameters on parts produced by selective laser melting are laser power, scan speed, and scan spacing. The fine microstructure observed in the core of the melt pools was due to rapid cooling.  Mechanical properties of parts manufactured by selective layer melting surpass that of casting.

Keywords:  selective laser melting; aluminium alloys; microstructure; porosity; mechanical properties, alloy

 

MAXIMALLY FLAT RESPONSE MICROWAVE FILTER DESIGN

MUHAMMAD, S.YAHYA1, NORHUDAH SEMAN2, ABUBAKAR

SALISU3

1Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi State- Nigeria 2Wireless Communication Centre (WCC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia 3Modibbo Adama University of Technology, YolaAdamawa Sate Nigeria

ABSTRACT

This paper presents the design of a microstrip low pass filter (LPF) with cutoff frequency of 1.5 GHz. The LPF was designed to have maximally flat response and attenuation of 20dB at 3 GHz using lumped elements. The corresponding step impedance of the LPF was also implemented. The low pass filter protype designed using insertion loss method was scaled and transformed to a band pass filter with pass band range of 5GHz to 8GHz. The response of the band pass filter shows that it satisfied the design objective. The circuits were designed and simulated using Advanced Design System (ADS) software.

Keywords: low pass,stepped impedance filter, band pass flter.

 

 

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF BURNING CHARACTERISTIC OF SOME SELECTED MAJOR AGRICULTURAL WASTE IN YOBE STATE, NIGERIA

1MUSA AHMED JATTO, 2ISA GARBA, 1HAMMAJAN ABBA ALHAJI, 1USMAN KALLAMU MAIJAMA’A

1Depatment of mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bayero University Kano, Kano State, Nigeria

ABSTRACT

One of the most challenging tasks facing Nigeria, just like other developing countries, is finding a means of expanding its energy services especially to the rural households, the epileptic power supply from National grid and at the same time addressing the health and environmental consequences of over dependence on firewood for cooking. The study was undertaken to investigate the comparison of burning characteristics of some selected commonly biomass waste found within Yobe state, wastes from rice husk, millet husk, groundnut shell, melon shell and corn cob were prepared into Briquettes. Proximate analysis was carried out to determine the following combustion related properties of the briquette produced, Ash content, Percentage fixed carbon, Percentage volatile matter and Heating value. The results shows that heating values of the waste sample are 18724 KJ/kg, 18528 KJ/kg, 19480 KJ/kg, 18521 KJ/kg and 22120 KJ/kg for rice husk, groundnut shell, corn cob, millet husk and melon shell respectively. From the foregoing, it is envisaged that industries that use their waste biomass for energy simultaneously would solve a waste disposal problem and save money on their Energy needs. Water Boiling Test (WBT) was also carried out to test the performance of all the fuels at ambient temperature and standard pressure. Test results show the burning rate of briquette fuel of melon shell, corn cob, groundnut, rice husk and millet husk were on increasing orders respectively. It was concluded that stable briquettes could be formed from waste biomass of rice husk, groundnut shell, melon shell, maize cob and millet husk mixed with cassava starch.

Keywords: Agricultural wastes, Briquettes, Combustion properties, boiling test, Boiling rate

 

 

ENERGY SECTOR REFORM PRACTICE TOWARD BETTER NIGERIA: MYTH OR REALITY

UMAR MOHAMMED1, IBRAHIM MUHAMMAD HARRAM2 & ADAMU HASSAN DAYA3

1&2 Department of Electrical& Electronics Engineering Technology, The Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu, Yobe State 3Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering Technology, Mai Idriss Alooma  Polytechnic, Geidami, Yobe State

ABSTRACT

It is hard to resist the temptation to talk about the crises of the Nigerian energy sector in a gathering of our engineers which is meant to address some of our pressing national problems. This is because whatever one may stay of our engineers today, the probably remain our only hope toward our rapid technological development. Unfortunately in the recent year, the Nigerian energy sector not only decline but is also about to collapse. This is a hard truth which cannot be denied or covered up simply because someone has to Nigerians to shut up and continue praising their leaders, whether or not they have performed. But by this paper is not about the leaders and their failure even though this is a matter which will feature in all honest assessment of our various sector of the development for the few decades. The main concern of this paper is to raise some question on our energy sector. It is frightening to hear that the federal government has spend the total sum of N521 billion (M. N. Alkali, 2007) on power sector while total generation capacity dropped from the installed capacity of 5200MW to 1750MW.The total demand for Nigeria was 6000MW. A further shocking revelation was that, only 19 out of 79 (Gulama 2007) installed generation until where in operation; it will also bring about suggestion after this paper whether energy sector reform practices in Nigeria a myth or reality.

Keywords:  Energy sector, Reform practice, Myth or Reality, Vision 2020.

 

 

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF ADUWA (BALANITE AEGYPTIACA) OIL USED AS A BRAKE FLUID IN MECHANICAL BRAKE SYSTEM. 

