African Scholar Journal of Contemporary Education Research (JCER) Vol. 10 No.6

African Scholar Journal of Contemporary Education Research (AJCER)

Vol. 10 No.6 2018 ISSN – 2359–1991


Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies, University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.


Copyright © 2017 African Scholar Publications and Research International.




Adoption of Principles of Continious Improvement in the Library as a Best Practice for Repositioning Academic Library


1H. C Pisagih 2Madalla Ajemasu 3Adamu Hassan 4Yusuf Mohammed Inuwa

1, 2 & 3 Muhammadu Wabi Library, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, 4Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State




Leadership and Management literatures available in libraries and bookshops suggests that there are many paths to excellence. However, theories and models can be best practices in public or not-for-profit organizations. One theory which has enjoyed a long history of debate and discussion in management studies is Continuous Improvement referred to as CI. It is a management concept that advocate for a gradual and steady change of a process, been it in the aspect of provision of service or production of goods. It is an incremental improvement of a process in an organization. It involves everyone working together. In this paper the researchers explore the concept of Continuous Improvement based on Total Quality Management methodology, its applicability and potential benefits in library settings, Challenges of adopting it in the Academic library settings, as well as the Factors to Consider while Implementing TQM. It is recommended among others that, Library management should establish appropriate governance procedures to support CI.

Keywords: Continuous Improvement, Total Quality Management, Quality Management Academic Library, Library




A Critical Evaluation of Descartes’ “Cogito Ergo Sum” as the Foundation of Knowledge

Linus Clifford Chinda

Department of Educational Foundations, Adamawa State College Of Education Hong, Adamawa State.




Since the earliest times, Greek philosophy was focused on realities, trying to determine the ultimate principle of all things, and which part of reality is accessible to man’s knowledge. Such quest gave rise to skepticism, shifting the attention from the object to the observing or knowing subject. Thus, the certainty of knowledge about realities was denied by the skeptics, citing the limitations of human ability and the unreliable nature of reality for their conclusions. Until the emergence of Descartes “cogito ergo sum,” proving that there was something that could be known for certain using their (Skeptics) own method to prove them (Skeptics) in their own doubting, they confirm their own existence. This paper, therefore, is an attempt to evaluate Descartes’ method and to show whether his conclusion has attained the certain foundation to knowledge, putting in various critiques to Descartes theory. The paper finally adopts the analytic and expository method to achieve this aim.


Keywords: Cogito Ergo Sum, Epistemology, Foundationalism.




Alignment of the Ahmadu Bello University (Abu) Bachelor of Science Education Chemistry Curriculum with the Contents of Chemistry Curriculum for Senior Secondary Schools


Samuel-Okey, Fatuma Comfort

Department of Integrated Science, Federal College of Education Zaria, Kaduna State




This study evaluated the ABU B.Sc. (Ed.) Chemistry Curriculum in relation to the professional needs of the SSS Chemistry teachers. The total population of 400 Level B. Sc. (Ed) Chemistry students (21) constituted the population of the study. The instruments for data collection were Difficult Topics in Chemistry questionnaire (DTC) and Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT). The DTC questionnaire which consisted of fifteen topics considered difficult, was validated and used by some earlier researchers in science education. The questionnaire was administered on the students to obtain their perception on the fifteen topics considered difficult. To further authenticate the response on the DTC, the CAT was administered on the students. The findings from the study showed that only two out of the fifteen topics were perceived by the students as difficult to understand. The study also showed that though the ABU B. Sc. (Ed.) Chemistry Curriculum contains relevant learning experiences to help prospective B.Sc. (Ed.) chemistry teachers perform effectively, the respondents could not answer simple SSCE questions given to them in the Chemistry Achievement Test. The findings calls to question the response obtained from the DTC questionnaire. Based on this findings some recommendations were made among which include: more emphasis should be placed on knowledge acquisition rather than certificate and examination scores,   and hence all prospective Chemistry teachers should be tested on achievement in Chemistry before employment and also be given periodic training in Chemistry contents irrespective of the grades on their certificates.

Keywords: Chemistry, Curriculum, Difficult Topics, Perspective, Science Education, Teacher.




