African Scholar Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol. 18 No. 9


VOL. 18 NO. 9 SEPTEMBER, 2020 ISSN: 2278 – 1897



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2020 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Minimization of Training Time of a Convolutional Neural Network by Adding K-Neareaset Neighbor as Classifier


1Prof. Souley Boukari; 2Fatima Ahmed Abubakar; 2Atika Ahmad Jibrin; 2Yakubu Nuhu Danjuma; & 2Yamusa Idris Adamu

1Computer Science, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi. 2Computer Science Department, the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi



Image classification is an essential task in machine learning and computer vision however it is still challenging. Although, over the past years, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have greatly boosted the performance of a series of image classification tasks, recent works have shown that the softmax commonly used at the classification layer has exhibited some limitations. These limitations include low prediction performance. This research work aims at replacing the fully connected and the softmax layers with k-nearest neighbor so as to hybridize the model. This enabled us to overcome the limitation of the softmax as well to use the KNN to classify large dataset. CNN was adopted for feature extraction and the KNN for classification. Comparison of our model was done with two existing models- the original CNN and the CNN-SVM.  Each model was executed ten times on four datasets and obtained as mean for three models as 358.92s for the CNN, CNNSVM 46.02s and our model CNNKNN 39.42s as training time respectively.

Keywords: Minimization, Training Time, Convolutional, Neural Network.




The Comparison of Weighted Residual Methods of Solving Boundary Value Problems in Science and Engineering


Ebiwareme Liberty, Godwin Miracle

Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria



In this research article, the comparison of weighted residual methods of boundary value problems are investigated. A second order differential equation within the range  is solved for all the methods to verify the efficiency and reliability of the methods. The result shows that the approximate solution which is a linear combination of the basis function (weight function) converges to the real solution depending on whether the basis function is identical, continues, and square-integrable. Also, of the methods investigated, only the Petrov-Galerkin and collocation methods gives a better approximation to the exact solution whose trial function satisfies all essential boundary conditions.

Keywords: Weighted Residual, Ordinary Differential Equation, Boundary Value Problems, Residual error, Finite Element method




Inter-competition Coefficients versus Resource Biomass of a Resource-Dependent Interacting Biological Species


*Dike, Adedotun Olasumbo; & **George, Isobeye

*Department of Mathematics, Federal University, Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State **Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Rivers State



The effect of inter-competition coefficient on the resource biomass of a resource-dependent interacting biological species was investigated. To facilitate the work, a three-dimensional continuous system of nonlinear first order ordinary differential equation, indexed by the appropriate initial conditions, was considered. A MATLAB ODE45 numerical scheme was used to generate the data needed for the analysis. The key result of the investigation shows an increase in inter-competition coefficient results in an increase in resource biomass, while the population of the affected species diminishes gradually.

Keywords: Inter-competition coefficient, resource biomass, resource-dependent interacting biological species, system of differential equation




Examining Causes of Computer Science Students’ Poor Hypothetical Performance in Programming Languages in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions


Adeleke Israel Adewale

Computer Science Department, EACOED, Oyo



This study examined causes of poor academic performance of students in programming languages among computer science students in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions. It is clear that students’ performance in programming languages yearly is always woeful when compared with other courses and this occurred as a result of many challenges faced by the students in the way programming languages is learned and taught. This therefore demands for research to actually know the cause and the remedy. Three research hypotheses were raised to determine the factors militating against such poor academic performance of students in programming languages among computer science students. It was discovered that factors that influence the poor performance of students is on the part of the students and lecturers owning to their poor attention given to programming languages in the process of learning and practical. Meanwhile, In the first hypothesis, the calculated value which is 63.934 is greater than the critical value which is 10.64, which means non–challant attitude by the students is a major factor militating against poor academic performance in programming languages. In the second hypothesis, the calculated value (90.911) is greater the critical value 14.68, this shows that lecturers’ inefficiency in term of availability for practical, method and understanding of concept is a factors that contribute to the poor performance of student in programming languages. Also, in the third hypothesis, the calculated value is 43.999 which is greater than the critical value 14.68 tells that complexity in term of coding, compiling and debugging errors is a root of poor academic performance in programming languages courses.   

