Harvard International Journal of Humanities and Social Science (HIJHSS)
Vol.10 (4) June, 2019 Editions ISSN: 0017 – 8242
HARVARD RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL,
Harvard College, 86 Brattle Street Cambridge,
Africa (Nigeria) Contact Conference Coordinator;
Centre for African Development Studies,
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Copyright © 2019 Harvard Research and Publications International
IMPACT OF BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN MAIDUGURI METROPOLIS, BORNO STATE
1IBRAHIM BABA FIKA (PH. D) 2COMFORT JAUNI ABAH
1Department of Education, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria 2Women Education Unit, Teaching Service Board, Borno State, Nigeria
The study was designed to determine the impact of Boko Haram Insurgency on the socio-economic development of senior secondary schools students’ educational development in Maiduguri Metropolitan Council (MMC) Nigeria. The study was guided by three objectives: to identify the root cause of Boko Haram insurgency in Maiduguri Metropolitan Council (MMC), to determine the extent to which the public, religious leaders, traditional rulers, stakeholders and politicians created awareness on the ills of Boko Haram insurgency to the citizens and establish the Socio-Economic Wastage of Secondary School students in Maiduguri Metropolitan Council (MMC) in Borno State. Three (3) research questions were answered. Descriptive survey research design was used. The population of the study comprised of three thousand eight hundred and twenty four (3824) students while a sample of three hundred and fifty one (351) students were used in this study. A self-developed questionnaire and a proforma were used in data collection. Bar-chart was used for data presentation while frequency counts and simple percentages were used for data analysis. Results of the study revealed that religious extremism, poverty, illiteracy and lack of parental care are the root causes of Boko Haram Insurgency and Boko Haram insurgency greatly affected the socio-economic development of schools. The study recommended that Government should monitor religious preachers to ensure religious extremist are not given room to cause chaos.
Keywords: Economics, Impact, Secondary, Insurgency Development
THE FALLACY OF NIGERIAN FEDERALISM AND THE SEARCH FOR NATIONAL UNITY: LEGITIMACY AND THE PROBLEM OF NATIONAL IDENTITY
ABDULRAHMAN DANGANA LUKMAN
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
The area now known as Nigeria came into existence with effective British occupation after a series of efforts at pacification and conquest. Being characterized as a vast country with little tradition of unity, with people of different historical, racial, cultural and religious backgrounds, with special problems of communalism, regionalism, lingualism and casteism, and different social customs and differing concepts of law and society; a federal system was adopted to integrate the diverse groups of Nigeria. The arrangement is expected to be instrumental in forging national unity and preserving the separate social identities of the country. Paradoxically, while the political system continues to operate with minimum cohesion, ethnic mistrust and minority problems increasingly weakens the fabrics of Nigerian federalism. This paper however interrogates the trajectories of federalism and national unity in Nigeria. It adopts the Group Theory of politics which assumes that, society and the entire political process are nothing but a gigantic network of interacting groups where each group remains engaged in perpetual struggle for power and domination. The study adopts the quantitative research method for proper analysis. Findings reveal that, even though various measures were set up for the purpose of reconciliation of aggrieved groups; corruption, nepotism and tribal loyalty hindered the adherence to the basic principles of federalism in Nigeria. There have been accusations and counter accusations from all sections of the polity as to how powers are being distributed or how they ought to be distributed. As the country is still searching for national identity, federalism is thus threatened by both centripetal and centrifugal tendencies. The study recommends that, all stakeholders should reflects upon the appropriate federal system applicable to Nigeria and Nigerians; ensure the establishment of effective institutional frameworks; establish a system of sharing power and avert crisis associated with unequal distribution of power and resources.
Keywords: Fallacy of Federalism, Nigerian Federalism, National Unity, Legitimacy and National Identity.
