HARVARD INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE AND AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY (HAJAAT)
VOL.11 (1) DECEMBER, 2019 EDITIONS. ISSN: 0196 – 3488
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PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COMPOST FROM MIXTURE OF JATROPHA SEED CAKE AND CHICKEN MANURE
S.J. IJIMDIYA, 1D.B. ADIE, 1S.B. IGBORO, 1F.B. FATIMA, 1N.I. ABDULLAHI, 1,2B. ABDULLAHI, AND 1G.T.FALADE
1Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria 2Bioresourecs Development Centre, Illorin/ NANDA, Abuja.
The study aimed to develop and characterize compost from mixture of Jatropha seed cake and chicken manure. In the current experiment, investigations were made on the composting parameters and stability of the compost as well as the Nitrogen (N), Phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) concentrations of the produced compost. A cylindrical digester was used to compost a total of 2kg of jatropha seed cake and chicken manure mixed in the ratio of percentage composition of 50:50 .The compost temperature, pH and moisture contents were monitored at interval of 3 days for 30 days of composting by inserting a digital pH meter and thermometer into the composting mixture in the digester after the mixture was thoroughly mixed and the N P K as well as the Carbon (C) contents were analysed on the dried compost using Nitrogen Kjeldahl digestation and distillation technique, absorbance measurement of Phosphorous using calorimeter and Potassium concentration in the digest using flame photometer and carbon content using the Walkley and Black procedure. The average temperature, pH and moisture content recorded were 25.6oC, 7.3 and 55.7% respectively. These values were within the specified ranges of composting recorded in literature .The N P K concentrations in the dried compost were 2.03%, 3.50% and 1.65% respectively. These values were also within specified ranges but are higher than the one recorded in literature. The C: N ratio (8.2) was also within specified range. The study therefore suggests that process parameter of temperatue 25.6oC, pH 7.3 and moisture content 55.7%. are said to be the intermediate ranges which is appropriate for optimal biological reaction to spontaneously consume the waste and break them down into rich organic manure while the C:N ratio indicate that the compost is stable and safe for land application.
Keywords: Jatropha seed cake, chicken manure, compost, mixed, concentration
THE PRODUCTION OF FLOATIING FISH FEED USING PUMPKIN (CUCURBITA SPP) SEED SHELL AS A FLOATING AGENT
*BELLO, M.M.1, ZUBAIRU, A.M.1, MOHAMMED, H.1 AND BABAGANA, A.1
1Department of Fisheries, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
This experiment was carried out to determine the effect of Pumpkin Seed Shell (PSS) in a diet with an aim to produce a floating feed. The PSS was subjected to three (3) different treatments which include ground, crushed and uncrushed. A total number of sixteen (16) feeds were formulated containing varying inclusion levels of pumpkin seed shell. Diet 1 had 0% pumpkin seed shell inclusion. Diet 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 had 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% pumpkin seed shell inclusion in ground form respectively while diets 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 had 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% pumpkin seed shell inclusion in crushed form respectively and diets 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 had 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% pumpkin seed shell inclusions in an uncrushed form respectively. Ten (10) pellets of each of the sixteen (16) diet were used for floating trials and their percentage floating were recorded over time. Diets 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 had the highest percentage floating over time at 28%, 17.8%, 66.95%, 100% and 100% floatation assessed over 60 minutes respectively. Therefore, inclusion of pumpkin seeds shell in an uncrushed form at appropriate inclusion levels will help to produce floating feed.
Keywords: Pumpkin Seed Shell, Floating feed, aquatic organisms
CROP PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA SINCE 1914: GEO-HISTORICAL ANALYSES OF PROGRESS AND RETROGRESS
ABBAS, ADAM M. (Ph.D.)
Federal University, Kashere, Gombe-state, Nigeria.