Keywords: students, lecturers, learning, programming languages and academic performance




Analysis of Data Mining and Educational Data Mining


Oparah Camillus C.; Dr. Obioha Iwuoha; & Oyedepo Victoria

Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri



Data mining is the process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems. The manual extraction of patterns from data has occurred for centuries. Early methods of identifying patterns in data include Bayes’ theorem (1700s) and regression analysis (1800s). The ways in which data mining can be used can in some cases and contexts raise questions regarding privacy, legality, and ethics. Educational data mining refers to techniques, tools, and research designed for automatically extracting meaning from large repositories of data generated by or related to people’s learning activities in educational settings. There are four main users and stakeholders involved with educational data mining. These include learners, educators, researchers and administrators. The increased use of technology in education is generating a large amount of data every day, which has become a target for many researchers around the world; the field of educational data mining is growing quickly and has the advantage of containing new algorithms and techniques developed in different data mining areas and machine learning.

Keywords: Data Mining, Regression, Classification, Clustering, Prediction




Nutritional Attribute and Cost Benefit Analysis of Poultry Offal Meal in the Diet of Clarias Gariepinus Fingerlings


1Mamoon, M.; 1Idris, A.; and 1Alhassan M. I.

1Department of Applied Science, College of Science and Technology Kaduna Polytechnic P.M.B 2021, Kaduna, Nigeria.



A 12 weeks experiment was conducted to evaluate  the nutritional attribute and cost benefit of substituting fishmeal with poultry offal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. The nutritional attribute of the poultry offal was determined using standard method of A.O.A.C, 2000. The result obtained revealed the following contents in g/100g. Dry matter 93.30,  moisture 6.50, Crude protein 47.10, Crude fibre 1.77, Crude lipid 13.31, Nitrogen free extract 23.62, total ash 7.70 and  gross energy 482.34. The poultry offal was used to formulate a diet of 0% Poultry Offal Meal (POM) , 25% POM, 50% POM, 75% POM, 100% POM and a commercial control. Cost per kilogram of experimental diets ranged from ₦119.75 to ₦ 180.15, profit index ranged from 0.45 to 0.60, net profit value ranged from ₦374.65 in 100% POM to ₦ 447.28 in 50%POM. The gross profit/loss showed a profit of ₦6.67 (commercial diet) and the highest ₦54.69 (50% POM). The cost benefit analysis showed that diet 50% POM is the most cost effective.

Keyword: Crude protein, Fishmeal, cost effective, Poultry offal, Nutritional attributes




Assessment of Metal Pollutants in Moringa Oleifera Cultivated Through Irrigation, in Maiduguri, Nigeria


1Bukar, P. H. 2Onoja, M. A. 1Olabode, V. O and 1Muhammad, A. I. 

1Departmentof Science Laboratory Technology, Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology Zaria. 2Department of Physics, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria 1Departmentof Science Laboratory Technology, Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology Zaria. 1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology Zaria.



Heavy metal contamination of food crops is a globally recognized environmental issue, threatening human life seriously. The aim of the study was to assessed heavy metal bioaccumulation in Moringa oleifera vegetables cultivated through irrigation during dry season along the bank of river Ngadda in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Concentration values of heavy metals; Aluminum, Barium, Cobalt, Iron, Manganese, Chromium, Rubidium, Scandium, Samarium, Vanadium and Zinc in Moringa oleifera were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) analytical technique. The objective was to ascertain whether there was health risk potential associated with the consumption of moringa oleifera cultivated in the study area by comparing the bio-accumulated heavy metals concentration values with FAO/WHO recommended maximum permissible limit (MPL) for edible vegetables.  The result showed that the concentration values of the heavy metals analysed ranged from below detection limit (BDL) for Cobalt, Chromium, and Samarium to 33 ± 9 ppm, 8.1 ± 0.3 ppm and 0.20 ± 0.01 ppm respectively, Aluminum 8,3 ± 17 to 213 ± 30 ppm Barium 16.4 ± 2.6 to 233 ± 13 ppm, Iron 394 ± 38 to 2955 ± 68 ppm, Manganese 124.3 ± 0.4 to 319 ± 1 ppm, Rubidium 5.4± 0.5 to 17 ± 2 ppm, Scandium 0.17 ± 0.01to 17 ± 1ppm, Vanadium 1.65 ± 0.27 to 2.8 ± 0.5ppm and Zinc 13 ± 2 to 55± 3.1ppm. These values indicate that the maximum bio accumulated values of the heavy metals iron, manganese, chromium and cobalt in moringa oleifera exceed the MPL recommended by FAO WHO of 425,5, 25.95, 1.3, and 1 ppm respectively for vegetables therefore the consumption of moringa oleifera cultivated from the study site has a potential health risk due to presence of heavy metals above MPL values.

