Harvard International Journal of Environmental Design and Construction Management (HIJECM)
Vol.10 (3) June, 2019 Editions ISSN: 0378 – 3349
HARVARD RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL,
Harvard College, 86 Brattle Street Cambridge,
Africa (Nigeria) Contact Conference Coordinator;
Centre for African Development Studies,
Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, FCT, Nigerian.
firstname.lastname@example.org +234 (0) 802 5604 997.
Copyright © 2019 Harvard Research and Publications International
PLEASE CONTACT US FOR THE FULL MANUSCRIPTS.
A REVIEW ON GROUND GRANULATED BLAST FURNACE SLAG CEMENT: THE NIGERIAN CASE.
GANA.A.J & ALADEGBOYE .O.J & ONI EBENEZER .O.S
Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering Landmark University, Omu–Aran , Kwara state.
In Nigeria, and in other Countries of the world, concrete and steel structures are mostly used in the construction of different structures, such as Dams, Bridges, residential buildings, commercial buildings, schools, Health centre’s, Airports, and other related structures. The major constituents in the construction of concrete and steel structures are cement, aggregates, water and even in some cases the application of additives for special purposes as well as different types of steel structures. In Nigeria, not only the most expensive construction materials, but also with high scarcity and by product of steel production materials even in the local market have made it difficult for concrete structures to be built. Presently there are many cement factories in the country that produces million tons of cement for use, and there is no doubt that the country need more cement and steel supplies either produced locally or imported from the international market.However, in Nigeria, cement and steel production are not simple tasks as they require not only huge initial investments, but also very high operating costs due to intensive energy consumption during the production processes. This paper is aim at providing alternative current cost and scarcity problems of cement and steel with lower production costs in line with Ground Granulated Blast furnace slag as a cement replacing material, which is also a byproduct of steel production.
Keywords: Blast Furnace Slag, latent Hydraulic properties, thermal cracking, chloride penetration carbonation, alkali-aggregate reaction.
ASSESSMENT OF PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE MANAGEMENT OF INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS IN LAGOS, NIGERIA.
- B. OGUNLEYE, PHD. & U. Y. AJANI.
Department of Estate Management, Federal University of Technology, Akure.
Intelligent buildings with varying forms of automation, technology and computerized systems are increasingly gaining grounds in the Nigeria property market. This thus calls for adequate property/facility management practice amongst practicing Estate Surveying and Valuation firms in Lagos. This study therefore assesses the problems associated with the management of intelligent buildings in Lagos, Nigeria with a view to restructuring and enhancing property management practice. The sampled population for the study are the practicing Estate Surveying and Valuation firms in Lagos. Data was collected through the administration of structured questionnaires and analysed using descriptive statistical tools and factor analysis. The study revealed that the major features of intelligent buildings available in Lagos include networking and internet usages, lifts and elevators, closed circuit television, local area networks, smart key cards and sensored controlled glass doors. The study further revealed the major advantages of intelligent buildings to include efficiency in operation; creation of an intelligent city; provision of spaces with enhanced living environments that provide for social sustenance; total sustainability of the building environment and seamless automation, communication, and integration of resources. The major problems as revealed are inadequate infrastructure and components; design, management and level of awareness; users attitude and relationship; nature of technical, specialized and environmental issues; inadequate technology and poor maintenance culture and inadequate modern construction techniques and low investment decisions on intelligent building. The research thus concludes that the development and sustainability of intelligent buildings lies in the effective management of such special properties.
Keywords: Intelligent Buildings and Property/facility management
IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT IN ZARIA
Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
The human populations, infrastructure and ecology of cities are at risk from the impacts of climate change which affect urban ventilation and cooling, urban drainage and flood risk and water resources. Built areas exert considerable influence over their local climate and environment, and urban populations are already facing a great problem to national development and also, a range of weather-related risks such as heat waves, water pollution and flooding. Although climate change is expected to compound these problems, building designers and spatial planners are responding through improved building design and layout of cities. This paper x-rayed significant climate change impacts expected to shape the future character and functioning of urban systems in Zaria, people’s attitude to the change, the findings have serious implications for how hazards are managed. The paper also stated categorically strategies for managing and preventing climate change on built environment. The importance of public awareness through effective hazard education was also suggested.