The main branch of agriculture is crop cultivation/ production, which in Nigeria is one of the mainstreams of the economy as it provides food security, employment and income for over 90% of indigenous population. However, in most parts of the country, agricultural holdings have been small and scattered, and farming is carried out with simple tools. The paper tries to portray the doted and sporadic attention given to the sector both spatially and temporally as a result of differential federal, regional and state governments’ priority interests as well as inconsistent federal government’s agricultural policies and programmes and a host of other reasons. Large-scale food crop production is not common. Literature (secondary data) and content analysis were mainly used for the production of this paper. The study indicates that since 1914, progresses and retrogresses have been experienced by the crop production system all over the country. This paper therefore shows that right from the period of colonial administration, the crop production sector in the country has suffered from sporadic attention in its development. Incapacity of food production to meet the needs of the rising teeming population and inability of producers to re-invest in land has been the resultant effect. The federal government’s effort to play a leading role in the nation’s agricultural modernization still remains the problem if not for some state governments’ efforts. Among others, this paper concludes by suggesting that issues of crop production should be considered as security issue and non-partisan. Under the present dispensation of a change mantra, a boost in the agricultural production as an element of the diversification is expected to be given much more priority.
Keywords: Agriculture; Crop production; Diversification; modernization
AN OVERVIEW OF THE COSMOLOGICAL BIG BANG THEORY OF THE UNIVERSE
EMMANUEL LEGHARA IKPENDU1 AND DATTI AHMED SHINGE2
Department of Industrial Physics Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Uli Anambra state.1 College of Agriculture Damaturu, Yobe State.2
The most popular theory of our universe’s origin centers on a cosmic cataclysm unmatched in all of history—the big bang. This theory was born of the observation that galaxies are moving away from each other with great speed, in all directions, as if they had all been propelled by an ancient explosive force. This paper therefore reviews the big bang theory and its observational evidences and concludes with the present understanding of the Big Bang.
Keywords: Galaxy, Universe, Big Bang, Matter Atom and Expansion
ASSESSMENT OF ENTREPRENEURIAL INNOVATION IN CASSAVA PROCESSING FOR VALUE CREATION IN ABEOKUTA, NIGERIA
1AKINYELE, SAMUEL TAIWO 2AKINYELE, ESTHER FEYISAYO & 1ELEGBEDE, TIMILEHIN OLAMIDE
1Dept. of Entrepreneurial Studies, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria 2Dept. of Business Administration, School of Postgraduate Studies, Crawford University Igbesa, Ogun State, Nigeria.
This research seeks to examine entrepreneurial innovation on cassava processing for value creation in Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. The study examined the impact of process innovation on cassava yield, to ascertain the relationship between product innovation and customer patronage, the effect of service innovation on business market coverage and how creative thinking affects enterprise competitive advantage. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was structures in line with Likert’s six-point scale and was checked for reliability using a pilot survey method. The test of hypothesis revealed that there is statistically significant relationship between process innovation and cassava yield. (r =0.285, p<.002). The second hypothesis revealed that there is a significant relationship between product innovation and customer’s patronage (r =.113, p<.0839). The third hypothesis reveled that there was positive relationship between Service innovation and business market coverage (r =0.423, r=0.068 p<.005) respectively. The study applied correlation and multiple regression approach and establishes empirical support for some conjectures made in the literatures. Given the importance of cassava which serves as a very important food for majority of the Nigeria populace, it then becomes inevitable to carry-out this study. This finding contrasted somewhat with results of comparable earlier studies which had shown that adding value to the production and processing of cassava help improve and increase the yield of the tuber. Since the tuber is one of the major food of an average Nigerian due to its cost. The study therefore has been able to find the different innovations that can be added to the production as well as processing of cassava so as to increase its value, create more jobs and make the economy to be buoyant.
Keywords: Business market coverage, Cassava, Entrepreneurial innovation, Product innovation, Service innovation, Value creation.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITIONS AND YIELD OF SUGARCANE IN SOUTHERN PARTS OF ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA
ISHAKU V. M., YAHAYA T. I. & SULEIMAN M. Y.3
Federal University of Technology, Minna.