Keywords: Assessment, Accumulation, Heavy metals, Irrigation, moringa vegetable




Challenges of Computer Based Test among Senior Secondary School Students in Zaria Local Government Area of Kaduna State


Abubakar Abba; & Abdullahi Alhassan Abubakar

Computer Science Department Fce, Zaria



This research work explored the challenges faced using computers and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) related technologies in teaching and learning in Zaria Local Government Area. The research was carried out to investigate how exposed the students and teachers are to computers and ICT related technologies, how these tools have helped the teachers in teaching and the students in enhancing their performance in Zaria Local Government Area. Questionnaire was used to obtain data from 300 respondents comprising of both teachers and students. The data collected was treated and analyzed using frequency count and simple percentage method. Findings from the research indicated that even though the staff and students in Zaria Local Government Area know what a computer is, they are not really exposed to computers and ICT related technologies so as to aid them in taking advantage of these tools in teaching and learning in the Area. This research recommended that stakeholders should embrace all aspects of the national policy on ICT on education by putting it into use and also encourage computer manufacturers (HP, Dell, Toshiba etc.) and mobile phone operators in the country to support education in the form of investments and develop an education product line to support education in the country. All schools and departments in institutions should have a computer laboratory where students and teachers will be exposed to computers and ICT related technological tools and practice.

Keywords: Computer Based Test, Students, Educational System, Technology, ICT.




Design of Distance Meter a Prototype Development Using HC-SR04 Module


Yakubu Nuhu Danjuma; & Yamusa Idris Adamu

Department of Computer Science Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria



This paper is focused on the designing a prototype of an ultrasonic distance meter using HC-SR04 module. The design is an efficient way to measure the distance of closed object and obstacles. The principal application of sound wave is administered. It is based on sending sound waves through a specific medium (Air) and observing the returning echoes to measure the distance from the device to the obstacle. The system is divided into three parts; transmitter, receiver, and control unit. The transmitter (Tx) consists of an electronic circuitry which generates electrical signal. The receiver (Rx) consists of an electronic circuitry which detects the echoes bounced back from the obstacles. We programmed in C a microcontroller (ATmega328-P) for selectivity sequence and calculate the time of flight of the signal which will be converted to distance in centimeter and verified it. Using the distances equation (D= (s*t)/2) a result was set and analysis with a ruler meter. The Distance Meter was built to be cheaper, requires less power, and delivers better performance. Distance measurement of an object in the path of a person, equipment, or a vehicle, stationary or moving is used in a large number of applications such as robotic movement control, vehicle control, and medical applications. Distance meter using ultrasonic sensors is one of the cheapest among various options. Finally the device needs high calibration for effective result.

Keywords: Ultrasonic, sound wave, Distance and obstacle, Programming microcontroller.




Effects of Poultry Manure on Soil Fertility in Federal College of Forestry, Jos Plateau State.


1Yahaya, U. F., 2Bako, A., 3Maikano, S., 4Popoola, A. S., 5Ademola, T. O., 6Okechalu, S. O., 7Likita, M. S., and 8L. G. Lapkat.