Keywords: Build Environment, Climate Change, Sustainable, Development.
ADDRESSING CLIMATE CHANGE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
*SIM JOYCE GOJE **AMINA NKANDAK KURMI & ***ELIAKIM ANZIZI
Department of Geography, Kaduna State University, Kaduna **Department of Political Science, Nigerian Army University, Biu ***Kaduna State University, Kaduna
The consequences of climate change is one of the most severe problems Africa and other low income continents are facing in the 21st century, this is because despite their less contribution to climate change, its effects are most experienced in such societies. Also, they do not possess the available resources to minimise its effects. This has therefore sparked debates on how the government in low incomed countries can minimise the effect of climate change on the less privilege. These debates have been in tandem with the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals on climate change which is aimed at reducing climate change and helping the vulnerable in dealing with its effects. Several countries in Africa have adopted several initiatives to address the effects of climate change. This study however focuses on Nigeria’s initiative which is the Building Nigeria’s Response to Climate Change” (BNRCC) Project. The study appraises the BNRCC’s approach to minimising the effects of climate change. The study relies on secondary data which were sourced from printed materials and analysed using content analysis. The study discovers that the BNRCC’s approach to addressing climate change in Nigeria has been commendable as the awareness and campaigns on reducing activities that cause climate change in Nigeria have been on the increase, however the BNRCC suffers multiple challenges in relation to the geography, population and funding of its projects. This study thus recommends tackling these problems as they will go a long way in enabling the BNRCC to achieve its objectives.
Keywords: Climate change, Global warming, Development
GEOIDAL MAPPING AND THREE DIMENSION SURFACE MODELLING USING DUAL FREQUENCY GPS AND PRECISE LEVEL
SURV. MUHAMMAD S. KARDAM1 ZAKARI, DANLADI2 SURV. SHU’AIBU UMAR3
Department of Surveying and Geo-informatics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State.
Dual Frequency Global Positioning System (DGPS) has emerged as a successful technology in providing precise positions of points on the surface of the earth over the reference ellipsoid with sub-metre level of accuracy. DGPS is one of the most frequently used positioning methods in geodesy. The end products of surveying with this receiver gives geodetic latitude (ϕ), geodetic longitude (λ) and ellipsoidal height (h) which are obtained with reference to the ellipsoid. This research involved the determination of Geoidal undulation for the production of Geoidal map of Bauchi metropolis, Bauchi state. DGPS receiver and precise Level instruments were used to obtain ellipsoidal and orthometric heights of the study area. Geoidal heights were derived from the differences between ellipsoidal heights and orthometric heights. The adjusted orthometric heights obtained using precise Level and the ellipsoidal heights which are part of the geodetic/Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates obtained using DGPS were post processed using spectrum survey office Software (SSO). The Geoidal map, contour map and three dimensional surface Model (3D) were created using ArcGIS 10.2.1 Software version. The Microsoft Office Excel was used to deduce the ellipsoidal heights and orthometric heights in order to obtain geoidal heights for the production of Geoidal Map of the study Area. The statistical analysis of the result met the precision of second order geodetic control network and levelling specifications. The result of the spearman correlation coefficient computed using geodetic coordinates is 0.054 and the coefficient of determination 0.0029%. The result of the Z test computed (0.125) indicated that the measurements are precise at 95% confidence level. The reliability of the measurements of X and Y second order geodetic coordinates were computed at the scale of 1:5000 and found reliable at 95% confidence level. The mean value of the geoidal heights determined is 22.680 metre which can be used as the geoid of Bauchi State. The contour map, geoidal and 3D model were produced at the scale of 1:60,000 and the contour lines were interpolated at 0.2 meter contour interval which represented the terrain configuration. Therefore, the results obtained can be used for any work requiring the use of geoidal heights in Nigeria and any part of the world.
