Harvard International Journal of Engineering and Research Technology (HIJERT)
Vol.10 (2) June, 2019 Editions ISSN: 0428 –9123
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COMBINED EFFECTS OF HYDRATED LIME, WATER REPELLENT CHEMICAL ADDITIVE AND CURING MEDIA ON THE COMPRESSIVE PROPERTIES OF TERMITE MOUND-CLAY MORTARS.
*GANA A.J. **ADEWARA S.O. ***ABOLUSORO A. A. **OLONI.E.F *FEHINTOLA A. O.
*Civil Engineering Department, Landmark university Omu-Aran, kwara state. **Department of Economics, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State. ***College of Agricultural Science, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State
This study evaluated the effects of dry, wet, cured and saturated curing conditions on Termite mound clay mortars modified with a water –repellent chemical. 50 50 50mm moulds were used in the production of the mortars, with the mix ratio of 1.2.3 and varying binder replacements of Portland cement and hydrated lime of 0%, 10%, 20%and 30%were used. Water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS) properties were evaluated on the samples. The result of the water absorption test showed that the highest W A value was 17.75%of composition VII with 70% termite mound clay and 30% cement while the least value was recorded at 3.39% of composition with 70% termite mound clay, 10% cement, 20% hydrated lime and 0.051/m3 Hydropruf WP100. Also, the thickness swelling test had the samples of a few compositions at the least value of 0% , the sample of those composition remained constant in thickness after immersion in water for 24 hours and are compositions II of 70% termite mound clay,30%cement and Hydropruf WP100, IV of 70% termite mound clay ,10% cement, 20% hydrated lime and Hydropruf WP100, V of 70% termite mound clay and 30% lime. The highest value of the TS test was the composition VII of 70% termite mound clay and 30% cement at 3.21%. The compressive strength test was conducted at the concrete laboratory using the compression testing machine at a speed of 10N/s the test was conducted for the samples of the wet curing condition after 24 hours and 28days for the dry, cured and saturated curing conditions. The compressive strength test on the samples production an optimum value of 63.71N/mm2 of composition VII with 70%termite mound, 30%cement and hyropruf WP100 while the least value of composition was recored at 6:87N/mm2 of composition V with 70%trmite mound clay, 30% hydrated lime and Hydropruf WP100. Also, the curing condition with the highest compressive strength was the Saturated curing condition with a value of 42.96N/mm2 and the last was the wet curing condition with a value of 42.96N/mm2. This research has shown that the structural integrity of termite mound clay and be improved by the inclusion of water –repellent Additive and when the saturated curing condition is maintained.
Keywords: Hydrated lime, Water repellent chemical Additive, Curing media, Compressive Properties, Termite mound –clay mortars.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF MULTI CYCLONE SYSTEM FOR KAOLIN BENEFICIATION.
AUDU NASIRU1, A. N. ISAH1, S. I. BELLO1, A.S. YEKINI2
1Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa 2Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa.
Single stage air cyclone had been reported to have low yield for the bénéficiassions of Kankara kaolin clay; this has lead to researches to improve the yield. In this work, high efficiency parallel air cyclone system was designed with critical particle size diameter of (dpc) of 2.18µm. The designed cyclone which had body diameter of 0.1m design capacity of 182 kg/hr was fabricated and tested for the beneficiation of Kankara kaolin clay. Yield of 30.17% was obtained for the parallel air cyclone rig which was an improvement over previous reported average yield of 15% for a single stage air cyclone system. The parallel cyclone had an average pressure drop of 746.7Pa and the particle size distribution (PSD) show that the clay content was improved from 46% to an average of 65% after beneficiation. The XRD analysis also showed that the level of beneficiation obtained using the rig improved the kaolinite content in the raw kaolin to an average of 67.8%, the quartz in the feed was reduced to an average of 86.3%, while the mica in the feed was reduced by an average of 56.7%.
