ATBU CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS (VOL. 3 NO. 1)


THEME:

NEW DIRECTIONS AND UNCOMMON CHANGES FOR THIRD WORLD NATIONS TRANSFORMATION


DATE:

11 June, 2015

 

VENUE:

Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, 1000 Capacity Hall, Bauchi, Bauchi State.

 

 

ANALYSIS OF LAND USE/LAND COVER CHANGES IN JIBIA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA KATSINA STATE NIGERIA.

*ABDULKADIR I. FUNTUA & HASSAN MUSA, **AHMAD BABAYO

*Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi

**Department of Geoinformatics and Surveying, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi

ABSTRACT

Conversion of agricultural and settlement land to an impounded reservoir by constructing a 3.6km dam on Gada river in 1980s and the laying of a 192km irrigation canal network in a 3.5km2 restricted land for irrigation and farming and population influx has resulted to an unprecedented accelerated land use/land cover changes in Jibia Local Government. This paper analyze these changes and their impacts at a four year epochs in using TM and ETM+ Landsat satellite imageries of the years 1986, 1990, 2000 and 2010 respectively. Erdas imagine version 9.1 software was used for image processing and classification and ArcGIS version 9.3 software was used for map making and analysis. The result shows an increase in the surface water bodies from 2.635 km2 in 1986 to 33km2 in 2010. The settlement areas increase from 6.00 km2 in 1986 to 10.123km2 in 2010 and the agricultural land decrease from 728 km2 1986 to 622km2 respectively. The constructed irrigation structures covering 3.5 km2 imposed restriction on residential land expansion and development of especially in the most populated areas of Jibiya Magama and Faru and other villages around the dam.

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ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECTSOF ETHANOIC ROOT EXTRACT OF Parkiabiglobosa

*DR. FRIDAY JOHN **MRS JOB MOJISOLA C. & MR SUNDAY PANDUGUR G.,

***MR. MIRIPONTI & MR AWAL YUSUF ABUBAKAR

*Center for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

**Department of Science Laboratory Technology University of Jos, Nigeria

***National Biotechnology and Development Agency (NABDA), Abuja, Nigeria

ABSTRACT

This study examined the antibacterial effects of ethanoic root extract of Parkiabiglobosa.In Africa, decoctions of Parkiabiglobosa have been shown locally by traditional healers to treat various illnesses. The ethanoic extract of Parkiabiglobosaroot is dark brown in colour and odourless. The result of this study showed that the ethanolic extract of the root of Parkiabiglobosa contain biochemical constituents that have antimicrobial effect against all the test organisms. These organisms includes: Proteus Vulgaris, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Escherichia coli, KlebsiellaSp and Staphylococcus aureus. The result obtained in this study also showed that at high concentration (500mg/ml) the extracts were very active against the entire organism while at the lowest concentration (31.25mg/ml) most of the organisms were resistant, except the ethanolic extracts on staphylococcus aureus. staphylococusaureus is the most susceptible of all the test organisms used. The lowest affect is in klebsiella while staphylococcus aureus showed the highest effect.

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DEMAND FOR RESIDENTIAL HOUSES: THEORETICAL APPROACH

ABUBAKAR SANUSI, TIJJANI ALIYU & HASSAN   UMAR   MICHIKA

 ABSTRACT

The work titled Demand for Residential Houses: Theoretical Approach is qualitative in nature. Secondary data is basically used for the research. The research covers, the concept of house, the meaning of residential house, types of Houses, housing demand and Supply, determinants of demand for Housing, housing inflation, barriers to housing development and affordability. The study also discusses problems of housing, housing need in Nigeria, the neoclassical consumer theory of housing Demand, The theory of housing and interest rates. It finally explains Interest Rates and Rental housing, Interest Rates and Tenure Choice. Conclusion and recommendations made base on the literature reviewed.