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES AND THE ROLE OF THIRD PARTY IN MANAGING CONFLICT IN COMPLEX ORGANIZATIONS
PROFESSOR THEOPHILUS DANIEL LAGI AND ABDULLAHI BASHIR IDRIS
Department of Sociology, Nasarawa State University, Keffi
Conflict Management has been an area of interest in complex organizations for over the past decades. This is so because organizations have become more polarized with diversity of interest from the individual and group level which often leads to conflict. Since conflict is inescapable, it becomes imperative for it to be properly managed. Conflict management implies integration of all factors which can contribute to the prevention and resolution of conflict which involves the processes of reducing the negative and destructive capacity of conflict through a number of measures by working parties involved in that conflict. The study analyse the conflict management strategies such as integration, obliging, avoiding, dominating, compromise, negotiation and the role of third party in managing conflict in complex Organizations. The conflict management strategies are model aimed at assisting conflicting parties to reach agreement and determine the condition for settlement. In spite of the seeming criticism of Neo Marxist Conflict Theory, it was adopted because of it ability to explain the conflict situation in complex organizations. As a descriptive type of study, the study utilizes secondary sources of data from textbooks, Seminar Papers, and Journals. From the literature reviewed, the study discovered that all the conflict management strategies and the third party role are effective in managing conflict in different ways in organizations. However, the study recommends that since conflict is an integral part of work organization, the government and stakeholders should encourage the utilization of conflict management strategies and third party role in dealing with conflict situations.
Keywords: Conflict, Organization, Managing, Strategies, Complex
TEACHER PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL: AN EFFECTIVE TOOL FOR TEACHER PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT IN EDUCATION
BASHAR, SA’ADU ISA
Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria.
It is an indisputable fact that no educational institution can rise above the level of performance of its teaching staff that serve and remain as the overall technocrats of the institution. To manage the teachers’ performance effectively for the production of high-skilled technical manpower that would develop the nation in all facets of life, school managers must embrace Teacher Performance Appraisal system promptly. Teacher Performance Appraisal is a process that involves a systematic and periodic assessment of teacher’s job performance and productivity in the school in relation to certain pre-established criteria and school’s objectives. It is done with the aim of distinguishing more efficient teachers from the less efficient ones. It is also done in order to make decisions concerning the teachers’ salary, their promotion, training and development as well as to discriminate among the strength and weaknesses that the teachers have across many teaching job elements. The main thrust of this paper is to make a vivid elaboration on the concept of Teacher Performance Appraisal, Performance Appraisal Process, Performance Appraisal Techniques and factors affecting effective Performance Appraisal of teachers such as use of varying standards, recency effects, primacy effects, and central tendency. To enhance effective teacher performance appraisal in a technology-driven educational institutions, the paper recommends that a rater must use the same standards and weights in assessing every teacher, a rater should ensure proper documentation of both positive and negative attitudes of the teacher, a rater should avoid bias when assessing any of the teachers, and that a rater needs to be well trained on how to carry out the appraisal system. If all these are effected staff performances would be effectively appraised and managed.
Keywords: Teacher, Performance, Appraisal, Management, Education.
HIV/AIDS SCOURGE IN NIGERIA; IT’S IMPACT ON THE NIGERIA ECONOMY
ADEOYE JACOB AND OHIOMAH SIMEON SULEMAN
Humanities and Social Sciences Department, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi.
HIV/AIDS has the potential to create severe economic impact in many African states particularly Nigeria, prevailing more on people in their productive age. The paper set out to critically review the causes of this dreaded disease against the background of environmental influence on the economy. Several factors such as transfusion of blood infected from one person to another has been identified as the cause of this dreaded disease resulting in reduction of the labour force, productivity of labour and unemployment. The study showed that in 2013 about 4,077,663 people were tested and counseled and out of this number about 267,834 tested positive to AIDS. The paper recommend an enhance prevention, care and mitigation programs with a view to protecting the country’s future development prospects.
Keywords: Blood, Dreaded, Mortality, Transfusion, unemployment
ENTHRONMENT OF DEMOCRACY A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE 2011 NIGERIA PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION AND 2008 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION
MGBONYEBI VOKE CHARLES
Department Of Political Science, College Of Education, Agbor
The paper examines the Enthronement of Democracy. A comparative analysis of the 2011 Nigeria Presidential Election and 2008 United States of America Presidential Election. The study compares the nature of the electoral process and the conduct of elections in Nigeria. It notes that the Nigerian elections fell far short of global democratic standards by way of their conduct and the elections. The study equally argues that the U.S. presidential election of 2008 is full of vital lessons of Nigeria democracy since we claim to practice the American-style presidential system. It identifies various inconsistencies between the two presidential systems in their political and electoral system. While the U.S operates two party system (with multiple fringe parties and independent candidacy with a combination of the collegiate single transferable vote and winner-take-all electoral systems at the primaries and general elections. Nigeria operates multiparty that is not properly defined) with simple majority electoral system in all elections. The study also notes that, while the majority use in the U.S. congress through filibuster there is the majority without the rule (as it is in Nigeria National assembly where trial and ethnic sentiments hold sway. This paper identifies five important issues of interest from the U.S election of 2008. These are the importance of politics of ideology, the imperative of a transparent process, the benefit of free and fair election, the need to conduct a smooth transition of power. The study therefore concludes that unless the political class in Nigeria changes its political orientation and implies the tenets, consistent with democratic rule, the electoral process will continue to be subverted.