DANLADI ISMAILA

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Adamawa State Polytechnic

Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria

ABSTRACT

The Hydraulic properties of Aduwa Oil and Dot 3 hydraulic fluid were determined experimentally using appropriate equipment and devices. The hydraulic properties of Aduwa Oil are; Viscosity at 40 ºC and 100 ºC are 168.23 cst and 16.15 cst flash point is 190 ºC, Compressibility is 1562 Mpa, PH value is 8.5, Boiling point is 68 ºC, Pour point is – 35 ºC, Actuating force is 3060N and torque absorbed is 306Nm. Whereas the hydraulic properties of Dot 3 hydraulic fluid are; Viscosity at 40 ºC and 100 ºC are 132 cst and 10.2 cst, flash point is 301 ºC, Compressibility is 1700 Mpa, PH value is 7.4, boiling point is 186 ºC, pour point is – 50 ºC, actuating force is 1830 N and torque absorbed is 183 Nm. Our investigation on the hydraulic properties of Aduwa Oil reveals that properties like pour point, PH value and flash point satisfied the requirement by ISO standard for hydraulic fluid, hence more work is needed to be done on viscosity, compressibility and boiling point of the oil under investigation.

Keywords: Flashpoint, viscosity, pour point, actuating force.

 

LOAD BALANCING IMPROVEMENT IN VARIOUS USER DISTRIBUTION LTE ADVANCED HET-NETS THROUGH A HYBRID CHANNEL-GAIN ACCESS-AWARE CELL SELECTION SCHEME

AJAGBONNA BABATUNDE, ABDOULIE TEKANYI, MAN-YAHAYA, ALIYU GADAM

Department of Electrical and computer Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

ABSTRACT

Long Term Evolution (LTE)-Advanced Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets) deployment was introduced to address the increasing demand for Quality of Service (QoS), high data rates, and coverage extension. However, load balancing still remains a critical problem in HetNets. Adopting the conventional Reference Signal Receive Power (RSRP)-based cell selection in HetNets causes most user equipment (UE) to connect with the Macro eNodeBs (MeNBs) due to their higher transmit power as against that of the Pico eNodeBs (PeNBs), thus leading to serious load imbalance in HetNets. Therefore, this hybrid algorithm combined the channel gain-aware and the access-aware cell association metrics as a single metric for UE to base station association in LTE-Advanced HetNets deployment scenarios. The scenarios considered are the HetNets configuration 1 with uniform user distribution, which comprises of 4 PeNBs and 25 uniformly distributed UEs and configuration 4b of hotspot distribution, which comprises of 4 PeNBs and 30 UEs, two-third of which are clustered around the the PeNBs as defined by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standard. The developed Hybrid Channel Gain Access Aware (HCGAA) scheme improved load balancing performance by 25.4% and 12.1%, respectively compared with the 3GPP RSRP and RSRP +CRE cell selection. Also, an enhanced pico connection ratio of up to 1.40 times and 1.21 times that of the RSRPand RSRP +CRE cell selection schemes was achieved by the HCGAA algorithm. These improvements translate to the efficient utilization of the network resource and prevent crowding of certain cells in the network.

Index Terms—Heterogeneous networks, LTE-Advanced, cell selection, load balancing, pico connection ratio, uniform and hotspot LTE configurations

MODELLING OF SEMI-INTEGRATED (TEXT & IMAGES) DATA ENCRYPTION SYSTEM

IBRAHIM MUHAMMAD HARRAM1, UMAR MOHAMMED2 AND TERAB M. ALI3

1&2 Department of Electrical& Electronics Engineering Technology, the Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu, Yobe State 3Department of Computer Engineering, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State.

ABSTRACT

Data encryption is the process of transforming or coding electronic information into scrambled form that can only be read by someone who knows how to translate the code. It finds application in the business world as it is the earliest and most practical method of protecting data that must be processed, or transmitted electronically. In recent times, this practice continues to get wide acceptance as wireless, wired, and optical communication networks are able to transport unimaginable amounts of data. Hence the privacy of information and security of the network are of the utmost concern. This study is based on the modelling of a computer oriented semi-integrated encryption program, using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) that can process both text and image data. A brief historical development of data encryption is presented and the basic terminologies are explained. The experimental results shows that the model is successfully realized and it has been found to be indispensable in eradicating challenges posed by modern digital communication where data privacy, security and integrity are very vital priorities.

Keywords:  Cryptography, Text/ Image Encryption, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), Semi-Integration, Vb.net.

 

 

THE APPLICATION OF RIDGE REGRESSION DIAGONASTIC METHOD WITH ROBUST ESTIMATION AS A REMEDY FOR MULTICOLLINEARITY CAUSED BY HIGH LEVERAGE POINTS

BELLO ABDULKADIR RASHEED A* AND SAGIR MAHMOOD B

a, bDepartment of Mathematics and Statistics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria

ABSTRACT

For generation, statistics practitioners have been depending on the ordinary least squares (OLS) method in the linear regression model because of its optimal properties and simplicity of calculation. However the (OLS) estimators can be strongly affected by the existence of multicollinearity which is a near linear dependency between two or more independent variables in the regression model. Even though in the presence of multicollinearity the OLS estimate still remained unbiased, they will be inaccurate prediction about the dependent variable with the inflated standard errors of the estimated parameter coefficient of the regression model. It is now evident that the existence of high leverage points which are the outliers in x-direction are the prime factor of collinearity influential observations. In this study, we proposed some alternative to regression methods for estimating the regression parameter coefficient in the presence of multiple high leverage points which cause the multicollinearity problem. This procedure utilized the ordinary least squares estimates of the parameter as the initial followed by an estimate of the ridge regression. Here, we incorporated the Least Trimmed Squares (LTS) robust regression estimate to downweight the effects of multiple high leverage points which lead to the reduction of the effects of multicollinearity. The result seemed to suggest that the RLTS give a substantial improvement over the Ridge Regression.

Keywords: Multicollinearity, Outlier, Ridge Regression, Robust Regression

 

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