Harvard International Journal of African Sustainable Development (HIJASD)
Vol.10 (7) June, 2019 Editions ISSN: 0081 – 3998
HARVARD RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL,
Harvard College, 86 Brattle Street Cambridge,
Africa (Nigeria) Contact Conference Coordinator;
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Copyright © 2019 Harvard Research and Publications International
ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHRONIC MALNUTRITION AND SOURCES OF DRINKING WATER IN NIGERIA
*ADEWARA SUNDAY OLABISI, **MARTINE VISSER, ***GANA A.J.
*Department of Economics, Landmark University, Kwara State, Nigeria **School of Economics, Faculty of Commerce, University of Cape Town, South Africa ***Department of Civil Engineering, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria.
Chronic malnutrition otherwise known as stunted growth is one of the major causes of high infant mortality in the developing countries including Nigeria. Water is an important component of human diet but drinking of low quality water may increase the risk of infant mortality due to children low immunity level. Sources of drinking water have effect on the quality of such water and on the health of children. This paper focus on this issue by using the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) datasets to construct child height-for-age Z-scores and the regression analysis to analyze the effects of different sources of drinking water and sanitation on the incidence of chronic malnutrition in Nigeria. The paper also calculates the probability of a child being stunted as measure of chronic malnutrition among children aged 0-59 months. The results show that child height- Z-scores are positive and significantly related to access to borehole and piped water, and negative and significant for access to well water. The probabilities of a child being stunted was significantly lower for children drinking borehole or piped water, whereas well water has a positive and significant effect on chronic malnutrition among children. Sanitation variables shows that access to flush toilets is positive and significantly related to child height-for-age Z-scores, but the same measure was negatively related to children’s use of pit latrines. In line with this, the probability of a child being stunted was negative and significantly related to access to flush toilets, but positively related with pit latrines. The results implies that increasing access to safe drinking water and flush toilets for households will significantly reduce the high incidence of chronic malnutrition and water-borne diseases among children in Nigeria. It is therefore advisable for the policy makers to fast track provision of safe drinking water and sanitation in the country.
JEL Classification: D60, I10, I12, I32, I38, Q25
THE IMPACT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOs) ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT IN KATSINA METROPOLIS
*NASEER BABANGIDA MUAZU AND **ABUBAKAR ABDULLAHI
*Faculty of Economics and Management Science, University of the Western Cape, South Africa. **Department of Geography, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria.
Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have been in existence for quite a long time in Katsina State, yet their presence and impact is not fully evaluated, recognized and appreciated by most of the community members. In most cases, community members misunderstood and misperceived the mission of NGOs. On the side of government, the level of commitment towards the NGOs appeared low. It is for this reason this study examines the impact of NGOs in ensuring sustainable development projects within Katsina Metropolis with special emphasis on environmental protection, poverty alleviation and health care services. Survey data were collected from NGOs programs beneficiaries in some communities in Katsina metropolis, Katsina State, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 150 NGOs beneficiaries from five (5) selected political wards of twelve (12) in Katsina metropolis. Also, interviews were used to collect relevant data using a structured questionnaire survey to NGO officials which include; the development officers and facilitators in five (5) randomly selected NGO offices that operate within Katsina Metropolis. A descriptive and chi-square analysis was used to present the results. The findings shows that, NGOs impacts on sustainable development are mainly linked to efficiency of NGOs officials and projects executed. The findings of the study can benefit the government and NGOs in creating more areas of collaboration for sustainable development programs.
Keywords: Nongovernmental, Organizations, Sustainable, Development, Project.
THE POLITICS OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS IN WEST AFRICAN SUB-REGION: A STUDY OF NIGER-NIGERIA BILATERAL RELATIONS
*MOHAMMED BALA ADAMU1 **ABBA ISAH MUHAMMAD ***SANI MUSTAPHA KURA
*Division of General Studies University of Maiduguri, Nigeria **Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Maiduguri ***Department of Social Work, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
This study examines the politics of international economic relations in West African sub region with particular emphases on Niger – Nigeria bilateral relations. This study specifically assesses the trade relations between Nigeria and Niger Republic; the level of integration between Nigeria and Niger; the bilateral relations between the two countries. The study also identifies the challenges confronting their bilateral relations. The source of data for this study was mainly from secondary source. The study was analysed using content analysis. From the result of the study reveals that the economic trade relations between Nigeria and Niger involve the exports and imports goods and services. On the bilateral relations between Nigeria and Niger the study reveals that territorial unity and cohesion beyond successive authorities under the old empires of the Songhrai, the Borno, and the Hausa city-states. Despite the modern state system thus were able to retain their territorial relations and a very strong cultural tie. Fundamental characteristics of Hausa territory and the Maradi micro-region the considerable interdependence between settlement dynamics, urban development, agricultural production and trade with all these factors, the area has greater potential for integration than most other West African areas in economic and social development. The findings reveal that the challenges confronting Nigeria and Niger economic relations include high rate of smuggling which has destroyed the local industrial growth. Several clashes also occurred between the smugglers and their cohorts. As a result of who become lords or mafias in the smuggling business. Also the informal trade has also created security challenges especially in Nigeria as most of the smugglers engage in arms trade in light weapons, which has led to insurgency in the two countries. The Study recommends that Nigeria and Niger should intensify the joint border patrols to tackle smuggling and insurgency affecting the two countries. There should be reliable structures of security cooperation to prevent the spill-over of conflicts which Boko haram has benefited from the Libya cum Mali conflicts.