Keywords: Geoidal heights, Equipotential Surface, Ellipsoid heights, Orthometric heights and Interpolation
EFFECT OF PARKING SPACE ON COMMERCIAL PROPERTY RENTAL VALUE IN BAUCHI METROPOLIS (A CASE OF CENTRAL MARKET BAUCHI)
HAMISU ABDULKADIR NOMA & HAFSAT JIDERE BALA
Department of Estate Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
The need for adequate parking space in Bauchi Central Market cannot be over emphasized, because the more adequate the parking spaces are on commercial property areas the more the rental value it would command and vice versa. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of parking space on commercial rental value in Bauchi Central Market, to achieve this, the following objectives were employed: to determine the adequacy of parking space in the study area, to know the condition of parking space in the study area and to find out the impact which shortages has on parking space on commercial rental value in the study area. The methodology adopted for this research was mixed method approach where questionnaires, observation and interviews were used for data collection. The respondents for the study were randomly sampled where 230 shop owners and shoppers were sampled. The data for the study was analyzed using descriptive statistics through cross tabulation with aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The findings show that parking problems are as a result of inadequate provision of parking facilities, indiscriminate parking by some road users and developing of illegal stalls at car park. The study recommended that all local planning authorities should specify and enforce the provision of sufficient and adequate management techniques of parking facilities in the commercial property rental value. It was also recommended that on-street parking should be restricted by using enforcement techniques such as installing no parking and no waiting signs to discourage unnecessary parking in and around Bauchi Central Market.
Keywords: Rental, Commercial, Parking, Effect Property.
THE SMART TOILET ARCHITECTURE IN FOCUS: A CASE STORY OF IMPROVED TOILET DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION IN BAUCHI
1DAUDA ALI 2MADU ALI DAUDA 3KABIRU ZAKARI 4OSUNKUNLE ABDULMAGEED
1,2,3&4Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi
The motivation of this work was as a result of the national water, sanitation and hygiene that is going from bad to worse, which paved way for the purpose of harnessing new approaches and opportunities in smart toilet architecture as a solution to the problem of open defecation in Bauchi. The recent concerns for the introduction of smart toilet architecture have led to the revival on the rate of open defecation and also that of the built environment. The professional practice of architects in actualizing open defecation free status of national development issues can never be overestimated in response to many challenges of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) number 6 on sanitation. Also, a healthy nation is central to all physical, social and economic growth. The Nigerian health sector is faced with inadequate sanitary facilities. Hence, this work focused on the methodology of various approaches and opportunities in smart toilet architecture of three temporary and three permanent designs and construction of smart toilets. Such innovation approaches are Plastic Sato (Safe toilet by LIXIL), technologies, materials and methods, while the opportunities are employment, good health and safe built environment, e.t.c. In conclusion, the study area under investigation also further discusses issues of immense contribution to the operation of sanitation marketing and finance which recommended that government should strictly enforce the law on sanitation marketing and finance towards the attainment of smart toilet architecture towards open defecation free in Bauchi metropolis.
Keywords: Facilities, Healthy, open defecation, sanitation and technologies.
DESIGN OF BATIK USING NORTHERN NIGERIA SYMBOL AS A MOTIF ON TEXTILE FABRICS FOR CULTURAL IDENTIFICATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH.
1ADINOYI BABA JAMES 2IBRAHIM FRIDAY CHRISTOPHER 3DUNG JOSEPHINE CHOMO 4OMAKU PETER ENESI
1,2,3Arts and Industrial Design Department, School of Environmental Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa 4Mathematics and Statistics Department, School of Applied Science, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa
This study is mainly designed to examine the use of batik (adire textile) as a medium for cultural identification among the northern Nigeria people, and also its economic importance to the country. The researchers produced batik designed fabrics with northern Nigerian symbol and subsequently fashioned the fabrics into men and women garments. The garments were worn on sculptural images (dummies) of man and woman to collect data. After collecting the data, frequency count and ANOVA were used to analyse the data collected. Finding reveals that batik has significant effect on cultural identification among the people of northern Nigeria. In addition, batik designed with cultural symbols has significant effect on promoting unity among the people of the same cultural group, thus boosting the economy of Nigeria. The study further reveals that a day in a week should be set aside for people to wear batik which is designed with traditional symbols to sustain cultural and national heritages.