Keywords: Blood, Dreaded, Mortality, Transfusion, unemployment
BETWEEN THE EXPRESSION OF ‘FANDOM’ AND EXPERTISE: THE QUESTION OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE AFFECTS
ADEDEJI, ISIAKA ADETOKUNBO
Department of English, School of Secondary Education (Language Programmes), Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo, Nigeria
The premise which encompasses the body of principle and theory that appraise through the instrumentality of language is evaluative semantics of which affect takes a form. This study is based on the interpersonal communicative functions through the employment of the letter genre and employs the theory of affect as a discourse parameter to outlay and explain how the expression of ‘fandom’ and or ‘expertise’ is arrived at through lexico-grammatical markers identified with correspondents. Two texts (letters) taken from the Letters-to-editor pages of the Nigerian newspapers, The Guardian and The Nation are considered for the analysis. In a situation where, of course, everybody is entitled to his opinion and is ready to give a defense through deployment of affects, it then holds that our evaluation of someone, or some idea may vary according to the people we are talking to. These shifts tend to suggest that our evaluative beliefs do not really matter, and that they are fully determined by ‘our desire to please, seduce, contradict or attack our interlocutors of the moment’. The extent to which a writer interacts through the print media to show his negative or positive emotion towards a subject matter is what this study wishes to establish. Given that ‘Psychoanalysis teaches us that human desire is deeply modified by social censorship’, this study concludes that evaluation is precisely one of the ways in which culture gives a shape to our affects.
Keywords: Evaluative Semantics, Affect, Letter, Newspaper, Fandom
MARXIST THEORY OF THE STATE: PANACEA FOR ADDRESSING SOCIAL CONFLICT IN NIGERIA
*INUWA ABDU IBRAHIM, **HUSSEINI ADAMU HUSSEINI, *SULAIMAN SHEHU, *Nasiru Salisu
*Department of Public Administration, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi **Department of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi
Addressing social conflict in Third World Countries like Nigeria has remained a source of apathy, unrests and general underdevelopment in such societies. This paper is a qualitative attempt at assessing the Marxist theory of the state as a possible panacea for Nigeria as it relates to social conflict of class. Secondary sources of data were utilized for the study. As part of its findings; the characteristics of the Third World states due to their under-developed nature under the metropolitan patronage of international capital lack the autonomy for economic development and the Nigerian state has successively inherited public policies development from liberalist international capital, which ensures continued denial of citizen’s right to basic and fundamental amenities. It is the recommendation of this paper that Nigeria as well as other Third World states must as a matter of principle adopt this (Marxist theory of state) guiding principle to ensuring the basic needs of the people, such as water, housing, electricity, and affordable health care, etc. The Nigerian state must be philosophical as well as realistic in handling public affairs to achieve “good life” for the majority.