This study covered eleven Local Government Areas in the southern parts of Adamawa state, with total area of about 20,739.30 Km.2 Relationship between the major climatic conditions and the yield of sugarcane in the study area were examined using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC) analysis. The conditions considered are rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and solar energy. Climatic data used were obtained from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NiMet), and Global Weather Data for SWAT. The result indicated that, there is weak positive correlation between the yield of sugarcane and Minimum temperature, rainfall and relative humidity (RH) which have PPMCC values of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.1 respectively. While weak negative correlation were observed between the yield of sugarcane and Maximum temperature, and solar energy with PPMCC values of -0.3 and -0.1 respectively. This shows that as the values of Minimum temperature, rainfall and RH increase, the yield of sugarcane increases gradually too. In the other hand, as the values of Maximum temperature and solar energy increase the yield of sugarcane declines gradually in response. Therefore, the trend of these climatic conditions should be considered when investing in sugarcane production.
Keywords: Agro-climatic, correlations, dataset, sugarcane, yield
PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND MICROBIAL ANALYSIS OF COMMON MARINE FISHES CONSUMED IN MAIDUGURI METROPOLIS, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA
*1BELLO, MUINAT M., 2OYEBOLA, OYEDIRAN O. AND 1 LAWAL, TIWUYA H.
1Department of Fisheries, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria 2Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Marine fishes are fish that spend some or all their life in salt water such as ocean. There is need to preserve catch and harvested fish to avoid deterioration in the time gap prior to consumption. The aim of this study was to determine proximate composition (moisture, protein, ash, lipid, fibre and carbohydrate) and microbial spoilage in four marine fishes. Four marine fishes studied were, Clupea harengus, Trachurus trachurus, Scomber scombrus, and Micropogenias undulates, which were transported from Lagos 1565km away from Maiduguri. The proximate analysis revealed that, moisture content of Clupea harengus was 78.03±0.18%, Trachurus trachurus 71.72±0.49%, Scomber scombrus 68.54±0.29% and Micropogenias undulates 68.74±0.06% in the fresh state. The protein, ash, lipid, fibre and carbohydrate ranged from 19.22±0.02 to 20.82±0.14%, 1.22±0.3 to 1.53±0.12%, 1.22±0.59 to 8.56±0.57%, 0.10±0.54 to 0.25±0.21%, and 0.50±0.31 to 3.67±0.18%, respectively. Microbiological analysis showed that total viable count (TVC) varied between 4.01×105 and 6.37×105 cfu/g. The bacteria isolated on each of the four species include: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus aereus, Aeromonas Spp. and Salmonella-shigella, species. However, fungi were not found in these four samples. Conclusively, the proximate composition and microbial load are within the safe levels, which cause no harm to human and fit for consumption.
Keywords: Marine, Fish species, Proximate composition, Microbiological analysis, Frozen.
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE INTENSITY OF MARKET PARTICIPATION AMONG THE CATTLE FARMERS IN ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA.
MOHAMMED IBRAHIM GIREI1, PROFESSOR, JOSEPHINE BOSEDE AYOOLA2 & PROFESSOR, GODWIN A. ABU3
1Department of Agricultural Education, Federal College of Education, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria 1,2&3Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.