Keywords: Design, cyclone, software, analysis, fabrication, parallel, kaolin, bénéficiassions, feed
THE IMPACTS OF COMPONENT DEGRADATION ON THE OVERALL PERFORMANCE OF GAS TURBINE USED ON NATURAL GAS PIPELINE NETWORK
AZIAKA D.S1*, TAMUNO J.K2, LE-OL A.K3, PILIDIS P.4
1,4Centre for Power and Propulsion, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, United Kingdom 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ken-Saro Wiwa Polytechnic, Bori, Rivers state Nigeria 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
The operation of gas turbine engine has been affected by several operating conditions including degradation (fouling). This paper investigates the combine effects of ambient temperature and degradation on the overall engine performance at different turbine entry temperatures. Also, the combined effect of altitude and degradation on the overall engine performance were analysed. Furthermore, three degraded scenarios based on the turbomachinery components of gas turbine engine were examined and analysed to determine the extent of deviation of the performance parameters from their design points due to degradation. An in-house engine performance simulation software: TURBOMATCH of Cranfield University in the United Kingdom was used to model the engine and was validated with 99% accuracy. 3% and 4% reduction in flow capacity and isentropic efficiency were implanted on the engine model at different operating conditions to evaluate its effects on overall engine performance while 1% to 5% reduction in flow capacity and isentropic efficiency were implanted on the engine model when investigating the engine parameters’ deviation from their Design points based on the various scenarios under investigation. The results revealed the extent at which the performance parameters deviated from their design point (DP) when the engine is degraded. The results also showed that for every increase in of the Turbine entry temperature (TET), shaft power increases by 15% for the clean engine while the engine experienced approximately 10% reduction in power when only the compressor is degraded at a given TET. But when both the compressor and turbine degraded, the shaft power reduces at approximately 24% at the same operating condition. Besides the effects of TET and degradation, the results revealed that every increase in ambient temperature led to a corresponding 4.2% reduction in shaft power. It was further observed that every increase in the TET resulted to an average of 1.6 percent increase in the thermal efficiency of the clean engine, while for the degraded condition, the efficiency reduced by approximately 3.3% at a given operating condition. The fuel flow also increased by 13.4% as the TET increases for a particular operating condition for the clean engine and reduced by 14% at a condition when both compressor and turbine were degraded. Most significantly, the shaft power decreased by 3.3 % for every 500 m elevation and became more in the degraded condition. Finally, Compressor map of the engine was developed and presented to understand the real operability of GT engine. Thus, the proposed approach will help operators have sufficient awareness on the selection and operation of gas turbine engines for a particular project taking into account the potential impact of degradation, ambient condition and altitude on the overall performance of the engine.
Keywords: Altitude, TURBOMATCH, Pipeline, ambient temperature, Design point, fouling
THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF JATROPHA CURCAS BIOLUBE TREATED WITH ADDITIVES
U .A. GARBA1, J. HAMISU 1 & M.Y. MUBI 2
1Agric and Bio- Engineering Technology Department, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna; 1Mechanical Engineering Dept. Federal Polytechnic Kaura Namoda, Zamfara.
Additives are used to enhance the performance of lubricating oil. This paper analyses the effect of automotive additive package on the physico-chemical properties of jatropha biolube. Biolubricant was formulated from the crude jatropha oil. The biolube was blended with 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% by volume of the Oloa 229 automotive additive package. ASTM Standards test methods were used to determine the physico-chemical properties of the biolube and its blends. The properties determined include: iodine value, saponification value, density, viscosity index (VI), flash point (FP), pour point (PP) and boiling point (BP). The results show that SG, VI, FP, PP, BP and density increase with the additive concentration.
Keywords: additives, biolube, flash point, Jatropha & viscosity.
RELEVANCE OF HEIGHT DETERMINATION IN THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A RETAINING WALL.
*GANA A.J. *LAJU E. M. *ATOYEBI O.D. **ABOLUSORO A. A. ***ADEWARA S.O. ***OLONI E.F.
*Civil Engineering Department, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State **College of Agricultural Science, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State ***Department of Economics, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State
The study investigates the relevance of height determination in the design and analysis of a retaining structure (wall) for and area close to the Landmark University Medical Centre. With the method of surveying, the topography of the terrain to be analyzed will be determined. Furthermore, this will give an extensive description of the proposed height for the design of the retaining structure. Also, a geotechnical investigation will be conducted on the soil so as to determine the lateral forces that will be acting on the foundation and how the structure will react to these forces been exerted on it. From the survey data gotten and the geotechnical analysis, a suitable height for retaining structure will be used in the designing and analysis of the retaining wall.