Keywords: Capitalism, Governance, Nigeria, Social Conflict, and Theory of State
NARRATIVES ON INDIGENOUS PEOPLE OF BIAFRA IN SELECT NIGERIAN NEWSPAPERS: A CRITICAL DISCOURSE STUDY
ABATI, OLUWASEUN MOBOLAJI*; ONIFADE, OLUWAFEMI SUNDAY** AND FASAANU, BOLANLE OLUBUSAYO***
*Department of Mass Communication, Federal Polytechnic Ilaro, **Department of Mass Communication, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi ***Postgraduate student, Babcock University Ilishan-Remo)
This study explores the perennial tension among the major ethnic groups and regions in Nigeria. It examines the interplay between ethnicity and politics in the media arena using the narratives on the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) as a reference point. The study is based upon the assumptions of agenda setting and framing theories. The study adopted a qualitative design for its investigation of the research problem with Critical Discourse Analysis as the specific methodology. The population of the study were news stories, columns, features and editorials written on the Indigenous people of Biafra in Daily Trust, The Sun and Nigerian Tribune newspapers. Findings from the study show that the ethnicity of the publisher as well as the geographical location of the publication affects the framing of ethnic power relations. Daily Trust is anti-IPOB and The Sun is pro-IPOB. However, Nigerian Tribune provides a middle ground between the narratives used by Daily Trust and The Sun newspapers. It concludes that the leadership of the newspapers are not fully accountable to the general public because their narratives are often biased in relation to the sectional interests of the owners.
Keywords: IPOB, Critical Discourse Analysis, Nigerian Newspapers, Power relations and Ethnic Politics.
TEACHERS’ DEMANDS AND MANAGEMENT OF PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN THE NORTH CENTRAL STATES OF NIGERIA: AN ANALYTIC VIEW
Department of Educational Foundations, College of Education, P.M.B 1021 Zing, Taraba State.
The paper discusses the concept ‘teachers’ demands’ as the needs of the teachers that is fought for through industrial actions. The paper examines the roles of the teachers in teaching and learning process in relation to primary education. The paper contends that if teachers’ demands are not met, there would be problems of laxity and indiscipline in the school and work would be left undone and the set goals of the primary school would be unachievable. The paper concludes that stakeholders in education should rise to speak with one voice to condemn the treacherous act committed against primary education by the governments in the North central states of Nigeria. The paper recommends that a law should be put in place to abolish all private primary schools, which their existence has resulted to the total neglect of public schools. Also, all political office holders should not be allowed to send their wards outside the country to school but be compelled to send their children to government public schools. This will re-direct the attention of the government to do what is right and just to the teachers, lift the standard of the public school and build confidence in the people.
Keywords: Teachers’ demands, school managers, primary education, goals of education, school children.
THE EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP STYLE ON THE MOTIVATION OF WORKERS IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR
*TIJANI SULEMAN OLATUNJI AND **MOMOH, AILENOGHENA KARIM
*Department of Humanities and Social Science, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi **Department of Business Administration and Mgt., Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi.
The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of leadership style on the motivation of workers in the public sector. A sample size of 100 was used from one private organization in Selangor, Nigeria using convenience sampling technique. The study used quantitative approaches, and a questionnaire was designed. A five-point Likert scale questionnaire was used to determine the impact of leadership style on employee performance. SPSS software was used in analysing the questionnaires. Descriptive statistics show that the most significant value associated with employee performance is democratic leadership style followed by laissez-faire leadership style and autocratic leadership style. Democratic leadership style has the highest mean value corresponding to 3.784 and standard deviation value of 0.8124, laissez-faire leadership style scores the second highest mean value corresponding to 3.416 and standard deviation value of 0.5858, and autocratic leadership style has the lowest mean value corresponding to 3.404 and standard deviation value of 0.7330 indicating that autocratic leadership style is poorly correlated with employee performance. Regression coefficient analysis shows that there is a significant and positive impact of democratic and laissez-faire leadership styles on employee performance. Autocratic leadership style beta coefficient value is -0.168 with a significant value of 0.025 which is higher than 0.01, hence autocratic leadership is found to have a negative significant impact on employee performance.
Keywords: Leadership, Style, Motivation, Workers, Public Sector
THE NATIONAL LANGUAGE QUESTION: THE SOLUTION IN VIEW
ODEKUNBI SUNDAY KEHINDE
The College of Education, Lanlate, Oyo State, Nigeria.
It is no longer news that the agitation of most Nigerian linguists is for the country to have her own indigenous national language. They believe that the benefits therein are enormous. While some, making reference to some countries, are of the opinion that we have to be radical about it, some, considering some salient factors associate themselves to the gradualist approach. However, for some socio-political ethnic and religious reasons, all efforts made so far to evolve one have been futile. The aim of this paper is therefore to join other scholars who have contributed to the debate with the objectives of reviewing some of the individual proposals that have been suggested and governmental efforts made towards evolving a truly Nigerian national language as well as considering the strengths and weaknesses of these proposals. We, at the end, contend that, particularly, for ethno-political reasons, English should be allowed to stay as our official language in Nigeria; however, it can be given a Nigerian face to accommodate our socio-cultural and linguistic peculiarities. It is our belief that researchers working on the issues of national language/ Nigerian English will find this paper very resourceful.