Keywords: Batik, Cultural symbol, Identification, Economy, Design, Heritage
IMPACT OF CONTRACTORS’ FINANCIAL CAPABILITY ON CONSTRUCTION PROJECT DELIVERY IN NIGERIA.
*ZUBAIR, AHMED & **ATAGUBA, JOSEPH OBAJA.
*Department of Quantity Surveying, the Federal Polytechnic Idah, Kogi State, Nigeria. **Department of Estate Management, the Federal polytechnic Idah, Kogi State, Nigeria.
Analysis of financial strength is a criteria that indicate the likelihood of contractors’ capability and therefore for a major criterion for evaluating construction contractors’ during prequalification and tender evaluation. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of contractors’ financial capability on construction project delivery in Nigeria. prequalification assessments based on financial reputation and other prequalification of winning contractors’ as well as cost data relating to 67 completed building projects were source from clients; consultants and contractors. Tools for data analysis comprised frequency distribution tables, percentile, mean item score and analysis of variance. A further decomposition of financial capability into co – variables revealed that annual turnover, value engineering, and financial prudence, financial stability, credit worthiness, tax status and financial status are among the co – variables that exert strong influence on construction project delivery. The study has clearly shown that contractors’ financial reputation is an important criterion for evaluating potential performance of construction contractors’ during prequalification and tender evaluation. It is therefore recommended that construction practitioners and clients should only considered financial capability of contractors to determine their level of insolvency more emphasis should be based on technical and managerial capabilities of contractors during prequalification and contract award in Nigeria.
Keywords: contractors’, financial capability, construction project delivery.
DETERMINING THE APPLICABILITY OF THE POSTULATIONS OF THE MONOCENTRIC CITY MODEL TO LAND USES & RENTAL VALUES IN KADUNA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA
With the vast majority of urban dwellers worldwide found in developing countries’ cities, their urban experiences still remain almost invisible in key theories or concepts in urban studies, with a clear bias shown toward the cities of developed countries. Furthermore, no study has analysed the situation of land uses vis-à-vis residential property rental values in Kaduna metropolis of Nigeria under the theoretical framework of the Monocentric city model, a land use model that is applied and tested worldwide. There is dearth of research that seeks to apply the Monocentric city model to analyse land use dynamics in developing countries like Nigeria. This issue provided the motivation to undertake a proper research study on the applicability of the Monocentric city model to land uses and rental values in Kaduna, a metropolis in Nigeria. Survey research design was adopted with questionnaires administered to officials of Government agencies and registered Estate Surveyors and Valuers. Neighbourhoods that experienced considerable occurrences of land use changes were identified and residential rental value trends and their percentage changes were the bases of data analysis. Looking at the rental value trends and results from the analysis of data, the submissions of the Monocentric city model are not applicable to the dynamics of land use and rental values in Kaduna metropolis for a number of reasons bordering on distance to the CBD, utility levels not based on transport costs, dwelling spaces, and proliferation of human activities and overcrowding. The study will be beneficial to town planning authorities, built environment professionals, real estate investors and policy makers who are stakeholders interested in the situation of land uses and the condition of property values.
Keywords: Monocentric city model; Land Uses; Rental Values; Central Business District; Nigeria
SAFETY IN BUILDING: BURGLAR PROOFING AND FIRE HAZARDS IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS.
Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B 0231 Bauchi, Nigeria
Fire is one of the most deadly calamities that consume life and property within the glimpse of an eye. The manner, magnitude and period within which fire occurs vary, and dependent upon the circumstances that lead to such inferno. Residents seldom got trapped into such infernos for obvious reasons, and the situations worsen when access to rescue mission is minimal, thus making it rather impossible for victims and rescue effort to succeed. The use of grills (Doors and Windows) popularly known as Burglary proof grills in housing often serves as a strong barrier to effective rescue operation in emergency situation such as fire vis-a-vis the security protection it offers against intruders has been an issue of great concern to the scholars as well as professionals in the built environment. Keeping the building safe from outside intrusion is very necessary, but keeping the building safe from fire has been a very big task for developers. It has been the duty of the designer to evolve a design that will keep fire spread as low as possible. While this problem is being solved, the need to keep burglars out of the building became necessary. This was as a result of thieves breaking into the building envelop and taking the belongings of the occupiers. It is a known fact that occupants have been trapped inside their buildings during a fire as a result of the burglar proofs provided. This paper is intended to assess the extent of risk of fire spread buildings and the consequent damage to life and properties in the event of a fire (being a resultant effect of provision of burglar proofs). Suggestions as to the types of burglar proofs that may be used in buildings will be given so that occupants can keep out burglars without the fear of being trapped in their buildings during any fire.