The study examined Factors influencing the intensity of market participation among the cattle farmers in Adamawa state, Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was employed to sample the respondents. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 400 respondents in the study area. Descriptive statistic was used to analysed the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents and truncated regression analysis was employed to estimate the determinants of intensity of market participation among the market participants. The result of the findings shows that cattle market participants were averagely aged 43 years, they are predominantly male (95.04%), (83.48%) were married, while (77.96%), (57.02%) had formal education and are full-time cattle farmers respectively. The result of truncated regression analysis revealed that age and gender of the household head, distance to market, herd size and seasonality were the explanatory variable that influenced the intensity of cattle market participation. Recommendations were made such as to encourage more formal education among the farmers, the more the participant is educated, the better the chance of participation in the cattle market and also to encourage female and those that are unmarried to participate in cattle marketing activities, and to provide adequate pasture land and water supply so as to curb the problems of exposure to avarice of weather, creates more additional sales point at farming communities and road rehabilitation is paramount important in the intensity of cattle market participation and improving the income of the farmers as well as revenue generation to the government.
Keywords: cattle, factors, farmers, intensity, market, participation
ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION OF SHIGA TOXIN-PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI SEROTYPES AND DETECTION OF STX1ANDSTX2 IN CHICKENS IN MAIDUGURI
1FALMATA A ABADAM, FUSAM S KUBURI3,YUSUF A ISA 2ISA A GULANI AND MUSTAPHA A ISA,
1Department of Food Science and Technology Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Borno State. 2Department of Veterinary Microbiology University of Maiduguri, Borno State. 3Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria 4Department of Microbiology University of Maiduguri, Borno State.
This study was carried out in Maiduguri to isolate, identify and characterize Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in broiler and village chickens’ faeces using conventional microbiology culture, and phenotypical characterization with biochemical test. Three hundred (300) (150 each of broiler and village chickens) faecal samples were collected at random from chickens brought for dressing to the Maiduguri Monday Market Chicken slaughter slab. Out of the 150 faecal samples collected from each of broiler and village chickens, a total of 83 E. coli isolates were obtained comprising 36(24%) from broiler chickens and 47(31.3%) from village chickens respectively. The E. coli positive isolates were then serotyped based on their somatic ‘O’ antigen using latex agglutination test for O157 STEC and dry spot polyvalent Sero-check for Non-O157 STEC, out of which 19 (12.7%) and 26 (17.3%) were O157 STEC; while 8(5.3%) and 9(6%) were non-O157 STEC from broilers and village chickens respectively. The remaining E. coli isolates 9(6%) from broiler chickens and 12(8%) from village chickens were untypable using the conventional sero kits. No stx1 and stx2 genes were detected using ELISA in all the positive E.coli O157 and non O157 samples detected. In conclusion, there was presence of E.coli O157 and non O157 in chickens in Maiduguri.
Keywords: Village and broiler chickens, Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli STEC, stx1, stx2, O157, non O157 E coli and Maiduguri
GROWTH, WEED MANAGEMENT AND YIELD OF HABANERO PEPPER (CAPSICUM CHINENSE L.) VARIETIES AS INFLUENCED BY FARMYARD MANURE, WEED CONTROL AND INTRA ROW SPACING.
- Y. ABUBAKAR, L. ALIYU, D. I. ADEKPE, M. A. MAHADI, B. A. BABAJI, A. I. SHARIFAI, A. A. MUKHTAR. A. MA’AZU
National Biotechnology Development Agency, Abuja. Centre for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, (C.B.G.E.), University of Jos. Department of Agronomy, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. & Federal University Gashua, Yobe State.
The response of habanero pepper ( Capsicum chinense L.) variety to farmyard manure, weed control treatments and spacing on growth, yield and weed interference of habanero pepper were evaluated under field condition in 2016 at the experimental site of Kaduna Agricultural Development Project (KADP) located at Maigana, Soba Local Area (11039; 080 02’E, 500 m above the sea level) and the research farm of the Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR) Ahmadu Bello University Zaria (located at Samaru 110 11’N long 070 38’E, 686 m) above sea level in the Northern Guinea savanna ecological zone of Nigeria to assess the performance of Habanero pepper in response to weed control treatments, farmyard manure and intra row spacing. The trial consisted of six weed control treatments which include application of Pendimethalin at 1.5 and 2.0 Kg a.i/ha at pre-transplanting and at post-transplanting, three hoe weeding at 3, 6 and 9 WAT and weedy check. Three farm yard manure rates at (0, 10, and 15 t/ha), two intra row spacing 20 and 40 cm. A split-plot design was used in which the factorial combination of weed control method and intra row spacing were assigned to the sub-plot while farm yard manure is the main plot treatments. The treatments were replicated three times. Crop vigour score, plant height, number of branches, Days to 50% flowering, Number of fruit per plant and fresh fruit yield in kg/ha show positive significant response to farmyard manure and weed control, while the yield was significant at all the sampling period at samaru and maigana.