Keywords: Politics, International and Economic Relations
THE DYNAMICS OF INTER-STATE RELATIONS AND THE CHALLENGES OF CROSS-BORDER CONFLICTS: THE NIGERIA-BENIN EXPERIENCE
ABDULRAHMAN DANGANA LUKMAN AND MOHAMMED FAAL PhD
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
Interstate relations between Nigeria and the Republic of Benin centered much on the issues of cross-border security; illegal migration; porous border arrangement; and the harmonization and integration of states policies toward national development. However community cross-border conflict between Lolo and Madecali straddling the two states present a challenge to both interstate relations and socio-communal interactions. Even though, all the ethnic groups in the border lived in varying degrees of cross-cultural cooperation and ethno-linguistic integration, border conflict erupted in 2009 over the disputed area of Tungan-Kungi. The conflict was based on territorial claim over boundary and a competition over scarce resources. This paper analyzes the nature of inter-state relations between the two states and the impacts of the border conflict to the borderlands communities. The study employs the qualitative research method which involves In-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). While FGDs were conducted in each community; primary data was collected from the officials in the Benin Embassy, Nigeria. The paper adopts the Functionalist theory of international boundaries which assumes that, local informal networks allow local authorities to coordinate common regional goals while reducing bi-national tensions between states. Finding shows that, the conflict witnessed mass displacement, upsetting of civilians, miserable life condition and deplorable situation as people of Tungan-Kungi were forced to flee their homes, land, and resources. This study recommends that authorities should establish a joint-mechanism for peaceful coexistence in collaboration with traditional/ local authorities in the mediation and negotiation process.
Keywords: Interstate Relations, Border Conflicts, Border Security, Economic Cooperation, Lolo and Madecali
CHECKLIST OF AVIFAUNA OF MUBI SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA
Department of Zoology, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.
Studies on the bird species diversity and relative abundance between January to October 2017, was carried out to checklist the avifauna of Mubi South Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria, and to determine the avian diversity and density of Mubi South Local Government Area. Three methods; Breeding Bird Survey-line transect, distance sampling and wandering Point centred quadrant (Wandering PCQ) method along and within the study area were used. Forty Six (46)bird species belonging to twenty three (23) families were recorded at Mubi South Local Government Area. There was a significant difference between the bird species at the different site subjected to student t-test (P<0.05). Whereas in Czekonowski similarity index (Sc) showed no relationship between study sites and bird species. This study revealed that Mubi South is a good area of avifauna diversity.
Keywords: checklist, avifauna, Mubi South, diversity, density
COMPARING THE STRENGTH OF BLOCKS PRODUCED FROM DIFFERENT MATERIALS
*ADEWARA S.O. **GANA A.J. **ATOYEBI O. D. **TOLULOPE O. G. ***ABOLUSORO A. A. *OLONI.E.F
*Department of Economics, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State **Civil Engineering Department, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State ***College of Agricultural Science, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State
Blocks are known to be one of the man- made building materials used for various construction purpose. Blocks can be made from different materials as far as it can stand the test of strength. The major type of block used for the construction of walls in many building is the sandcrete block which is made from cement, sharp sand, and water. Due to the high cost of construction materials such as cement and sharp sand, this study was done to investigate the use of other construction materials (quarry dust, laterite and red earth), therefore this study is focused on the use of other naturally occurring building materials to substitute the conventional ones in making of masonry blocks that could probably aid in reducing the cost of production of blocks to be used for construction purpose thereby also causing a reduction in the cost of construction of buildings and other engineering structure.Various tests such as sieve analysis, specific gravity test and plastic limit and liquid limit test were carried out on the materials used for production of the blocks. A total of five (5) types of blocks were made with twelve (12) block samples made for each type making sixty (60) in total, each of the blocks were cured using the open air curing method and the compressive strength test was carried out on the 7, 14, 21 and 28 curing day for three (3) different blocks from each of the block types made. All blocks 6 inch blocks. The test result indicated that the materials were suitable for block making. On crushing the blocks it was discovered that the compressive strength of some did not meet up to the minimum recommended standard of 2.5 N/ mm2 for five (5) blocks as recommend by the Nigeria industrial standard (Nis 87:2000). The overall average strength for the blocks made with cement and sharp sand (sancrete) ranged from 2. 08N/mm2 to 2.53 N/ mm2,for those made with cement and laterite had compressive strength that ranged from 0. 96N/mm2 and lastly those made with red earth, laterite and sharp sand had the least average compressive strength for every of the curing days and it ranged from 0.75N/mm2 to 1. 58N/mm2.
