African Scholar Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences (AJPAS) Vol. 15 No.9


VOL. 15 NO.9 SEPTEMBER, 2019 ISSN: 2278 – 8881



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.


Copyright © 2019 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


A New Metadata Fusion Technique for Effective E-Voting Authentication


*Prof. Adewale Olumide S. **Dr. Boyinbode Olutayo K. and *Salako E. Adekunle

*Department of Computer Science, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria **Department of Information Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria



The constitutional roles of genuine electorates in elections have been ruptured by the imposters for personal benefits and unlawful manipulations. The challenges in genuinely authenticate individual had negatively affected the private and public institutions and nations are not left out as unauthorized individuals could falsely be identified and manipulate valuable information in elections. Numerous efforts had been made to curtail the illegal access to the use of electronic voting systems. Such efforts included the use of passwords, PIN, combined biometric traits. The performance of multi-biometric depends on the type of data and fusion technique used. A meta-data fusion combines a biometric trait and numerical data for effective authentication. The existing fusion techniques such as sum, product, min, max rules and decision templates (DT) could easily be manipulated by the fraudsters, thereby falsely grant access to an unlawful individual for unlawful voting. This paper presented a new metadata fusion technique for efficient e-voting authentication by fusing the voter’s fingerprint and voter’s identification number (VIN) to achieve authentication e-voting requirements. The technique proposed could be used to fuse any biometric trait and numerical data for different secured applications and systems.

Keywords: Metadata, Fusion, Technique, E-Voting and Authentication




Evaluating the effect of Relative Humidity on Signal Reception of Direct –to-Home (DTH) Satellite System at Ku-Band in North Central, Nigeria.


1Ndanusa, B. 2Yusuf, S. D. 2Umar, I and 3Kwaha, B, J.

1Department of Physics, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria. 2Department of Physics, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nasarawa State. 3Department of Physics, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.



This paper examines the effects of variation in relative humidity on signal reception of Direct-to-Home (DTH) satellite on Ku-Band in north central, Nigeria. Data used were obtained through experimental approach of recording both relative humidity and the quality of signal received from DTH at 12.519 GHz at regular interval of one hour covering January to December of 2018. The data obtained from field was used, daily and monthly averages were evaluated thereof. The work used experimental as well as statistical correlation to establish the effect of relative humidity on signal reception. The results obtained showed a gradual increase in the mean monthly relative humidity from January and got to its peak in August after which a gradual declination sets in October to December, as relative humidity picks gradually as the months progresses through the year, quality of signal reception gradually declines as the relative humidity. The result showed that signal quality has its highest values in the dry months and lowest values in moist months. Linear correlations between the two parameters reveal strong negative mean correlations coefficient (r) and coefficient of determination (R2) values of -0.799 and 0.647 respectively for north central states, Nigeria. The result reaffirmed that the rate of moist content in atmosphere has adverse effect on the quality of signal reception at frequency above 10 GHz at Ku-band.

Keyword: Relative humidity, Signal Attenuation, direct-to home, signals quality reception, and Ku-band.




Recent Advances in Mobile Touch Screen Security Authentication Methods: A Systematic Literature Review


Tahir Musa Ibrahim1, Shafi’i Muhammad Abdulhamid2, Ala Abdusalam Alarood3, Haruna Chiroma4,*, Mohammed Ali Al-Garadi5, Nadim Rana6, Amina Nuhu Muhammad7, Adamu Abubakar8, Khalid Haruna9 And Lubna A. Gabralla10

1Department of Information Technology, National Open University of Nigeria 2Department of Cyber Security Science, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria 3Department of Computer Science, University of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia 4Department of Computer Science, Federal College of Education (Technical), Gombe, Nigeria 5Department of Computer Science and Engineering Department, Doha, Qatar University 6Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia 7Department of Mathematics, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria 8Department of Computer Science, International    Islamic University Malaysia 9Department of Computer Science, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria 10Computer Science and IT Department, College of Community, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.