Keywords: Farmyard manure, Weed control, Intra-row spacing, Days to 50% flower and Habanero pepper variety (Capsicum chinense L.).
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF DISTRIBUTION CANAL (A CASE STUDY OF INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH IRRIGATION EXPERIMENTAL PLOT, SAMARU ZARIA)
1NUHU, G., 2MUHAMMAD, R. S. AND 3GARUBA, H. S.
1,2Department of Agric and Bio-Environmental Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Nigeria. 3National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
This study was conducted during the 2012/2013 irrigation season at the IAR irrigation experimental plot (Samaru Zaria), with the primary aim of evaluating the performance of a part of the distribution system and irrigation water distribution, as they affect the control, operation and equity. Block A1 was selected as the experimental site. Stage measurements were monitored at the selected stations in the distributary canal. Discharge was obtained from installed measurement structures (Weir and Spiles). The water distribution efficiencies and losses were determined for each of the selected stations. The results obtained from the study showed that 35.22 l/s on the average was recorded as discharge into the distributary canal and 22.39 l/s out of the distributary canal with average distribution efficiencies and losses of 65.04 % as against 90% recommended by FAO and 12.83 l/s respectively. The results obtained for the various farm units showed significant variations, both at the head-end and tail-end of the farm, hence low equity of distribution as a result of low water supply. Hence, the performance of the water distribution systems of the project area was found to be very low which can be attributed to poor canal condition, damaged structures and indiscriminate operation of release gates by the farmers, illegal diversions of water using water pumps and complete blockage by the head-end farmers are also contributing factors.
Keywords: irrigation, distribution system, distribution efficiency and distribution canal losses
SOME EMERGING AND IMPROVISED MATERIALS FOR TRICKLE IRRIGATION: A REVIEW
SANI I. A.
Department of Agricultural and Bioenvironmental, Federal Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State, Nigeria.
Trickle irrigation is an environmentally friendly process that utilised a range of improvised materials in combination with series of techniques to irrigate crops. This has however remained in pilot scale studies as far as the application of these techniques in the field realities are concerned, hence the need for compilation of research on the subject. This review found that the use of improvised materials should be done after a pilot study confirmed the feasibility of using the technique. Otherwise, the technique may incur unnecessary and avoidable cost. Selection of suitable and cost – effective materials are critical to the success of trickle irrigation system.
Keywords: trickle irrigation, materials, emerging, improvised.
DETERMINATION OF CLIMATIC CONDITIONS ON THE PLANTING AND ESTABLISHMENT OF WHITE YAM (DISCOREA RATUNDATA) IN SUGU GANYE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA.
*E. D SINI **W. CHINDA ***O. PETER ***L. Y. TARIMBUKA ****J. TIZE
*Department of Basic Sciences, Adamawa State College of Agriculture P. M. B 2088, Ganye, Adamawa State, Nigeria. **Department of Forestry and Technology, Adamawa State College of Agriculture Ganye. ***Department of Basic Sciences, Adamawa State College of Agriculture Ganye ****Department of General Studies, Adamawa State College of Agriculture.