Keywords: Relevance, Height determination, Design, Analysis, Retaining Wall.
DESIGN, ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION OF A SEPIC MULTIPLIED BOOST CONVERTER FOR HIGH STEP-UP APPLICATIONS
1MOSHOOD YUSUF, HASSAN SALAWU AND ALIYU ABDULLAHI
Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Kaduna polytechnic, Kaduna.
The paper presents a high gain dc-dc converter which is derived from a traditional Single ended primary inductance converter (SEPIC) . This topology overcomes many of the disadvantages presented by other methods. The main advantage of the multiplied SEPIC boost converter is Significant reduction in voltage stress on the main and rectifier switches without any accompanying significant increase in current stress. This widens and improves the options in MOSFETs and Schottky diodes, for which high voltage is often a disadvantage. In addition, high frequency emissions may be reduced because multiple inductor energy discharge paths seem to dampen high frequency ringing. The design and simulation of the converter are presented.
Keywords: Multiplied SEPIC Converter, Conventional Boost converter, Coupled Inductor, MATLAB/ SIMULINK, High Step-up DC-DC Converters.
DELINATION OF SHALLOW GAS RESERVOIR USING SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES: IMPLICATION IN RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION
RIGHTEOUS. E. OMBU, ORITSEBEMIGHO.O. ULORI, JUSTIN IKIRIGO, ALVAN WARIEBI KIGHIGHA
Department of Physics with Electronics, Federal Polytechnic, Ekowe, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.
In the interpretation of 3D seismic data for hydrocarbon reservoir delineation, low-frequency shadow zones are observed both at shallow depths from reflectors below gas sands, condensates and in much deeper oil reservoirs on seismic reflections. These low-frequency shadow zones are important in reservoir characterization studies, geohazard analysis and drilling of boreholes, because, they depict the likelihood of hydrocarbon reservoir units in the subsurface. In this study, we have used seismic attribute assisted technique and theoretical approach to delineate a low-frequency shadow zone such as shallow gas reservoir (amplitude anomaly) in a 3D seismic data and predict reservoir properties. The result of seismic attributes analysis delineates an amplitude anomaly (bright spot) at an approximate depth of 525ms close to a major fault line. We interpreted the amplitude anomaly (bright spot) as a major hydrocarbon reservoir at shallow depth in the study area, probably due to the presence of biogenic gas pockets that may have migrated to the reservoir zone from the gas formed by thermogenic process at depths well below 1000ms. In addition, thin bed reservoir thickness is estimated at 12.02m which is under seismic resolution. With the available sonic log data of the well passing the reservoir zone, we estimated the porosity of the reservoir zone at 29%. Thus, the reservoir is highly porous and could vary along the reservoir zone. The most negative curvature seismic attribute delineates shallow channel geometry with strong negative anomalies along channel axis in the reservoir zone capable of trapping shallow gas. These strong negative curvature anomalies are interpreted to be sand filled channels that have probably undergone differential compaction.
Keywords: Delineation, shallow gas, seismic attributes, and reservoir characterization.
EXPERIMENTATION OF MICROCONTROLLER BASED DUAL AXIS SUN TRACKING SYSTEM FOR MAXIMUM SOLAR ENERGY GENERATION
ABDULLAHI KIRE MU’AZU, IBRAHIM MUHAMMAD HARRAM & BASHIR SADIQ USMAN
Department of Electrical/ Electronic Engineering Technology, The Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria
Innovations in solar energy are turning into a promising sustainable power source. Ordinarily fixed solar panel board with a specific angle of inclination restrains their zone of sun intensity because of revolution of the Earth. The automatic solar tracking system solves this problem. In this paper a dual axis solar tracker is planned and implemented to track the sun in both azimuth and altitude axes by using an AVR microcontroller. The executed framework comprises mostly of the ATmega 328 controller, DC motors, light sensors and relays. The results show that the designed low cost sun tracker increases the output power generation efficiency by 25-30% as compared with the fixed panel systems. The impact of temperature and panel covering by shaded cellophane on the performance of the designed system is also studied. The temperature and the colored cellophanes decrease the output power of the solar panel.