Keywords: Safety, Burglar Proofing, Fire, Hazards and Buildings.
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE COST ESTIMATION OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECT IN NORTH CENTRAL, NIGERIA
Dept. of Quantity surveying, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa
This paper identified through literature and expert opinion the essential factors that can influence the cost estimation of construction project in the north central geopolitical zone of Nigeria and analysed the degree of severity of these factors from the perspectives of the consultants and the contractors in the studied area. Ten consultancy organisations and ten contracting organisations were studied in this work.A survey questionnaire were administered to elicit information from these organisations based on their experiences with identified factors influencing the cost estimation of construction project. The data were analysed from the perspective of the targeted respondent as well as conducting mean analysis from the responses of the respondents. The analysis of twenty eight factors identified and considered in this study using relative important index revealed that market conditions, quality of assumption, number of bidders, consultant experience in similar job, incomplete drawing and specification, quality of information flow among others are the leading factors influencing the cost estimation of construction project from the consultants perspectives while market conditions, method of construction, number of bidders, value of specialist work, buildability and project location, quality of information flow, level of inflation among others are the leading factors from contractors perspectives. The mean analysis revealed a significant level of agreement between the contractors and the consultants on these factors as evident in the high critical influencing factors. Analysis using spearman rank correlation with obtained value of +0.95 confirmed the high level of agreement between the contractors and the consultants on these factors. Hypothesis formulated were tested resulting to the acceptance of the alternative hypothesis: there is a significant degree of agreement between consultants and contractors on the high critical factors influencing the cost estimation of construction project in the studied area with t-calculated less the t-tabulated. The paper concluded that both consultants and contractors generally agree on the ranking order of the factors and recommended among others that contractors and consultants should give more attention to these critical factors and also seminar/workshop be organised for sensitisation.
Keywords: Construction project, factors, cost estimation, influencing, north central
ASSESSING CONSULTANTS ROLES IN PROJECT FAILURE IN KADUNA METROPOLIS
OLALEYE YETUNDE OLANIKE1 AND SULAIMAN SALISU2
1&2Department of Quantity Surveying, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna
Failure of building projects has become very rampant in the country and this causes concern to the entire participants in the execution of building projects. Construction projects are regularly faced with problems causing the projects to finish beyond the estimated cost, period and quality. The aim of this study is to assess the roles of contractors and consultants in building failure in Kaduna metropolis. The objectives of the study include; to identify the causes of building project failure by consultants in Kaduna metropolis, and to proffer possible solutions to the identified causes and effects. Questionnaires were used to collect relevant information from different organizations. Out of the one hundred and twenty questionnaire that was randomly selected, fifty-four (87) responses were received which represented 72% collection. The result obtained was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The research revealed that late information, poor quality of materials and poor management of staff are the most influential factors of building failure by contractors and consultant respectively. The study also concluded that the contractor contributes most to building failure. The study further recommended that clients should not embark on construction of any project unless they are capable of meeting the project’s financial commitments. It also recommended that the contractor should operate within the terms of the articles of agreement.