The studies observe the climatic condition on the planting and establishment of white yam (dicoria ratundata) in Sugu Ganye local government area Adamawa state Nigeria. The study used daily monitoring and observation of two hundreds (200) tubers of yam seed from planting to establishment. The observation shows that the establishments of yam in the study area are not the same, about 75% of the yam planted at the same time in the study area established within the period of 64 days, while 25% delayed with period of 18 days after. This is as a result of the climatic influences, selection of good quality seed and timing of planting date. Base on observation temperature, moisture and wind were the most important climatic determinant for the establishment of yam. Base on the findings, it was recommended that farmers are advice to make use of timing in planting date, planting date should not exceed between ending January and February, avoid planting in the months of April and May, selection of good quality seed.
Keywords: Determination, Climatic, Conditions, Planting, Establishment.
PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES OF FISH CURED WITH TWO ENERGY SOURCES.
EBOCHUO, V.C*1; EMUKA, E.C1; ONYEME, O1; EZENNADI, P.O1 and AHAOTU, E.O2
1Department of Fisheries and Marine Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Ohaji, Nigeria. 2Department of Animal Production Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Ohaji, Nigeria.
The proximate composition and organoleptic properties of silver catfish (Bagrus filamentosus) cured with Alchornea cordifolia wood and Kainji Gas Klin (KGK) were determined. Fourteen pieces of Bagrus filamentosus weighing between 500g and 600g were purchased, killed, degusted and washed to remove blood and slime. The fish were divided into two groups. Each group were immersed in ten liters of water that was mixed with 300g of salt to get 3% brine solution and allowed to stand for an hour respectively. The first group was cured with Alchornea cordifolia wood while the second group was cured with Kainji Gas Klin (KGK) for four hours respectively. Cured samples were allowed to cool at ambient temperature for 12 hours and were packed in a sterile black polythene bag before being sent for proximate and organoleptic analysis. The result of the proximate analysis showed that fish cured with Kainji Gas Klin (KGK) had significantly (P<0.05) higher dry matter than the same fish cured with Alchornea cordifolia wood (92.40b+/-0.10 and 90.00a+/-0.10). Fish cured with Kainji Gas Klin (KGK) had significantly (P<0.05) lesser moisture content than same fish cured with Alchornea cordifolia wood (8.90b +/-0.02 and 14.40a+/- 0.01). Fish cured with Alchornea cordifolia wood had insignificantly higher (P>0.05) protein content than Kainji Gas Klin (KGK) cured fish (59.98 +/- 0.09 and 61.11b +/- 0.10). Fish cured with Alchornea cordifolia wood had significantly (P<0.05) higher lipid content than fish cured with Kainji Gas Klin (18.71a+/-0.08 and 10.10b +/-0.10). The result of the organoleptic analysis showed that the parameters taste and appearance for Bagrus filamentosus cured with wood and gas were significantly (P<0.05) different scores. However, aroma, mouth feel and general acceptability so treated fish were not significantly different (P>0.05). The two sources of energy could be used to cure fish since the parameters examined fall within the recommended ranges.
Keywords: Proximate composition, Organoleptic properties, Alchornea cordifolia wood, Bagrus filamentosus, Kainji Gas Klin (KGK), cured fish.
CLIMATE CHANGE IN POULTRY PRODUCTION SYSTEM – A REVIEW
AHAOTU, E.O1, OSUJI, F.C2, IBE, L.C2 AND SINGH, R.R4
1Department of Animal Production Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Nigeria 2Department of Estate Management, School of Environmental Management Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Nigeria. 3Department of Livestock Production Management, Vanbandhu College of Veterinary Science and AH, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat, India.
Due to the tremendous growth and unpredictable figures of production in Nigerian poultry sector, there are several problems affecting growth of the industry, among which are environmental challenges which imposes severe stress on birds thus leading to reduced performance. Invariably, reviewing the impacts of heat stress on poultry production seems to be the main research area in the present study. The purpose of this article therefore is to review the seasonal fluctuations and its detrimental effects on poultry production systems.
Keywords: Poultry production, Seasonal Fluctuations, Environmental Challenges, Management.