Keywords: Dual –Axis sun tracker, ATmega 328 Microcontroller, photo-voltaic, solar energy, maximum power point
IMPARTIAL ASSESSMENT OF BURNING CHARACTERISTIC OF SOME SELECTED MAJOR AGRICULTURAL WASTE IN YOBE STATE, NIGERIA
*BRUNO ORISANAIYE AKINJIDE **HAMMAJAN ABBA ALHAJ, **USMAN KALLAMU MAIJAMA’A
*Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria **Depatment of mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria
One of the most challenging tasks facing Nigeria, just like other developing countries, is finding a means of expanding its energy services especially to the rural households, the epileptic power supply from National grid and at the same time addressing the health and environmental consequences of over dependence on firewood for cooking. The study was undertaken to investigate the comparison of burning characteristics of some selected commonly biomass waste found within Yobe state, wastes from rice husk, millet husk, groundnut shell, melon shell and corn cob were prepared into Briquettes. Proximate analysis was carried out to determine the following combustion related properties of the briquette produced, Ash content, Percentage fixed carbon, Percentage volatile matter and Heating value. The results shows that heating values of the waste sample are 18724 KJ/kg, 18528 KJ/kg, 19480 KJ/kg, 18521 KJ/kg and 22120 KJ/kg for rice husk, groundnut shell, corn cob, millet husk and melon shell respectively. From the foregoing, it is envisaged that industries that use their waste biomass for energy simultaneously would solve a waste disposal problem and save money on their Energy needs. Water Boiling Test (WBT) was also carried out to test the performance of all the fuels at ambient temperature and standard pressure. Test results show the burning rate of briquette fuel of melon shell, corn cob, groundnut, rice husk and millet husk were on increasing orders respectively. It was concluded that stable briquettes could be formed from waste biomass of rice husk, groundnut shell, melon shell, maize cob and millet husk mixed with cassava starch.
Keywords: Agricultural wastes, Briquettes, Combustion properties, boiling test, Boiling rate
INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF BENZOTRIAZOLE AND AMINE MIXTURES ON THE CORROSION OF GREY CAST IRON IN 0.1M POTASSIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS
- ALAGBE AND D.A. ADEGBITE
Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Institute of Technology, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, Nigeria.
Inhibitory effects of triethanolamine [(CH2CH2OH)2], triethylamine [(CH3CH2)3N], triethanolamine [(CH2CH2OH)2] + benzotriazole [C6H5N3] and triethylamine [(CH3CH2)3N] + benzotriazole [C6H5N3] on the corrosion of grey cast iron in 0.1M potassium chloride (KCl) solutions have been investigated using the weight loss immersion and polarization methods. The inhibitive potentials of the four inhibitors were evaluated based on a determination of the corrosion rates in the presence and absence of the inhibitors at room temperature. The results obtained indicate that benzotriazole + triethanolamine and benzotriazole + triethylamine were observed to be more efficient than triethanolamine and triethylamine by providing corrosion inhibition at molar concentrations of 10-3M and 10-2M respectively. It was also observed that triethanolamine, triethylamine, triethanolamine + benzotriazole and triethylamine + benzotriazole showed considerable potentials with inhibition efficiencies of about 71.2%, 78.4%, 84.9% and 88.4% respectively in 0.1M potassium chloride solutions for grey cast iron. Polarization data revealed that benzotriazole is acting mainly on the anodic process rendering the passive film more stable and less susceptible to attack by the chloride ions. However, benzotriazole increased the pitting potential, but has a marginal influence on the behaviour of the grey cast iron under cathodic polarization. The results of this work are expected to be used to improve the corrosion resistance of cast iron for automobile and chemical industries in Nigeria.
Keywords: corrosion, chloride, cast iron, inhibition efficiency, polarization.