1Agricultural Extension, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. 2,6&8Horticulture and Landscape Technology Department, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. 3Forestry Technology, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. 4Forestry Technology Department, Federal College Forestry, Jos Plateau State. 5Agricultural Technology Department, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. 7Basic Science Department, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State.



Quantitative impact of poultry manure on soil fertility was studied in Federal College of Forestry Jos Plateau State. Poultry droppings was use as organic material for the study. Laboratory analysis were carried out on the droppings soils amended with poultry droppings (post soil samples) and the Unamended soil (pre-soil samples) for the assessment of their fertility status. The result clearly indicated a considerable increase in the soil fertility parameters assessed. The increase between  the pre and post soil parameters are as follows; pH (1091), N (0.41), OM (14.00), P (7793.7), Na (3798.81), Ca (9726), Mg (3777), K (4825) H+ (0.93), Al3+ (Nil), CEC (14.63), Clay (1.92), except for silt which have  the same  percentage(18.0) and there is reduction in percentage of sand(1.92) due to the impact of microbial activities in the soil. The paired T-test result revealed significant differences on Nitrogen content (0.020) Organic matter (0.001), Phosphorus (0.001), Sodium (0.002), Calcium (0.005), Magnesium (0.001), Potassium (0.001), and Cation Exchange Capacity (0.001), there were no significant  differences between the pre and post soil samples on the pH (0.356), Hydrogen ion (0.288), Clay( 0.070), Silt (0.942), and Sand (0.151), contents of the soil. The study suggest that increasing microbial activities in the soil should be encouraged by Farmers for Optimum soil management and crop production.

Keywords: Poultry droppings, fertility, Soils, Manure and impact.




The Parameter Estimation of the Precise Values of the Intra-Competition Coefficients a Specific Pollutant in Port-Harcourt Metropolis using the Method of P-vector norm. (Part One: The precise value the intra-competition coefficient of the pollutant PM2.5)


1U.A. Ekaba; 2I.M. Abraham; 3R.E. Akpodee;

1,2Institute of Geosciences and Space Technology, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt Nigeria. 3Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt Nigeria.



We have utilized the method of ODE45 numerical simulation to obtained the precise value of the intra-competition coefficient of a specific pollutant level 2.5 gases in Port-Harcourt metropolis using the method of P-vector norm parameter estimation. The effect of the P-vector on the intra-competition on several values of the carrying capacity hereby called the saturated values was recorded as there was a sudden change from a monotone decreasing to an increasing of the p-norms values behavior as the value observe were this sudden change occur has a unique character in which all the norms are least in values. The precise value of the intra-competition parameter value obtained from this study is given as β= 0.026685209713024. The full novel results that we have obtained have not been seen elsewhere: these have been presented and discussed in this study.

Keywords: Dynamical System, Parameter Estimation, P-vector norm, Environmental Variable.




Evaluating the Nutrient and antinurient composition of Monodora myristica (NUT MEG) for use as feed additive


C.N. Kanu1 and P. I. Onuegbu2

1Department of Food Technology Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria. 2Department of Science Lab Technology Federal Polytechnic, Oko Anambra State