An Alternative Approach to Teaching of Reading Comprehension at Secondary School Level


Umar Ahmed

Department of Modern European Languages and Linguistics, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto.




Reading skill is an integral part of second language learning that requires appropriate approach on the part of second language teacher. In Nigeria however, most secondary school teachers tend to stick to traditional methods of teaching this important skill, with adverse effects manifesting yearly in the poor performance of our students in SSCE (WAEC/NECO) and other examinations. This paper argues for an alternative approach that will develop the reading skills of our secondary school students which hopefully, will translate into improved proficiency and good performance in English language.

Keywords: Secondary, Approach, Alternative, Teaching, Reading.




Rethinking Strategies towards Internationalization of Universities for Socio-Economic and National Development in Nigeria


Umar Muhammad & Ibrahim Sahabi Abubakar

Department of Educational Foundations, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto




The 21st Century functions of Universities of being centres of excellence, intellectual, social, cultural, economic and political issues as well as research cannot be carried out in isolation and without cross fertilization of ideas, information etc. from other countries of the world. These knowledge, technologies and ideas have to be shared by all countries of the world inform of partnership with one another. Hence Higher Education is by nature and scope institutionally international. This Paper examined Rethinking Strategies towards internationalization of university administration for socio-economic and national development in Nigeria.Today, there are doubts whether Nigerian universities under the present condition will be able to continue to lay claims of being central to national capacity to connect with the international educational system and further develop the technologies needed in the wider society. This Paper concludes that, lack of adequate funding is rendering the university system in the country in capacitated towards the idea of internationalization. It was recommended that, universities should be adequately funded by the Federal government to at least minimum of 26% as recommended by UNESCO. Finally, it was recommended that, support should be solicited from international donors and other Philanthropists like UNESCO, World Bank etc.  

Keywords: Internationalization, National Development, University Management, Nigeria




Sustainable Architectural Education: Global Challenges and the Nigerian System.

Musa Sylvanus Hassan

Department of Architecture, Kaduna State University.




The concept of sustainability has been the subject of many academic forums (especially in the built environment) since the new millennium, due to the increased awareness of the negative effects of unsustainable practices on the environment. Studies reveal a universal accord that architectural education needs to adapt to the requirements of today’s world for a better tomorrow, (M. Adegbile 2012). Despite increased awareness of sustainability issues the Architectural curriculum in Nigeria remains unchanged. Efforts have been made by some schools of architecture and research groups (in developed countries) at reviewing the architectural curriculum for sustainability; resulting in new and modified educational programmes often with the tag ‘sustainable’ or ‘sustainability’ attached to it. These commendable efforts have brought up several new challenges, highlighting flaws and areas of needed improvement. By studying what has been done and learning from the mistakes of others Nigeria can develop a unique curriculum that satisfies local needs as well as global standards. This research is primarily based on literature review, and aims at identifying the prevalent challenges in the development and implementation of a sustainable architectural curriculum, by reviewing the findings and recommendations of recent and relevant works on the subject of ‘sustainable architectural education’. The findings revealed three common factors of concern namely; quality of staff, infrastructure/facilities, regulatory influence/pedagogical barriers. A long term plan designed to systematically address the challenges is recommended in the quest to develop a sustainable architectural curriculum for Nigeria.   It is hoped that this research will provide a conceptual framework for a sustainable architectural educational system in Nigeria.

Keywords: Sustainability, architecture, education, curriculum




Effect of Inquiry Method on Students’ Achievement in Senior Secondary School Geometry for Technological Development

1Luka, Joshua & 2Biong’ahu Danladi

1Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 2Department of General Studies, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.




