African Scholars Humanities and Social Science (AJHSS) – Vol. 10 No.4

African Scholar Journal of Humanities and Social Science (AJHSS)

Vol. 10 No.4 (2) ISSN 2110–2086


Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies, University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.


Copyright © 2017 African Scholar Publications and Research International.




Utilization of Sex Enhancement Substances among Married Women in Gombe Metropolis, Gombe State, Nigeria

Hadiza Usman1 Mohammed Haruna Awaisu, Ph.D.2 & Mohammed Mustapha Namadi, Ph.D.3

1Department of Sociology, Gombe State University, Gombe State, Nigeria 2Department of Sociology, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria 3Department of Sociology, Federal University Kashere, Gombe State, Nigeria




The aim of the study is to examine the utilization of sex enhancement substances among married women in Gombe metropolis and their perceived efficacies as well as the attendant implications on women’s health. A sample size of 300 married women and who are ever married was selected using snowball and purposive sampling techniques. The data for the study were collected using questionnaires, in-depth interviews (IDIs) and Key Informant Interviews (KII).The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the quantitative data; while the qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. The findings of the study indicate that the use of sex enhancement substances is widespread among married women and is more freely discussed in the open than was the case in the past. It also revealed that married women use the substances to compete for their husbands’ attention and the usage is more common among those in polygamous marriage relationships. The substances are easily obtained from markets and hawkers at social gatherings such as naming and marriage ceremonies. The findings also revealed that the herbal variants of the enhancers are more patronized because they are psychologically believed to be more efficacious and risk-free. The findings also indicate that some of the enhancement substances have adverse health implications especially those inserted into the vagina which may cause pelvic inflammatory infections leading to itching, unpleasant odor, stomach ache, among others. The study recommends the need for sensitization programs to educate women and guide them in order to protect them against potential health risks of using sex enhancement substances.


Keywords: Knowledge, awareness, utilization, married women, sex enhancement substance


Aspects of the Syntactic Behaviour of the Igbo Verb                       

*{Sr} Mary Joy Emeribe, **Juliana Chinwe Njoku & Uchechi Ukaegbu

*Department of Linguistics & Communication Studies, Faculty of Humanities, University of Port Harcourt **Department of English Language & Literature, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri



Igbo is a tonal language and one of the three major languages in Nigeria. In terms of family grouping, Igbo belongs to the Kwa family, grouped under the Kwa languages of the Niger Congo Phylum. The main objective of this paper is to examine the syntactic behaviour of Igbo verbs using the X- bar theory. This theory is a constraining module acting on phrase structure components of the grammar. In the course of the work, the data is collected from the Igbo verbs which are classified into two groups: those that have no distinctive grammatical functions but are definite lexical verbs, and those with particular grammatical functions but without referential meaning (auxiliary verbs). The findings show that the verb is the controlling word class in the grammar of Igbo as in other languages of the world. It regulates the behaviour and distribution of some other word classes, particularly, the nominal class. It is also discovered that the question of transitivity, is determined by the argument structure of the predicate containing such verbs. The paper therefore concludes that Igbo verbs can be grouped according to the number of arguments they take.

Keywords:   X- bar theory, lexical verbs, auxiliary verbs, referential meaning, nominal class


The Revolutionary Ethos In Osofisan’s Morountodun

Akinwumi Olutola Olafisayo

Department of English and Literary Studies, Faculty of Arts, Federal University Oye-Ekiti



This paper discusses the revolutionary ethos through the manifestation of history in Osofisan’s Morountodun. History is important as a reminder of the past. Osofisan makes sense from the past in his projection of the future so that mistakes of the past will not be repeated, though many atime, history often repeats itself. The story of Morountodun is sourced from the Yoruba myth of Morèmi, a queen of Ife. This same story had earlier been explored by Duro Ladipo in his play Morèmi Àjàsorò. The paper discusses powerful messages for the society, especially the leaders. It preaches true love and genuine patriotism, as different from the way many contemporary politicians behave when they assume power.