A research work was carried out to evaluate the nutrient and anti-nutrient composition of  raw and toasted Monodora myristica spice to be used as feed additive. The proximate, vitamin and mineral composition and anti-nutritional factors were evaluated. The result from proximate analysis showed that raw Monodora myristica  had moisture (10.10%), dry matter (89.90%), ash (8.84%), crude fibre (9.64%), ether extract (28.60%), crude protein (15.75%), nitrogen-free extract (37.17%) and Gross energy (469.08kcal/kg) while toasted noted moisture (8.24%), dry matter (91.76%), ash (9.40%), crude fibre (6.24%), ether extract (21.54%), crude protein (25.38%), nitrogen-free extract (37.44%) and Gross energy (445.14kcal/kg) respectively. Vitamin and mineral composition of Raw Monodora myristica noted ascorbic acid -184.60(g/100g), thiamin- 0.77(mg/100g), riboflavin-0.15(mg/100g), niacin-18.00(mg/100g), calcium- 4.62%, magnesium-2.01%, sodium-0.45%, potassium-1.20%, phosphorus-0.61%, nitrogen-2.52%, copper-23.24(mg), zinc-98.20(mg), iron-15.82(mg), lead-0.30(mg) while the toasted had ascorbic acid -240.46(g/100g), thiamin- 0.98(mg/100g), riboflavin-0.14(mg/100g), niacin-16.44(mg/100g), calcium- 5.22%, magnesium-2.01%, sodium-0.33%, potassium-1.38%, phosphorus-0.78%, nitrogen-4.06%, copper-19.15(mg), zinc-25.26(mg), iron-14.51(mg), lead-0.26(mg). The anti-nutrient contents of raw Monodora myristica noted alkaloid-4.14(mg), flavonoid-12.88(mg), saponin- 0.32(mg) and tannin-0.31(mg) while toasted recorded  alkaloid-3.84(mg), flavonoid-11.45(mg), saponin- 0.29(mg) and tannin-0.18(mg) respectively. A significant difference (p<0.05) was observed in the nutrient and anti-nutrient composition of raw and toasted Monodora myristica seed. 

Keywords: Evaluating, Nutrient, antinurient, composition, Monodora myristica.




Acute Toxicity Study of Ethanol Extract of Neauclea Latifolia and Moringa Oleifera Plants on the Parameters of Haematology and Histopathology of Male Abino Rats.


Adeyemi, S. O.

Department of Biology, School of Science, EACOED, Oyo, Oyo State



Neauclea latifolia and Moringa oleifera has been reported as a medicinal plant used traditionally in Nigeria for the treatment of many diseases. This study therefore investigated the acute toxicity of Neauclea latifolia and Moringa oleifera ethanol leaves extract. For the acute toxicity of N. latifolia and M. oleifer, each experiment used thirty (30) male albino rats weighing between 150-180g were randomly divided into six (6) groups of five (5) rats each. Mortality rate, weight change and behavioural response were observed during the experiments. More so, haematology and histopathology of liver were investigated in the sub-acute of each extracts. The findings were determined using analysis of Probits in SPSS 2019 and revealed that N. latifolia and M. oleifera has >1400mg/kg and 1500mg/kg> as respectively but the finding of this work has revealed that dose of >800 < 1600 mg/kg of both extracts are preeminent and safer doses as ED50 because of the less mortality recorded and its similar efficacy with higher doses on the histopathological study. Moreover, both the extracts had very low toxicity profile in all the tested animals, it is relatively safe for herbal oral medication and this research might become a highly effective guidance for the therapeutic agent in the treatment of diseases. Because of the first hand information provided on this study, the researcher recommended that efforts should be geared towards identification of specific fractions of the active components of the extracts which is the keys inhibitors against diseases. More so, further study should be biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles exploiting M. oleifera lam., and N. latifolia leaves extract.

Keywords: Nauclea latifolia, Moringa oleifera, Haematology and Histopathology.




An Evaluation of OSPF and EIGRP Routing Protocols Using Opnet Simulator


Ibrahim Mahdi Ibrahim

School of Technology, Katsina State Institute of Technology and Management, P.M.B 2101 Katsina, Nigeria



Routing protocols are the key for communication network. OSPF and EIGRP are dynamic routing protocols used in a network to propagate topology information to neighbouring routers. There are a large number of dynamic and static routing protocols to be configured on a network but making the right choice of the protocol still remains an issue. This paper plans to evaluate the network performance of EIGRP and OSPF routing protocols. In order to achieve accurate results, two network scenarios are designed and configured respectively with EIGRP and OSPF and are simulated to observe how the performance varies between the two protocols. This is measured based on four parameters: FTP, Web browsing (HTTP), E-mail and Database. The results derived from these experiments aims to provide better understanding on Interior gateway protocols and general knowledge on how or which routing protocol should be configured on a given network.

Keywords: Open Shortest Path First (OSPF); Enhanced Interior Gateway Protocol (EIGRP); Discrete Event Simulation (DES); Routing Protocols; Network Performance.