The security of the smartphone touch screen has attracted considerable attention from academics as well as industry and security experts. The maximum security of the mobile phone touch screen is necessary to protect the user’s stored information in the event of loss. Previous reviews in this research domain have focused primarily on biometrics and graphical passwords while leaving out PIN, gesture/pattern and others. In this paper, we present a comprehensive literature review of the recent advances made in mobile touch screen authentication techniques covering PIN, pattern/gesture, biometrics, graphical password and others. A new comprehensive taxonomy of the various multiple class authentication techniques is presented in order to expand the existing taxonomies on single class authentication techniques. The review reveals that the most recent studies that propose new techniques for providing maximum security to smartphone touch screen reveal multi-objective optimization problems. In addition, open research problems and promising future research directions are presented in the paper. Expert researchers can benefit from the review by gaining new insights into touch screen cyber security, and novice researchers may use this paper as a starting point of their inquiry.         

Keywords: Mobile device security; graphical password; PIN based authentication; biometric security; touchscreen gesture/pattern; natural algorithms.




A Review of Text Mining in Clinical Data Repository


Mohammed Yusuf & Dr. John K. Alhassan

Department of Computer Science, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria.



The size of text data is growing at an exponential rates day by day. Almost all type of institutions, organizations, and business industries are storing their data electronically. A huge amount of text is flowing over the internet in the form of digital libraries, repositories, and other textual information such as blogs, social media network and e-mails. Health care sectors today produces large amount of text data relating to hospitals, diseases, diagnosis, patient records, medical cost, resources and portfolios, these large amount of data is important to be processed and scrutinized for knowledge extraction that empower supports for understanding the prevalent circumstances in the health sector. Text mining is a process of extracting interesting and nontrivial patterns from huge amount of text documents. There exist different techniques and tools to mine the text and discover valuable information for future prediction and decision making process. The aim of this research work is to provide a review on the foundation principles of mining clinical data repository, and present the findings and results of past researches on utilizing text mining techniques to mine health care data and patient records. The scope of this article is to present a brief report on preceding investigations made in the sphere of mining clinical data repository, the techniques applied and the conclusions recounted. Although extensive research has led to remarkable advancement in the field of clinical data mining and has paved way for advancement in medical practice, the most recent research findings that can further unveil the potential of text mining in the domain of health care sector and medicine are clearly presented in this review.

Keywords: Text mining, Data Mining, Text Clustering, Health Sector, Clinical Data Repository (CDR), Principal Component Analysis (PCA),    




Qualitative Characterization off Bifurcation Analysis Velocity of Rain Drop and Data Precision


*J.A. Okoro **E.N. Ekaka-a **N.M. Napo ***O.C. Aaron Mandah ***Eleki A. Gbolu

*Department of Mathematics, School of Secondary Education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Omoku, Rivers State **Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, Rivers State University, Nkpolu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria ***Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic Rumuola, Port Harcourt



The efficient data precision calculation depends on the qualitative behavior of the dynamical system. In the contact of the velocity raindrop with respect to a changing arbitrary unit of time, the initial velocity value of the raindrop having 30 has produced a standard deviation value of 33.12 in contrast, when the initial velocity of value of the raindrop is 125, a lower standard deviating value of 28.25 has been found which makes the specified solution map data satisfying the initial velocity value of 125 to be considered as best fit due to the bifurcation behavior of the solution map data.

Keywords: Qualitative, Bifurcation, Analysis, Velocity, Data Precision




Automated Debugging System


Anthony Umukoro & Joseph Okorodudu

Computer Science Department, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe



This research work is centered on the appraisal of the concept of Automated Debugging System. Computer programs often contain defects, or bugs, that need to be found and repaired. This manual “debugging” usually requires valuable time and resources. To help developers debug more efficiently, automated debugging solutions have been proposed. One approach goes through information available in bug reports. Another goes through information collected by running a set of test cases. Debugging ranges in complexity from fixing simple errors to performing lengthy and tiresome tasks of data collection, analysis, and scheduling updates. The debugging skill of the programmer can be a major factor in the ability to debug a problem hence this research work raises awareness for this topic and gives an overview of automated debugging system which are typically associated with the use of dedicated software technologies in the digital world.