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STRUCTURE DAMAGES DUE TO INFLUENCE OF SWELLING POTENTIAL OF EXPANSIVE SOILS ON FOUNDATIONS: A CASE STUDY

*CHEN J.A. **MATAWAL D.S. ***FASUBA A.J

*Department of Civil Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria

**Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute, Abuja, Nigeria

***Development Control, Federal Capital Development Authority, Abuja, Nigeria

ABSTRACT

Structure damages are becoming very common at Baure, Gombe State, Nigeria, especially in case of low structures, probably due to expansive soil behaviour. This study analyzes a typical area; Baure in Gombe state, Nigeria where expansive soil was found to be the cause of structural damages. Soil samples collected at different locations below the foundation level of the affected buildings were tested according to the conventional geotechnical investigation tests, to evaluate the swelling characteristics of the expansive soil. Direct estimation of swelling potential (free swell and swell pressure) as well as index and particle size properties were used for the evaluation of swell potential and identification of the soil. Mineralogy composition of samples was determined by x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Quantitative analysis of XRD results revealed that the average percentages of different clay minerals in the samples are 51% montmorillinite, 32% illite, 8% offretite, 4% kaolinite, 3% microcline and 2% quartz.   All the tests analysis led to the conclusion that the soil had an average to high swelling potential due to the presence of expansive-clay mineral, montmorillinite.

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EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS SPICES IN INHIBITING THE SPOILAGE RATE OF FOOD

*IRUOLAJE, F. O., & OGBEBA, J. AND **DOGO, B. A.

*Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.

**National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC). Federal Secretariat Complex, Oke-Mosan, Abeokuta, Ogun state.

ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of locally used spices Zingber officinale (ginger), Myristrica fragrams (nutmeg), Allium sativum (Garlic), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), and Curry powder in inhibiting the spoilage rate of food were determined. The spoilage organisms isolated from control plates were Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus from jellof rice, Proteus mirabilis and Bacillus cereus from fish sauce, Enterobacter aerogenes ,Klebisella pneumonia and Escherichia coli from bean cake(moi moi). In the plates containing spices in all the food samples only Bacillus cereus was able to grow. The result of colony count expressed in cfu/ml showed that plates containing curry powder and thyme had no growth. Ginger had 1.0 x 102, garlic 2.0 x 102, and nutmeg 5.0 x 102, while control had 1.28 x 104 from jellof rice. In bean cake, curry powder had 4.0 x 102, thyme 1.2 x 103, ginger 9.0 x 102, garlic 5.0 x 102, and nutmeg 7.0 x 102 while control plate had 2.25 x 104. Curry powder and garlic had nil, thyme 9.0 x 102,ginger 3.0 x 102, nutmeg 9.0 x 102 while control had 1.15 x 104, from fish sauce. The plates containing curry powder in all the food samples showed highest inhibitory effect on the food spoilage organisms. Nutmeg, Garlic, Ginger, and Thyme also showed strong antimicrobial effect against food pathogens in all the food samples. There was a gross reduction in microbial load in the experimental plates (with spices) compared with control plates (without spices) as indicated by the number of colonies in eachplate. The result of this study showed that spices have inhibitory effect on food borne pathogens, so they could be used in food preservation as main antimicrobial compounds in order to assure the production of microbiologically stable food.

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FORMULATION OF SELECTIVE MEDIUM FOR THE GROWTH OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI USING SPOILT VEGETABLES.

*OGBEBA, J. & IRUOLAJE, F. O. **DOGO, B. A.

*Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi state, Nigeria.

**National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC). Federal Secretariat Complex, Oke-Mosan, Abeokuta, Ogun state.

ABSTRACT

A selective medium for the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was formulated from spoilt vegetables (cucumber, cabbage and carrot). Their growth on the formulated medium was compared with the growth on commercial medium. On the formulated medium, Staphylococcus aureus showed 2.3×104cfu/ml while on Nutrient agar (NA) it showed 2.6×104cfu/ml. E. coli showed 2.0×104cfu/ml on the formulated medium and on NA it showed 2.5×104cfu/ml. The moisture, ash,fat, crude fibre, protein and carbohydrate contents of cucumber were 89%, 14%, 9%, 5.0%, 5.42%, 5.5%, while for cabbage was 78%, 12%, 1%, 8%, 6%, 8% and carrot had 75%, 16%, 0.5%, 0.30%, 0.34%, 11% respectively. The moisture content of the vegetables was high: 89%, 78% and 75% respectively for cucumber, cabbage and carrot respectively. Cabbage and carrot had the lowest ash content of 1.0% and 0.5% respectively, while carrot had the lowest fat, crude fibre and protein contents of 0.5%, 0.30% and 0.34% respectively. The study revealed that spoilt vegetables (cucumber, cabbage and carrot) contain nutrients that were able to provide the nutritional requirement necessary for the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Thus, spoilt vegetables can be used for the preparation of culture media for isolation and cultivation of these bacteria.