E-Course Preparation: Principles and Techniques             


Victor Iboyi1 and Christopher Iriakuma2

1Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu. 2Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic, of Oil and Gas, Bonny



The demand for inclusion in every facet of education in this century is growing. The COVID19 pandemic has further stretched this demand. Providing a solution would embrace online method which necessitates the introduction of e-course in a Learning Management System because of its attendant advantages. These advantages include delivery spanning over large geographical region; having many students (inclusion) beyond the acceptable number possible compared to the traditional physical classroom setting and students having to take courses at times convenient to them from the comfort of their homes. The preparation and presentation of course material to guarantee expected delivery here will spell a departure from the traditional model. Therefore, preparing the e-course that will achieve the desired behavioural change demands the application of techniques and the use of tools tested and trusted. This paper examines the many variables that make up a Learning Management System and the methodologies and tools involved in preparing an e-course, while suggesting a more robust combination of these tools to effect adequate and desired learning experience whether at synchronous or asynchronous modes.

Keywords: Learning Management System, e-course, e-Learning, story board, addie




Application of Non-Deterministic Finite Automata to Pro Evolution Soccer (PES) Game.


1Abubakar Muhammad Shafii; 2Manko Abubakar Abdulrahman; 3Ibrahim Aliyu; & 4Odo, Chika Emelda

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, School of Basic and General Studies, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida



In this research, Non-deterministic finite automata (NDFA) is used to design a finite state machine model for pro evolution soccer (PES) game, the game consists of a real-user who uses the game controller to play or control the activities of play. Inputs from the game controller is represented as a finite input symbol and the game character is represented as a set of finite states. Relationship between the sets of input symbols and the set of finite states is represented on a digraph using NDFA model which is used to define a transition function .

Keywords: Application, Non-Deterministic, Finite, Automata, Evolution.




Review on Solar Energy for Purification of Water


Abraham Musa Zira and Waperi Kaigama

Physics Department, Federal College of Education (Technical) Potiskum



This paper discusses on the Purification of Water which would be considered the Solar Energy as the methods for purifying the water using sunlight and PET plastic bottles, the SODIS (solar disinfection) method uses a combination of UV sunlight and increased temperature to kill pathogens in the water. Therefore the UV water disinfection technology, the UV light disinfects by penetrating microorganisms such as Bacteria, E coli, Cholera, Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia, Enterocolitica, Parasites, Giardia, Crytosporidium, Entamoeba, worms, Viruses and Rotovirus and destroying their DNA. UV lamp has a limited life and must be replaced once it is exhausted. In the unlikely event of premature failure of the lamp, the monitoring circuit will provide the signal to advise replacement.

Keywords: Review, Solar, Energy, Purification, Water




Effect of Radiation on Three Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Casson Fluid Flow over an Exponential Stretching Sheet


*Saidu Yakubu Vulegbo; *I. B. S. Mohammed; and **R. O. Olayiwola

*Department of Mathematics, Federal Polytechnic Bida, Nigeria. **Department of Mathematics, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria.



The effect of radiation on three dimensional Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) casson fluid flow over an exponentially stretching sheet is investigated. The governing partial differential equations were reduced to ordinary differential equations using similarity transformation. The reduced non-linear ordinary differential equations were solved analytically and the results obtained were presented graphically. It was observed that increase in casson parameter and magnetic parameter decrease velocity profiles while Grashof number enhances velocity profile, heat source/sink and radiation parameter enhances the temperature profile while prandtl number and unsteadiness parameter decrease the temperature profile.

Keywords: MHD, Casson fluid, Stretching sheet, Thermal radiation, Unsteadiness.