The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of inquiry and traditional teaching methods on students’ achievement in geometry. A purposive sampling technique was applied in selecting one co-educational Senior Secondary out of 19 schools and 110 SS2 students out of 1654. Two intact classes of the sample school were used; one class was randomly assigned as experimental group was instructed through inquiring method, while the other class was assigned as control group instructed through the traditional method. This experimental study lasted for four weeks. The design used was a pretest, post-test non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental design. The instruments used for data collection were researcher made geometry achievement test (RGAT) and marking scheme/model answers. The RGAT was administered at pre-test and post-test before and during the experiment to both experimental and control groups. The reliability coefficient of the RGAT was computed to be 0.83 using Combach Alpha Formula. Three research questions and three research hypotheses were set out for the study. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the null hypotheses. Results of the study showed that the mean achievement scores by students in RGAT indicated students in the experimental group gained more than those in the control group. Also, male students in the experimental group were found to benefit more from inquiry method than their female counterpart. It is recommended that teachers of mathematics should be trained to adopt inquiry method in their teaching for better achievement by our students.

Keywords: Control group, Experimental group, Geometry, Inquiry method, Traditional method.


English Language Education and National Security in Unveiling Sub-Sahara African Potentials in the New Millennium: Nigeria in Focus


Aisha Abdullahi Shehu (Mrs.)

Primary Education Department, College of Education Minna Niger State, Nigeria.




Increasing globalization has created a large need for people in the workforce who can communicate in multiple languages. The uses of common language are in areas such as trade, tourism, international relations, technology, media and science. Language as we all know is a means of communication. Communication is a fundamental phenomenon in any society, language is the most valuable generic inheritance of mankind. Language is the key to the heart of a people, to appreciate a people we have to go via their language which is also an important part of culture. It is on this note that, the researcher will unveil some intellectual potentials on how language education aid National development, security challenges, educational upliftment etc. in sub-sahara African countries and Nigeria in particular. It is a link language between diverse languages all around the world and realizing its vantage position in globalization, the researcher contend that Nigerian education may not thrive well if English language education is de-emphasized. Some recommendations were made on how to use language education in developing national security and security challenges in some sahara African countries and Nigeria in particular.

Keywords: Language: A potential vehicle of transmitting culture, values and norms, belief from generation to generation.

Education: A process of teaching, training, learning especially in schools on colleges to improve knowledge and develop skills.

National security: Refers to the action taken by stakeholders to defend a country from risk and danger from both internal and external induced sources.




Religious Aesthetics in African Novels: A Case Study of Elechi Amadi’s Selected Novels


Unoroh Solomon Ogheneochuko

English Department, Michael Otedola College of Primary Education, Noforija- Epe, Lagos State.




It is a general consensus that all human societies all over the world practice one form of religion or the other. In Africa, African traditional religion is in vogue apart from Christianity and Islam. All religious practices have some attendant aesthetics and the onus of this research is to examine religious aesthetics in African novels using Elechi Amadi’s The Concubine and The Great Ponds as a case study. Apart from using the structuralist theoretical framework for analysis, the researcher constructed twenty-five items that were administered on one hundred respondents. The collected data were analyzed using simple percentage and it was discovered that superstition, charms and traditional medicine are important religious aesthetics in Africa. Elechi Amadi’s treatment of religion in his selected novels is highly objective and also helps in the projection of the African personality.

Keywords: Religious, Aesthetics and African Novels.




Graduate Unemployment in Nigeria: A Blind Spot in the Educational Sector in Nigeria


Shehu Mohammed, Sharehu Muazu, Amina L . Shuni

Department of Economics, Shehu Shagari College of Education, Sokoto, Nigeria.




This paper examines the socio-economic implications of graduates unemployment in Nigeria as well as its causes and implications. Youths are very important stakeholders in any society. They are not only the future of Nigeria, but also a major stakeholder and useful resources in nation building. Unemployment in Nigeria especially graduates unemployment has reached an alarming stage in the last two decades due primarily to an upsurge in the turnout from the nations tertiary institutions and the inelastic labour absorptive capacity of the Nigerian Labour market for the service of the University and Polytechnic graduates. The paper   identifies the major causes of graduates unemployment in Nigeria as neglects of agricultural sector and Corruption etc. The paper Concludes that low quality graduates from our tertiary institutions as one of the causes of graduates unemployment in Nigeria. Some of the policy recommendations are diversification of the economy and electing credible leaders.

Keywords: Blind, Graduate, Educational, Unemployment, Sector.

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