THE SPECIES COMPOSITION AND DIVERSITY OF THE COASTAL WATERS OF ONDO STATE, NIGERIA
JOSEF BAMIDELE BOLARINWA
Department of Fisheries Technology, Lagos State Polytechnic, P.M.B 21606, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria.
A study of the icthyofauna resources of the coastal waters of Ondo State of Nigeria conducted for 18 months (June 2011-December, 2012) revealed the presence of 67 finfish species with the clariids(especially Clarias gariepinus and Heterobranchus bidorsalis) and cichlids(especially Oreochromis niloticus and Coptodon zilli) dominating the stock accounting for 42% and 16% respectively. Other predominant families were A high ’Claroitedae’(Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) with 9.2% contribution, ’Channidae’(Parachanna africana) with 8.7%, Osteoglossidae (Heterotis niloticus) with 7.1%, Gymnarchidae( Gymnarchus niloticus), Mugilidae (Mugil cephalus) and Clupeidae (Ethmalosa fimbriata). Lausanne Index of Abundance was 89.7% while Margalef.s index( a measure of species richness) was 5.18. The Length-weight relationships of these predominant fishes showed negative allometric growth pattern. A high level of heterogeneity of stock was observed as revealed by Simpson Index and Shannon-Weiner Index of General Diversity (H i) which were 0.13 and 0.35 respectively. A lot of similarity in species composition existed as revealed by Evenness Index(E) of 0.20 and Berger-Perker Index of 0.88. There was comparatively higher catches of fish in the dry season than the wet season probably due to reduced water volume which concentrated the fishes for easier catchability. The author recommends the need to protect the existing stock especially the monospecific families like the Osteoglosidae and Gymnarchidae through regular monitoring of the physicochemical parameters of the coastal waters which are highly susceptible to crude oil pollution, Ondo State being a crude oil-producing area. More funds should be committed by the government to researches on population dynamics and biomass estimate of our coastal waters.
Keywords: Species composition, diversity indices, coastal, allometry, Length-weight relationship, icthyofauna, predominant.
TREND ANALYSIS IN RAINFALL VARIABILITY IN PARTS OF NORTH CENTRAL STATES, NIGERIA: A NON PARAMETRIC APPROACH.
MUSA1, Y. M. SULEIMAN2 AND T. I. YAHAYA2
1Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria 2Federal University of Technology, Minna.
Rainfall variability and change, its impacts and the associated vulnerabilities is a growing concern across the globe. It is believed to be one of the greatest impediments for achieving food security and sustainable crop production globally. The study utilized 30 years Climate Prediction Center, Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) data. Non-parametric test, Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen slope estimator (β) to investigate the spatio-temporal trend and rate of change in rainfall over the study area. The monthly rainfall charactristics shows signficant downward trend at the onset period in May at 0.05 and 0.1 alpha values in Lokoja and Abuja while at the cessation period in October, signficant upward trend at 0.5 alpha value was detected in Lafia stations. The rate of the significant upward trend in the seasonal rainfall were 4.56 mm yr-1 at Lafia in the month of September, 3.72 mm yr-1 at Lokoja in the month of October and 6.06 mm yr-1 at Lafia in the month of October, respectively. The study revealed that the lowest coefficient of variation in seasonal rainfall occurred in Ilorin at 20.36% while the highest occurred in Lafia station at 37.79%. The result of annual Coefficient of variation also shows that Ilorin station has the lowest variation at 17.82% and the highest was found in Lafia at 37.7%. It is established that changes in rainfall pattern have impact on crop production. The study therefore recommend mainstreaming of farming calendar into the changing climate regime to ensure improved crop yield.
Keywords: Rainfall, Trend, Variability, Non-parametric Approach, North Central States, Nigeria
AN ASSESMENT OF THES CHALLENGES OF YOUTH EMPOWERMENT PROGRAMME THROUGH AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION.