Nutrient Inprovement of Cassava Based Snack (“Bambara Efa”) Using Soyabeans Flour


Ejim Kingsley Obiora

Department of Chemical Sciences, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B 55, Bida, Niger State



“Bambara Efa” is a cassava based snack produced mainly from cassava starch. It is commonly eaten in northern part of Nigeria as a snack or main meal.  The aim of the study was to produce enriched “Bambara Efa” and evaluate its proximate, mineral and sensory qualities. “Bambara Efa” was produced from cassava starch and soya bean blends at different propotions (100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15 and 80:20). Proximate and minerals analysis was carried out using standard laboratory procedures and sensory evaluation was conducted using the nine point hedionic scale where 1 represented extremely dislike and 9 represented extremely liked. Findings showed formulated snacks had crude protein value of (7.87%  to 15.58%), ash (2.50 to 3.01%), moisture content (4.27% to 5.61%), crude fat (15.01% to 20.55% ), and nitrogen free extract (NFE) (67.35% to 55.65%), on mineral contents (Mg/100g) i.e calcium had value of (120.53 to 143.77). phosphorus  (28.97 to 52.10)  iron (104.07 to 137.77) and magnesium (72.93 to 96.22). sensory evaluation showed no statistically significant difference(P>0.05)  among all the samples and parameters evaluated. The research work recommends sample E because it produced the best product in terms of nutritional quality and sensory acceptance.

Keywords: Nutrient, Inprovement, Cassava, Snack (“Bambara Efa”), Soyabeans.




Social Media Network and the Moral Decadence of the African Child; Consequences and Control.


Otuu Obinna Ogbonnia & Eneasator Chiamaka Brooke

Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic, Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria.



Social media network is a good innovation as it aids communication, especially when it comes to the transfer of multimedia files from source to destination. However, there are negativisms cropping up on its unchecked use by African Children. This position paper highlights the activities of African children on social media platforms and unveiled disadvantageous contributions of the activities to their moral decadence. It observed that the level of misguide of African parents on their children has culminated into malpractices and immoral inculcations which have eroded expected applausive behaviors and moral development of a typical African child. The study posited that social media networks have been misused by underage people who go online to engage in extra-juvenile activities which have affected their moral vastly above decadence in African Culture. The rising rate of pornography and lesbianism which are immoral activities were pointed out in the study as propellant of social media network. The approach of the study was classifying and relevant research materials were consulted via secondary means of both online and offline qualitative collections which helped to identify a research gap on the use of Social Media by children. The study vehemently unveiled the consequences of not controlling the way underage children access social media network platforms and uncensored materials therein. While trying to close the gap by employing nonfiction qualitative method which allowed for research interactions with 4 parents and 2 teenagers, the study advocated for proper guidance and total management of the time spent online and the consumption of audio-visual materials on the side of both the African child and parent.

Keywords: Moral, Children, Underage, Social Media Network, Consequences




Review of Handover Decision Algorithms in Wireless Communication Systems


I.H.Usman1 E.E. Omizegba2 & L. Maijama’a1

1Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria 2Department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa University Bauchi, Nigeria



Handover is one of the key components in cellular network mobility management. This is as a result of growing consumer demand for access to communication services anywhere and anytime. The flexibility offered by IEEE and 3GPP standards in system designs of IEEE 802.16m, 4G and 5G networks make it possible through handover decision algorithm for a mobile user to establish a seamless connection while simultaneously guaranteeing acceptable quality of service across the different RATs. This paper presents a review of the various handover decision algorithms and their analyses conducted for suitable applications in the mobile communication systems.

Keywords: Handover, IEEE, 3GPP, RAT, 4G, 5G




Basic Reproduction Number of a Mathematical Model of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (Covid-19)


Goni Umar Modu

Department of Statistics, Ramat Polytechnic Maidduguri, Borno State



This study aimed at proposing a new model regarding the transmission of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in human population. The mathematical model was constructed by taking into consideration several epidemiology parameters that are closely identical with the real condition. In the study, an analysis was conducted to determine the presence of disease-free equilibrium (DFE) point. The basic reproduction number was obtained and can be used to determine what happen next in the population with regard to the disease.

Keywords: Mathematical Model; Coronavirus Disease; COVID-19; Basic Reproductive Number




The Effect of Fertilizer on the Yield of Different Varieties of Maize


Aminu Haruna; Usman Hassan; Luka Joshua; Salisu Lukunti; & A.D. Salisu

Department of Mathematics & Statistics, FPTB. 5Department of Civil Engineering, FPTB.