Keywords: Computer Program, Debugging, System, Data Collection, Programmer




A Secured Entrance Door Lock System using Password Based


Abdulraheem Ojo Umar

Department of Computer Science, FCT College of Education, Nigeria



Doors are medium use to keep people out of public and private places. At present, doors under mechanical lock and key are not adequately secured from authorized individual. Mechanical keys are easily destroyed using several tools such as hack-saw etc., thereby providing access to unauthorized individual. Over the years, several security measures have been employed to combat the menace of insecurity of lives and property. In this work a secured entrance door lock system was designed and developed. This system will used a Personal Identification Number (PIN) based door lock system wherein once the correct PIN (Logic 1) is entered, the door is opened and the authorized user is allowed access to the secured areas such as offices or confidential rooms. The entrance door is closed after few microseconds to prevent unauthorized users to gain entrance. Again, if another person arrives, the system requests for PIN. If the PIN is wrong (Logic 0), then the door will remain closed, denying the access to the person. This system will be designed around a AT80S51 microprocessor that will be programmed using Assembly language to control the Electromagnet Lock (EML) opening (Logic 1) and closing (Logic 0) of entrance doors.

Keywords: Door Locking, Security, Electromagnet Lock, Personal Identification Number, microprocessor




Horizontal (2d) Control Network Adjustment Via Matlab And Starnet.


1Lawali Rabiu, 2Umar Barde, and 3Bulama Abatcha A.

1,2,&3Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, P.M.B. 1006, Yobe State, Nigeria.



Horizontal surveys are performed for the purpose of determining precise relative horizontal positions of points. Their precision is increased by repeating measurements, making frequent ties to established controls, using high-quality equipment, performing the measurements carefully, and keeping it in good adjustment. The most fundamental operation in surveying is the establishment of two or three dimensional control network of large or small areas of land. Errors do occur in such operations as well as all types of surveys. Therefore, they must be adjusted and analyzed. In this research LSE of 2D control network adjustment was performed via MATLAB, and the procedure was repeated via STARNET. The complete computational procedure and all matrices (including all variance matrices) were discussed. The main results of LSE: parameters, standard deviation, unit variance, statistical test (at α=0.005), and network quality were discussed. The results of MATLAB and that of STARNET were compared and discussed. Conclusion was drawn on the suitability of the software in control network adjustment.

Keywords: Control network, LSE, MATLAB, STARNET, Error ellipse




The Impact of Service Differentiation on Creating Competitive Advantage: Catreg Regression Perspective


1*Adegbite I.O., 2Osinowo, A.  3Omisore A.O. and 4Ayinde L.A.

1,3 & 4Department of Statistics Osun State Polythecnic, Iree, Nigeria 2Deputy Director, Operations, Nigerian Railway Corporation



It is beyond cavil that businesses thrive when they possess competitive advantage over rivals. Scholars have identified a plethora of means or tools by which organizations achieve competitive advantage, one of which is ‘service differentiation’. Leading companies world over spend billions of dollars annually to find means of gaining competitive edge over industry rivals. This analytical research focuses on evaluating the impact of service differentiation on creating competitive advantage, using Nigeria Railway Corporation (NRC) as case study. Two reasons inform this study focus; the prohibitive cost of developing and implementing a strategy in an economic environment of limited resources, stronger competition and competing priorities. Secondly, the intangible nature of service differentiation that makes it more difficult to measure.  The research relying on primary and secondary data gathered from a sample survey of 100 commuters and internal strategy and performance reports. The statistical tools of descriptive, Catreg regression, and time series analyses are employed to assess the impact of service differentiation of creating competitive advantage. The findings of this research suggest that service differentiation does have an impact on creating competitive advantage, particularly in a standardized business environment. It however found also, that consumers are not influenced by service differentiation alone, but businesses are expected to fulfill their core business offering to a high standard first. It is however recommended that Innovation which is currently not seen as a competitive advantage strategy, should be revisited, repackaged and encouraged.

Keywords: Competitive advantage, Service differentiation, standardized business environment, Core services, Profit.




Analysis of the Factorial Effects of Variety and Spacing on the Yield of Sesame Seed (Sesamum Indicum) Using Split-Plot Design


M.S. Galadima1*, M.A. Dauda2, M.A. Wudiri3 and U. Hassan4

1,2,4Statistics Department, the Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Nigeria. 3Agricultural Technology Department, the Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Nigeria.