Keywords: Building Failure, Consultants, Contractors, Stakeholders, Construction Industry
APPLICATION OF VALUE MANAGEMENT TO ENHANCE CONSTRUCTION OF RESIDENTIAL HOUSING FOR FEDERAL CIVIL SERVANTS IN NIGERIA
*UMESI, R. O.1;& GANIYU, B.O2
1Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal Polytechnic Bida, 2Department of Quantity Surveying, Federal University of Technology Minna,
Value management techniques have been successfully applied to all types of construction projects from buildings to offshore oil and gas platforms, and for all types of clients from private industry to governmental organizations worldwide. One of the Sustainable Development Goals objectives is increasing access to new technologies to support sustainable development; this has lead to the application of value management to residential housing to ensure sustainable development of affordable housing. In Nigeria, access to affordable housing has largely remained an unfulfilled dream to the vast majority most especially, the middle and the lower class of the society. The gap between the need for housing and the capacity to acquire the desired housing type has led to a demand crisis for affordable housing in Nigeria. In this paper, the concept and benefits of the application of Value Management was explored to enhance affordability of sustainable residential housing for civil servants in Nigeria. The quantitative approach employed was to understand the perception on the benefit of the application of value management on residential project in Niger state. This was done by the use of well structured questionnaire.
Keywords: Affordable housing; construction; sustainability; sustainable residential housing; value management.
APPLICATION OF GEOSPATIAL TECHNIQUES IN TRACING THE EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF MARKET CENTRES IN GOMBE, GOMBE STATE, NIGERIA.
YAKUBU DAN, YILA C. MAKADI, BILKISU Y. AHMED
Gombe State University, Faculty of Science Department of Geography P.M.B 127, Tudun-Wada, Gombe, Gombe State of Nigeria.
This study, “The Application of Geospatial Techniques in Tracing the Evolution and Development of Market Centres in Gombe, Gombe State” employed spatial data and historical written literatures of the state to examine the origin and development of market centres, the proceeding development that led to the current state of market centres as well as contributing factors of distribution. The research revealed that the number of market centres that evolved through the five phases stretching from 1800 to 2017 increased proportionally as population: phase 1 had 2 market centres with 16,000 people, phase 2 had 4 markets with about 25,000 people, phase 3 had 7 markets with 47,000 people, phase 4 had 10 markets with 208,000 people and phase 5 had 16 markets with more than 400,000 people. Also, identified factors that led to the observed growth from above statistics included capitalization of the town as the headquarter of the Emirate and Gombe Division in 1919 and subsequently the capital city of Gombe State in 1996, centrality of the town surrounded by medium and lower order central places, and high number of immigrants from different parts of the state and country at large. The study recommends that growing settlements should observe and monitor the location of their market places so that they conform to the standard of centrality and ease of access to collection and redistribution of goods and services within the market thresholds.
Keywords: Geospatial Techniques, Evolution, Market Centres, Settlements, Population.
SUSTAINABLE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN BUILT ENVIRONMENT: A REVIEW
FATIMA BABA CIROMA1 & 2
1Department of Architecture, College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic, Nigeria 2Department of Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Design, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Nigeria.
In Nigeria today, cities and towns are faced with environmental problems resulting from poor solid waste management. Proper waste management is key to environmental sustainability of any environment.in this study therefore, it is evident that the rapid increase in urbanization has led to the ever-increasing heap of solid waste often found on streets and major roads thus, as an alarming feature of the Nigeria’s urban landscape. This paper was aimed at making findings of already conducted studies in Nigeria about the physical and chemical properties of different kinds of generated and collected waste and their energy potential in terms of caloric values and socio economic and environmental problems associated with Nigeria’s solid waste system and their link with the presence and absence of energy recovery and resource conservation principle. In view of above, the paper was based on empirical environmental assessments with a view to proposing an effective and efficient solid waste management system in Nigerian cities. The result of the findings indicated that the rate of solid waste disposal is out-paced by its generation and that waste dump sites on major streets and other open spaces are left unattended for long periods such that it heaps and encroaches roads limiting width usage and generating pollution denying the urban landscape of its aesthetics value another is, solid wastes are heterogeneous in nature as it constitutes biodegradable and non-biodegradable from a wide range of materials. Therefore, the recommendations provided by this paper is for solid waste management to be optimized through recovery, re-use, recycled as secondary materials for re-manufacturing and or privatization of such agencies in search of monitoring, collection, transport, processing, recycling and disposal. So that consideration towards “waste to energy” can be appreciated.
Keywords: sustainability, solid waste, waste management, recycling, disposal.