Keywords: National Language, indigenous language, radical approach, gradualist approach, Nigerian English
THE TRAUMATIC EFFECT OF STREETISM IN AFRICA: A STUDY OF AMMA DARKO’S FACELESS AND UWEM AKPAN’S AN EXMAS FEAST
ENYERIBE, BEVERLY C.
Department of Humanities, Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri.
This paper attempts an explication of how African narratives, represented by Amma Darko’s FACELESS and Uwem Akpan’s AN X-MAS FEAST, have responded to the phenomenal crisis of streetism on the African continent. Both texts reflect the unfortunate social malaise in most developing countries in Africa. Through a qualitative study which has as its framework, Postcolonial theory and Trauma theory, the paper asserts that streetism is a canker that is fast becoming the norm in metropolitan and urban environments. From East to West, North and South, the story is the same – poverty, parental neglect, governmental indifference which leads to the creation of ghettos, slums where children are exposed to the worst forms of dehumanizing conditions and as a result of this they become traumatized. The paper’s argument is that trauma narratives are necessary if the victims are to experience healing as Caruth maintains that imaginative literature – or figural, rather than literal language – can ‘speak’ trauma when normal, discursive language cannot, and fiction helps give a voice to traumatized individuals and populations. Hence, her theory of trauma is a ringing endorsement of the testimonial power of literature. Consequently, when disorder and incoherence prevail, narratives are used to rebuild the individual’s shattered sense of identity and meaning.
Keywords: Postcolonial Theory, Streetism, Trauma, Trauma Narratives, Trauma Theory
الشيخ جعفر أحمد وإسهاماته في تطوّر اللغة العربية
كلية أحمد الرفاعي للقانون والدراسات الإسلامية والعربية, ميسو-ولاية بوتشي، نيجيريا.
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على أشرف المرسلين.
يهدف هذا البحث إلى عرض بعض الإسهامات التي قام بها الشيخ جعفر أحمد في تطور اللغة العربية ويحاول البحث الإشارة إلى كتابين اللذين ألفهما الشيخ مع عرضهما للمنصات والمسارح الأكاديمية لإفادة الباحثين وتشويقهم إلى تلك الإسهامات؛ فما تناوله الباحثان عن هذه الشخصية قليلا من كثير، وكما يرى الباحثان أن المادة الدراسية في إسهامات هذه
لشخصية حصبة صالحة للبحث والدراسة.
وانطلاقا من هذا قسّم الباحث هذا العمل إلى النقاط التالية:
- نبذة يسيرة عن حياة الشيخ جعفر أحمد
- إسهاماته في تطور علم اللغة العربية
- عرض موجز لإسهاماته اللغوية
- قائمة المصادر والمراجع.
Keywords: وإسهاماته ,تطوّر
العربية ,أحمد ,الشيخ
AN EVALUATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE
*MOHAMMED ALHAJI YUSUF **SANI MUSTAPHA KURA ***DANJUMA ABUBAKAR UMAR
*Department of Business Education, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri **Department of Social Work, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri ***Department of Industrial & labour Relations, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri
Organizational performance is getting more and more significant, especially in a market with greater competition and self-motivated. Organizational performance is measured through different indicators. It guarantees the continuity of the organization to be competitive in a global marketplace. Normally, the implementation of performance indicators achieved through human resources. Human resources are the key for keeping the organization in the market so competitive. These human resources need to be managed effectively to achieve the required performance of the organization. It is necessary to manage strategically the human resources and to adapt at its strategy with organizational strategy. The aim of this study is focused on the influence of the strategic management of human resource in achieving organizational performance. This study was conducted based on primary and secondary sources. How much organizations appear competitive in the market through achieving the performance indicators? How important is the management of human resources in accomplishing organizational performance? So, through the skills, behaviors and attitudes would be expected by human resources to achieve the required performance in the organization.
Keywords: Strategic HRM, organizational performance, effective management, HR outcomes.