This research work, ‘The Effect of Fertilizer on the Yield of Different Varieties of Maize sought to investigate the effect of inorganic fertilizer in different quantities/rates to different varieties of maize to produce the best yield. The data was collected from the written work from Bauchi State College of Agriculture (in conjunction with Bauchi State Agricultural Development Board) in coded form. The data cover the period of one rainy season. Factorial Analysis of Variance was employed and analysed the collected data and the Least Significant Difference. Result shows that both the varieties and fertilizer application differ in rates. There is an interaction between them of which the second variety and 90kg/ha produce the best yield. The study recommends that the use of factorial deign in testing the effect of different fertilizer rates on crop yield, especially when the experiment is large is highly recommended.

Keywords: Fertilizer, Maize, Analysis of variance.




Antimicrobial Activities of Fresh White Onion and Ginger on Staphylococcus Aureus Organism


Dennis D.Y.; & Samuel K. E.

Department of Science Laboratory & Technology, Isa Mustapha Agwai I Polytechnic Lafia, Nasarawa State- Nigeria.



Antimicrobial activities of fresh white onion (Alliums cepa) and ginger (Zingiber offinale) extract on Staphylococcus aureus organism was investigated. The samples were obtained from Lafia modern market the Nasarawa State capital. While the test organism was collected from patients having boil at the school clinic.  The freshly onion bulbs were blended into powder and that of the ginger. Also their juices were extracted and subjected for the anti-microbial activities against the test organism (Staphylococcus aureus) as well as other organisms as control namely: Pseudomonas auroginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi which were isolated from salad. All the bacteria except Staphylococcus aureus were susceptible to the fresh white onion juices and ginger with the diameter of zones of inhibition ranging from 12mm-10mm and 15mm-15mm respectively of white onion and ginger on the test organism. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and the Minimum Bacterial Concentration (MBC) value of the fresh white onion juices and ginger against the test bacteria were low, ranging from 3.125% v/v-25.0%v/v. This study indicates that the plant extracts of white onion and ginger exhibits antimicrobial properties against Staphylococcus species. It is therefore, necessary as recommended to ascertain the safety usage of white onion and ginger, hence toxicological assessment test on the plants extracts for safety usage and purposes, while pharmaceutical industries can adopt this usage as raw materials for the production of skin sprays and drugs for the public consumption.

Keywords: Antimicrobial Activity, Ginger; White Onion; Staphylococcus aureus.




Nutritional and Microbial Quality of Tiger Nuts (Cyperus Esculetus) Milk (Kunun-Aya)


*Samuel, E; **Udosen, I. E; **Musa, J.C; and **Mohammed, M.I.

*Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. **Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.



This study evaluates the Nutritional and Microbial Quality of Tiger nuts milk. The raw materials were tiger nuts, coconut, date, cinnamon and ginger.The Standard microbiological methods were used to isolate, characterize and identify microbial isolates. The bacterial count was 8.2×103 cfu/ml , the  coliform count  was 3.5 x104 cfu/ml   while the fungal load  was 9.2×105 cfu/ml. The organisms isolated and identified from the analysed tiger nuts milk were Staphyloccus aureus, Escherichia coli and Yeast spp respectively. The proximate analysis  revealed ; ash  (65.5%), moisture  (70.3%), crude fibre (9.5%), fat (1.20%), protein (10.1%), carbohydrate (56.7%)and the pH value was 3.5. The tiger nuts milk were evaluated by panelist using a 9-point hedonic scale and statistical analysis carried out on their responses. The sensory scores;  the Appearance was 4.35, Colour 4.24, Aroma 4.59, Taste 4.35, Mouth feel 4.35 and Acceptability 4.41. All the sensory attributes were like much and extremely liked by the panelist.

Keywords: Nutritional, Microbial, Quality, Tiger Nuts (Cyperus Esculetus), Milk (Kunun-Aya).



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