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FACTORS AFFECTING CONSTRUCTION COST OF HOUSING PROJECTS IN NIGERIA

JIDERE HAFSATU BALA MSC & ANOSIKE DOMINION MSC, ANIVS, RSV

Dept. of Estate Management, The Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is to discuss the main factors that affect construction cost of housing project in Nigeria using Bauchi and Gombe as case study. A survey of 37 Property developers/Landlords, 22 Estate Surveyors and Valuers, 20 Quantity Surveyors and Builders was carried out. Use is made up of 10 different factors affecting construction cost of housing project in Nigeria and their degree of importance. The severity of those factors was measured by the level of their importance and was ranked accordingly by the respondents. There is agreement by each group and the overall participants. It was found out that cost of building materials, land and equipments, urbanisation, and cost of labour are the factors with relatively high overall rank. The paper has provided a forum for considering all factors affecting housing projects cost in Nigeria and the interplay between them. This will provide a guide to the focus area to be considered in policy development aiming at improving conditions in the construction industry for affordable housing projects.

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MICROBIAL EVALUATION OF KUNUN-ZAKI PREPARED AND SOLD IN THE BAUCHI METROPOLIS.

*IRUOLAJE, F. O. & OGBEBA, J. **DOGO, B. A.

*Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State Nigeria.

**National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC).

Federal Secretariat Complex, Oke-Mosan, Abeokuta Ogun state.

ABSTRACT

Freshly prepared kunun-zaki samples were collected from ten different locations in the Bauchi metropolis and were analyzed for the presence of some microorganisms frequently implicated in foodborne disease outbreak using standard microbiological methods. Their microbial loads were determined using standard methods. The bacteria load in all the samples were higher compared to fungal load. The bacterial counts ranged from 1.9 x 104 to 8.6 x 106 cfu/ml while fungal counts ranged from 1.3 x 104 to 4.5 x 104 cfu/ml. The bacterial isolates were: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp. and Lactobacillus plantarum while Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the fungal isolates. The results of this study showed that kunun-zaki prepared and sold in all the locations in the Bauchi metropolis were grossly contaminated with potential pathogenic bacteria and antibiotic resistant bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). This may lead to difficulty in antibiotic chemotherapy among those that consume kunun-zaki in Bauchi metropolis.

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INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENTOMOLOGICAL INTERACTION, CLIMATE CHANGE AND INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) DATABASE DESIGN

MATTHIAS DANIEL & E. N. EKAKA-A

Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Nkpolu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Abstract         

The complex link between the sugarcane borer-parasitoid interaction, climate change and information and communication technology (ICT) database design is one of the current front line scientific research question that demands the application of constructing a sound database design for the purpose of effective monitoring of entomological system that is vulnerable to the ecological and environmental risk of climate. The results of this pioneering study have not been seen elsewhere; these are presented and discussed in this paper.

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PREVAILING ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS OF NOISE POLLUTION AND THREATS IN NIGERIA SOCIETY.

Engr. Gana A.J COREN Regd, MNSE, MNICE

Istructe London (UK), ICE London (UK)

Civil Engineering Department College of Science and Engineering

Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State.

Abstract

Prevailing Environmental hazards of Noise pollution has become a serious problem in the 21st century in Nigeria. The perpetual rural-urban Migration and in flu x in to cities have been a most disturbing trend. In big cities several times residents have had to confront various harsh environmental Noise pollution and they live within premises where the Noise are at a zenith. Noise pollution has become a ravaging problem in Nigeria, and stemming from the harsh realities that citizens live in constant epileptic power supply of generator and improper town planning that has not enhance the geometric budding of this burden in Nigeria society, the springing up of mosques, Churches, Schools, and industries within residential area that is an after math of the poor implementation of town planning rules. This paper Examines Environmental Hazards of Noise pollution in Nigeria, its effects and control. The paper also proffered Recommendation and conclusion.