ABDULLAHI BASHIR AMINU
Department of Agricultural Education Federal College of Education, Zaria.
This paper pointed out the different challenges associated with youth empowerment programme in Nigeria for sustainable development and self-reliance. In recent times, one of the surest ways of promoting and enhanced as sustained agricultural program in Nigeria, precisely is through the full involvement and active participation of the youths. Many parts of the world are faced with food shortage as a result of the growing population, while the growing crises presents a challenge. There is an opportunity for youth who are the future leaders to take part in agricultural development through practical action so as to rapidly accelerate food production. It is recommended that the government should improve on the methods of reaching out to the youth, regardless of their ethics, cultural religious, geographical or political affiliation, by establishing good schools and scholarships opportunities and community recreation centers where they can spend their free time positively. It is also recommended that there should be greater investment on the human capital investment of youth. This implies that improvement in the education sector, employment opportunities and social services to directly address the most important problem and challenges of poverty and reduces crime rate among the youth.
Keywords: Production, Challenges, Empowerment, Assessment, Youth, Agricultural.
ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY AMONG BROILER POULTRY PRODUCERS IN JERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA
TIJANI, B. A., TIJJANI, H. AND GADZAMA, A. A.
Department of Agricultural Technology, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
The study estimated economic efficiency among broiler poultry producers in Jere Local Government Area, Borno State, Nigeria. Five (5) wards were purposively selected out of the existing fifteen (15) wards in the area. These were areas where broiler poultry producers are predominantly found. One hundred and fifty (150) broiler poultry producers were randomly and proportionately selected from the five wards for the study, through a simple random sampling procedure from the list of broiler poultry producers that was obtained from their association. Data for the study were collected from both primary and secondary information sources. The analytical tools employed for this study includes descriptive statistics, data envelopment analysis (DEA) and Tobit regression analysis. The finding indicates that about 97.33% of the broiler poultry producers were economically inefficient while 2.67% were fully efficient in the study area. The maximum and minimum economic efficiency estimates were 1.0000 and 0.0100 respectively, with a mean of 0.3030. The result also indicates that educational level and off-farm income were negative and significant at 1% and 10% levels respectively while household size was positive and significant at 1%. The study recommended that there is need to re-strategies the extension program designed for broiler poultry farmers in order to ensure that they comply with the various recommended input use that would maximize their profit. There is also need to improve on the quality of adult education extension program to educate broiler poultry producers on efficient use of farm inputs that would their economic efficiency level.
Keywords: Economic Efficiency, Broiler Poultry Producers, Jere, Borno State, Nigeria
DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF HARDNESS AND IMPACT STRENGTH OF CATTLE HOOF THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITE FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION.
ISSA A.K1, RAJI LUQMAN2, & LATEEF, LUKUMAN AKINTUNJI3
1,2,3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State.
Owing to environmental challenges, inability to recycle most of the conventional materials and high need for light weight material in many engineering application. This work developed thermoplastic composite material using pure water sachet (Recycle low density poly ethylene) as matrix and cattle hoof (CH) as reinforcement materials. The composite material was produced using hand lay-up technique. The CH fibers with particle sizes of 0-300 um was used in different volume fraction ; 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% weight ratio . Then different mechanical and physical properties tests were carried out. Izod impact testing machine and universal testing machine was used for both impact and hardness test. Also density and water absorption of the composite were examined. The results shows that the hardness and impact strength were increased with increase in fiber loading from 13.45MPa to 23.86MPa, and 173.12J/m2 to 474.54J/m2 respectively. Similarly, the water absorption increased with fiber loading from 0.0055% to 0.046% and the density also increased with the fiber loading from 0.000481kg/cm3 to 0.000907kg/cm3. Based on the result obtained in this study, it is recommended that the composites can be used in the production of vehicle exteriors plastic parts.
Keywords: Hardness, Impact, Loading, Thermoplastic, Reinforcement