Keywords: Comparing, Strength, Blocks, Different, Materials.
THE DETERMINANT OF TRANSPORT FARE AMONG KEKE NAPEP RIDERS IN BENIN METROPOLIS
OHIOMAH SIMEON SULEMAN,
Humanities and Social Sciences Dept., Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State.
Mobility is important to the growth of an economy because it move people and goods to their destination. The way transport is delivered as well as the qualities affects both the attitude and behavior of travelers. The expansion of cities and population has made the demand for Keke Napep as a means of transportation imperative. To be able to reach the interior and deeper into streets the Keke Napep has come to fill the gap. Commuters fare paid Keke Napep transport is a function of accessibility, short time for loading. The Keke Napep can meander through rugged places that other operators cannot get to. They are sometimes overloaded by the operators because of poor regulations by government. The methodology for the study is both secondary and the primary method. It is therefore, recommended that operators must be courteous and government step up regulations of Keke Napep but not to jeopardize their activities as it is an avenue to reduce unemployment in the state.
Keywords: Keke Napep, Accessibility, Commuter, Operators, Government
COMMERCIAL OPEN AIR COOKING AND GLOBAL WARMING: PERCEPTION OF LOCAL EATERY OPERATORS IN AWKA
*MOZIE, CHISOM EJIOFOR, *NWOSU, CHIBUIKE JULIUS **ADAKU, CHINWE ANYAMENE *UZOAGBA, OGOCHUKWU NNEKA
*Department of Mass Communication, Nnamdi Azikiwe UniversityAwka **Department of Mass Communication, Federal Polytechnic Oko
This research work titled”Commercial Open Air Cooking and Global Warming: Perception of Local Eatery Operators in Awka” came against the backdrop of the vital role of climate change in human development and survival. This import of climate change to human destiny has expectedly placed the subject in the front burner of global social, economic and political discourse. Nigeria has not been an exception in this global concern as the country is also obliged to enlighten and mobilize her citizens towards behaviours that will reduce concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. One of the areas of concern in this respect is carbon emission from open air cooking which is a common practice in the country. The study was designed as a survey due to the nature of the variables under investigation and anchored on the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices model .A total of 387 respondents were drawn from commercial open air chefs around Awka Urban through a simple random procedure while the instrument of data collection was a questionnaire containing sets of questions which addressed the measurable variables. From the quantitative data gathered and analyzed, it was found that local eatery operators in Awka have low exposure to the issues of global warming; the eatery operators have low knowledge of factors that contribute to global warming and that they have failed to take steps towards behaviour that mitigates global warming in line with suggestion made by global and local agencies. It was recommended that Global warming campaign should be intensified targeting specifically commercial eatery operators with the view to improving their knowledge and awareness of the implication of their activities to global warming.
Keywords: Climate Change, Exposure, Global Warming, Knowledge and Mitigating Behaviour
EFFECT OF STREAM CURING ON THE COMPREHENSIVE STRENGTH OF ULTRA-HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE.
* GANA.A. J. **ABOLUSORO A. A. *T. JEREMIAH ***OLONI.E.F
*Civil Engineering Department, Landmark University Omu-Aran, Kwara state. **College of Agricultural Science, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State ***Department of Economics, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State
Concrete, in today’s world is a very essential construction material that is widely used because of its good properties like durability, adaptability, versatility, and sustainability. Concrete is a composite construction material that comprises of aggregate, cement and fluid. In assessing the viability of making use of local waste to create Ultra High Strength Concrete. The compressive strength test was carried out. The production of UHSC involves the use of various constituents, like ordinary Portland cement, fine sand, fine quartz powder, HRWRA, Rice Husk Ash (RHA) water and steel fibre, which was gotten from disposed tyres.Results from the analysis done using Response Surface Methodology showed that UHSC produced using steam curing regime has a lower compressive strength value to the UHSC produced using normal water at room temperature curing regime. Recommendations are made for the present research assessments for future work.
Keywords: Effect, Stream curing comprehensive strength, ultra high strength concrete.