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RE-ENGINEERING THE NIGERIAN DEMOCRACIES: ISSUES FOR REFLECTION

DR A. SADIQ YAHYA & MR UMAR MU’AZU TADAMA

*Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi,

**Department of Rectory, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

My choice of subject for this conference is re-engineering democracies in Nigeria: issues for reflection. In making that choice, I have borne a number of considerations in mind. The first is the strength of the passion for democracies in Nigeria. Not since the days of the agitation for democracies has a single issue united so many people in a common cause. Accordingly, I see my presentation as a modest contribution to this debate about democracies taking place in Nigeria today. The other reason for my choice is that I see democracies as holding the key to Nigeria’s regeneration and to the resumption of its rightful place in the world community. However, if Nigeria is to move from the shallows of today to a future of stable democracies, then that journey must begin with some understanding of what went wrong.   It must also take account of the special circumstances required for a democratic culture to develop and endure in Nigeria.

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RETHINKING ENGINEERING EDUCATION IN NIGERIA: MAKING LEARNING OUTCOMES EXPLICIT FOR STUDENTS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (CHE) WHILE DEVELOPING PERSONAL SKILLS IN GRADUATES

UMAR MU’AZU TADAMA

Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic

Mubi, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

This paper presents the main features of a study carried out in Nigeria for developing a practical framework for formulating and assessing learning outcomes in chemical engineering education. The proposed learning outcomes were based on a compilation of different international accreditation frameworks. The formulated learning outcomes were grouped into four learning areas: (a) engineering sciences and foundation chemistry, (b) engineering analysis and investigation, (c) engineering design and (d) engineering practice. The paper also presents the main elements of a proposed standardized final exam to test the developed learning outcomes. A table of specification was constructed that maps the developed learning outcomes with the test questions distributed over various learning levels as knowledge and comprehension, application and analysis, synthesis and evaluation. The table of specification allows the transformation of the developed learning outcomes into balanced questions to be used in the final exam. The paper also discusses the implications of the proposed plan on the chemical engineering education in Nigeria and the concerns that are raised by the different stakeholders.

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ROLES OF DEVELOPMENT CONTROL AGENCIES IN ERADICATING THE INCIDENTS OF BUILDING COLLAPSES IN NIGERIA

 ENGR. GANA A.J COREN REGD, MNSE, MNICE

Istructe London (UK), ICE London (UK) Civil Engineering Department College of Science and Engineering Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State.

 ABSTRACT

Development control agencies are established by the Government in the country to set standards for training, monitoring and to ensure that standards are complied with any where structures (Buildings) are to be constructed in the country for human’s comfort and services. The comfort and services are to last throughout the life time of the structures according to the professional Ethics and regulations. Where the above is abuse, the roles of the agencies concerned are out of place and simply means transferred to others who are Non-professionals. This is one of the reasons for many collapse Buildings in Nigeria. This paper Examines who are the development control Agencies, their roles in eradicating the incidents of Building collapses in Nigeria, causes of Building collapse, Effects of Collapses. The paper also proffers Recommendation and conclusion.

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THE ARCHITECTURE OF COTTAGE PLANT AND ANIMAL CHEESE INDUSTRY FOR A TRANSFORMED ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT

*MOHAMMED ADAMU AMINU, **OSUNKUNLE ABDULMAGEED, IBRAHIM MUSA & BARAU NAZIF YAKUBU ***LAWAL RUKAYAT AJOKE

*Architecture Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi

**Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi

***Department of Food & Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi

ABSTRACT

Cheese is a nutritious food is one of the numerous products from processing of milk of cows, goats, sheep, buffalos and camels, etc. or from processing cowpea specie of soya beans. It is processed from either milk by acidification and coagulation and the application of a juice extract from Sodom apple, lime, etc. However, “AWARA” the plant cheese from cowpea specie of soya beans is mostly common and popular in the environment. The awareness in this project work showcases an eye opener to the process, procedure and development of cheese from milk producing animals such as cow and sheep etc. Due to lack of household refrigerator facilities and poor electricity supply in mostly parts of Nigeria and other parts of West Africa, several attempts to increase the shelf life of cheese abound. Notable examples include use of small and medium cottage industry to obtain, process, produce and use the final cheese as a product for entrepreneurship development. The Bauchi environment is endowed with all the natural ingredients, resources and materials that will facilitate the making of a conducive ambience which will accommodate the final products. It will be recommended that the stakeholders should improve on the sensitization strategies and carry everybody along in the development, further research, empowerment, consumption, production and nutritional values of these cheeses.

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THE CHALLENGES OF THE USE OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES IN MUHAMMADU WABI LIBRARY, FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC, BAUCHI.

ABDULAZIZ SULE MOHAMMED, ADAMU IBRAHIM & IBRAHIM USMAN

Muhammadu Wabi Library, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

The paper examines the challenges of the use of Electronic Information Resources in Muhammadu Wabi Library, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. Method of data collection was via documentation sources complimented by observation of events situations in the library. The study revealed that the non-academic staff forms a larger percentage of the workforce in the library. Majority of the non- professional staff in the library lacks adequate knowledge of the availability and use of electronic information resources in the library. The study also revealed that majority of the electronic information resources are available in the library but many of which are not in proper condition for use. The lack of commitment by key officials of the institution goes a long way to affect the use of electronic information resources in the polytechnic library. This therefore, necessitated the study to proffer suggestions on possible solutions to these problems for libraries.

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THE ROLE OF POLYTECHNIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

*UMAR MUAZU TADAMA, **ISHIYAKU ALIYU SULEIMAN

***ISHAKU HAMIDU MIDALA

*Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi.

**Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi.

***Departments of Pre ND Science and Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Mubi,       Adamawa state, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

The Nigerian education system started slowly but soundly developing during the colonial time until the conclusion of World War II. The Christian missionaries introduced the western education system in Nigeria in the mid nineteenth century. Higher Education in Nigeria originated with the Colonial government launching the Yaba Higher College in 1934. The role of technology in industrial and economic ‘development is enormous as it not only prescribes the machines, fabrications, and production processes but is also concerned with the management of the resources and the balancing of the multi-various constraints of the industrial environment: These processes are technological capability which consists of the ability to identify the most relevant techniques for a purpose to acquire it on the best possible terms, and, once acquired to assimilate the technology internally. It also includes the ability to modify the acquired technology so as to adapt it to the specified circumstances of the use. Ultimately, it includes the ability to create innovations from within and to apply these innovations internally as well as market them commercially. Polytechnic education must therefore not be seen in terms of screw drivers and spanners but must be seen as encompassing all fields of applied learning relevant to the needs and development of Nigeria in the areas of knowledge needed in ensuring that resources of all types are efficiently translated into desired products and services.

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QUALITATIVE BEHAVIOUR OF THE SOLUTION TRAJECTORIES OF REAL TIME COMPETITIVE CONTINUOUS INTERACTING SYSTEMS: ISSUES FOR INITIAL DATA, DURATION OF GROWTH AND STABILIZATION

 N. EKAKA-A

Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 ABSTRACT

The model equations describing the interaction between two competing yeast species have been fully stabilized using the technique of a numerical simulation undergoing changing length of the growing season and the initial data. The results of this present study have not been seen elsewhere; these are presented and discussed in this paper.

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NUMERICAL SIMULATION ANALYSIS AND STABILIZATION OF TWO INTERACTING MUTUALISTIC CONTINUOUS INTERACTING SYSTEMS UNDERGOING CHANGING INITIAL DATA AND DURATION OF GROWTH

N. EKAKA-A

Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

ABSTRACT

The model equations that describe the mutualistic interaction between two yeast species can be stabilized using the technique of a numerical simulation on the premise of the changing length of the growing season and the initial data. The results of this present study have not been seen elsewhere; these are presented and discussed in this paper.

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