Keywords: Revolutionary, Ethos, Osofisan, Morountodun, History


Multicultural Work Force Management, National Culture and Motivations in Tourism and Hospitality Organisations: Study of Nigeria and Britain

*Murtala Mohammed Alamai, *Bashir Muhammad Abubakar, *Hafsat Hussaini Mahmood & **Aliyu, Fatima Ladi

*Leisure and Tourism Management Department, General Studies department, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, P.M.B 0231 Bauchi. & **Hospitality Department Kaduna polytechnic



In nearly every country around the world that has large ,medium, and even small organisations there exists a tendency for such organisations going international in order to have a percentage of revenue from overseas markets which entails managing a multicultural workforce in a globalised world across pre-existing boundaries of time, space and nation states through processes of movement of finance, investment, knowledge, skills and people, forging cross cultural interactions through exchange of employees to new countries, alliance into new practices of work interactions with overseas allies or as a consequence of an upsurge in relocation of labour. This study will evaluate the management challenges to be faced on a project that combines a multicultural workforce that are likely to differ in office administration, control style, group effort, leadership styles and motivation with an emphasis on Nigeria and the United Kingdom using Hofstede, Lewis. Trompanners and GLOBE cultural theories. The findings of the study reveal a huge difference in power distance relationships, individualism/Collectivism index as well as long and short term orientation index. With a recommendation that managers of tourism and hospitality organisations across national borders be familiar with aspects of organisational life, structures, governance styles, motivation patterns.


Keywords: Management, Culture, Motivation, Leadership, Team Work.


A Comparative Analysis between a National Government and Islamic State



Ahmad Fema

School of Arts and Social Science, A.D. Rufa’i College for Legal and Islamic Studies Misau, Bauchi State




Man as a social being, lived his life in a social manner – under rules and regulations. And these rules and regulations are either divine or man-made. However, those man-made laws are being practiced or observed by secular system of government. Whereas Islamic government fully observed the divine laws. But to understand whether these two systems of government have differences, unless and until we take time to observe them differently and thoroughly.


Keywords: Comparative, Analysis, National, Government, Islamic.


Drama and the Quest for Democracy: An Exploration of Niyi Osundare’s the State Visit



Wale Abobarin

Osun State Polytechnic, PMB 301, Iree, Osun State, Nigeria.




Since the return to civil rule in Nigeria in 1999, the country has been grappling with the acceptable democratic process that would engender that universal concept of government. There is no doubt that the long period of military governments have had their toll on the government and the governed. This study ex-rays an inept and tyrannous military government as typical of such governments either military and or civil in many African countries. The study adopts the Postcolonial and Sociological theoretical approaches in explicating the text.


Keywords: Drama, Democracy, , Military Government, Literature.


صور من التشبيه الضمني في شعر عقيل بن علي بوتشي



Muhammad Bello Idri

School of Languages, A.D. Rufa’i College for Legal and Islamic Studies, Misau, Bauchi State-Nigeria




This paper is an attempt to analyze the poetry said by Aliyu bin Akilu Bauchi, the analysis will be in rhetoric point of view, to study these verses and songs critically.


Keywords: Analysis, Poetry, Rhetoric, verses, songs


Relevance of Speeches of Reknown Personalities in the Field of Communication “A Study of Sir, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa Rhetoric’s”



Maryam Umar Mukhtar (Ph.D.)

Department of Mass Communication, Bayero University, Kano, Kano State, Nigeria




This research work concentrated on the “relevance of speeches of reknown personalities in the field of communication” with reference to Sir, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa rhetorics. Rhetorics is the study of an art of using language in an impressive -way, especially to influence people in public speaking, while speech communication is the study of human symbolic behavior in different form. The procedures of rhetorical analysis were discussed in this work includes integrity, honesty, trust, objectives, rhetorical figures and language. Based on the findings of the study, it has been suggested that other researches should dwell on more speeches and limit themselves to a few speech as in the case of this study which covered only four (4) speeches delivered by Abubakar Tafawa Balewa. This research work is believed to have met certain requirements of speech communication to be assessed as good among speeches of great orators of the world.


Keywords: Personalities, Relevance, Communication, Speeches Re-known.


Quality Engineering Education and Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Sub-Sahara Africa. Implications for Production of Quality Engineering Teachers in Nigeria.



Gbinde Felix Terfa, Nomigo Edward Terkula & Adaga Gilbert Terna

Technical Education Department, College Of Education Kastina-Ala, Benue State, Nigeria.




The paper examines the quality of Engineering Education and the attainment of millennium development goals (MDGs) in sub-Sahara Africa. Implications for production of quality engineering Teachers in Nigeria. Perceived strengths of the MDGs agenda and limitations to the realization of MDGs in Nigeria were viewed. The concept of quality of engineering education in sub-Sahara Africa were also examined. Possible ways of improving quality engineering education in Nigerian in order to attain the MDGs were considered. It was concluded that in other to attain the millennium development goals in the country, the quality of teachers and engineers must be improved to meet the world standards.


Keywords: Quality, Engineering Education, Millennium development goals, sub Sahara Africa engineering teacher.


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