THE RELATIVE VALUE OF HUMAN LIVES: NIGERIAN NEWSPAPERS’ FRAMING OF RELIGIOUS KILLINGS IN NEW ZEALAND AND SRI LANKA
*ADENUSI, RAMOTALAI ADETOLA; **ONIFADE, OLUWAFEMI SUNDAY, AND ***BABALOLA, AKINOLA OLUDARE
*Babcock University Ilishan-Remo **Department of Mass Communication, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi ***Department of Mass Communication, Yaba College of Technology
Historically, religious is a potentially volatile issue across the world many wars have been fought because of it. Today, religion-motivated killings are of huge concern across the globe with varying reactions depending on the individual or group involved. This study examines the framing of two recent terrorist acts on worshipers in mosques and churches in New Zealand and Sri Lanka respectively by two Nigerian newspapers. Based on the tenets of agenda setting and framing theories, the study evaluates the comments of the selected Nigerian newspapers on the two acts of terrorism. Two newspapers were purposively selected for the perceived dominance of a religion on their editorial boards. Daily Trust was selected to represent the Islamic perspective and The Sun was selected to represent the interest of Christianity. Editorial comments of both newspapers on the two incidents were studied using a qualitative design. Critical Discourse Analysis is the specific methodology used for the analysis. The study concludes that the editorial comments of Daily Trust on both acts of terror were aimed at protecting Islam and not humanity. The Sun on the other hand was more humanistic in its editorial comments.
Keywords: Religion, Terrorism, Framing, Peace and Critical Discourse Analysis.
PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES OF FISH FARMS IN BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA
UMARU, B.Y,. BABUGA, U.S, AND 2GARBA, A
1Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria 2Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Binyaminu Usman Polytechnic, Hadejia, Jigawa State.
The study identified the prospects and constraints associated with fish farms in Bauchi State, Nigeria. Socio-economic characteristics and constraints associated with the fish culture farms were examined. The fish farms were farm enterprises that produced fingerlings and dried fish using smoking kiln. Data for the study were obtained from 7 existed fish farms in the study area. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage and Likert’s scale.The study revealed that fish farms were mostly operated by the males’ folks with the age range of 41-50 years that were married with the household size of 6-10 persons. The fish farms had farmers who were experienced, educated, and were into full time farming. Nevertheless, the fish farms suffered the constraints of high cost of investment, irregular supply of electricity, poor floating and poor drying of fish by the smoking kiln amongst others. It was therefore recommended that the operators of fish farms be provided with loan assistance, current technical knowledge and adequate training to enable them overcome the constraints.
Keywords: Prospects, Challenges, Fish, Farms, Nigeria and Bauchi State
REVOLUTIONARY IMPULSE IN LEROI JONES’ DUTCHMAN AND THE SLAVE
General Studies Division, College of Education, Agbor, Delta State.
This paper is on LeRoi Jones (now, Imama Amiri Baraka) two plays, Dutchman and The Slave – two Afro-American texts that centre on racial war between Whites and Blacks in America. In both plays, there is the urge to revolutionized, the resultant effect of the socio-political cum economic apathy prevalent in that same society. In Dutchman, The White race wins, while the Black race wins in The Slave. The exposition apart, this paper, aims at the literary discuss of the philosophy behind the Black-dreams and LeRoi Jones’ conviction that the most basic of all human rights, is the right to self-defence, as portrayed by his ardent character, Walker.
THE INFLUENCE AND MOULDING TECHNIQUES FOR DIFFERENT SECTION, THICKNESS AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE AS-CAST A142 ALUMINIUM ALLOY
*BRUNO ORISANAIYE AKINJIDE **DANLADI ISMAILA, SHEHU ABDULHAMID
*Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria **Department of Mechanical Engineering, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola Adamawa State, Nigeria.
An investigation on the effect of different moulding techniques, section thickness and mechanical properties of as-cast A142 Aluminium alloy was carried out. The A142 Aluminium alloy was produced using green, dry and loam sand mould castings at the foundry shop of department of metallurgical and material engineering Ahmadu Bello University Zaria (ABU). The alloy was cast into cylindrical bars of 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20mm diameter and 300mm by length each. The as-cast bars were cut and machined to standard tensile impact and hardness test specimens. The tensile strengths, hardness values and impact test of the various cast samples were determined. It was found that both tensile and impact strength properties decreases as the section size increases. While the hardness slightly increases with the section thickness. A142 alloys produced in dry sand mould have the highest tensile strength while alloys produced from green sand mould have the highest impact strength and A142 aluminum alloys produced in loam sand have the highest hardness.
Keywords: tensile strength, impact toughness and hardness number
IBINAKU’S THEOREMS OF RIGHT TRIANGLES
IBINABO M. TAMUNO-OMIE & AKURO SEMINIWORIMA
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Rivers State, Nigeria.
In this work, we present proofs and application of a derivative (Ibinaku’s Theorems of Right Triangles) of Pythagoras’ theorem. These theorems are to solve rightangled triangle and relevant problems in Euclidean Geometry.
Keywords: Pythagoras, Pythagoras’ theorem, Pythagorean triples, Ibinaku’s theorem, Heron’s formula