Field trial was carried out in the rainy season of 2018 to study the effect of Variety and Spacing on the yield of Sesame Seed in the Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Nigeria. A split-plot design was used with Variety as the main plot Factor and Spacing as the subplot Factor. The experiments consisted of four levels of Variety (NCRIBEN 01M, NCRIBEN 02M, NCRIBEN 04E, NCRIBEN 05E) and four levels of Spacing (10cm, 15cm, 20cm and 25cm). The Data obtained from this Experiment was analysed using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Technique. The result of the analysis shows that Spacing had a significant effect on the yield of Sesame Seed (kilogram per hectare) with 10cm and 15cm intra row Spacing giving higher yield than 20cm and 25cm (with 65cm inter row spacing). However, the effect of spacing on 1000 grain weight, yield per plant, capsule length, number of capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsule was not significant; also Variety and interaction between Spacing and Variety had no significant effects on the yield of the Crop. Furthermore, this research had shown that the higher yield, in kilogram per hectare, observed for low level of spacing was due to the relatively higher population of plant on the plots where the spacing was low.

Keywords: Split-Plot Design, ANOVA, Factor.




Band Structure and Density of States Studies of Licoo2 and Cu Doped Licoo for Energy Storage Applications


*Z. Abdullahi, *A. Isa, *A. C. Egba, *A. Noble, *O. A. Babalola, **A. D. A. Buba

*Physics Advanced Research Centre, (PARC), Sheda Science and Technology Complex (SHESTCO), Abuja **Department of Physics, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria



In this study band structure and density of states studies were carried out on LiCoO2 and Cu doped LiCoO2 using the first-principles pseudopotential method based on the density functional theory (DFT) and the plane-wave method as implemented in the Quantum Espresso (an opEn-Source Package for Research in Electronic Structure, Simulation, and  Optimization) package.  The value of the band gap found is 2.2eV for pristine LiCoO2  and 1.6 eV for Cu doped LiCoO2.  From the DOS graph we can observe the peaks from -7 to -2 eV, -2 to 0.5 eV and 0.5 to 5 eV for pristine LiCoOand -22.5 to -20.0 eV, -20.0 to -12.5 eV, -12.5 to 2.5eV for Cu doped LiCoO2.




Magnetohydrodynamic Casson Fluid Flow over an Exponential Stretching Sheet with Effect of Radiation


Mohammed I. B. S., Saidu Yakubu.Vulegbo and Mohammed Issa.

Department of Mathematics, Federal Polytechnic Bida, Nigeria.



Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) casson fluid flow over an exponentially stretching sheet is investigated with effect of radiation. The governing partial differential equations were reduced to ordinary differential equations using similarity transformation. The reduced non-linear ordinary differential equations were solved using iteration perturbation method and the results obtained were presented graphically. The effects of casson parameter, radiation parameter, magnetic parameter, heat source/sink on the velocity and temperature profiles were discussed. It is revealed that these parameters play crucial role on MHD casson fluid flow.

Keywords: MHD, Casson fluid, Stretching sheet. 




The Effect of Section Thickness, Mechanical Properties and Moulding Techniques of As-Cast A142 Aluminium Alloy


Orisanaiye Bruno Akinjide

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria



An investigation on the effect of different moulding techniques, section thickness and mechanical properties of as-cast A142 Aluminium alloy was carried out. The A142 Aluminium alloy was produced using green, dry and loam sand mould. The alloy was cast into cylindrical bars of 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20mm diameter and 300mm by length each. The as-cast bars were cut and machined to standard tensile impact and hardness test specimens. The tensile strengths, hardness values and impact test of the various cast samples were determined. It was found that both tensile and impact strength properties decreases as the section size increases. While the hardness slightly increases with the section thickness. A142 alloys produced in dry sand mould have the highest tensile strength while alloys produced from green sand mould have the highest impact strength and A142 aluminum alloys produced in loam sand have the highest hardness.

Keywords: Tensile Strength, Impact Toughness and Hardness Number




Performance Evaluation of Antlion Optimizer and Particle Swarm Optimization for Uncapacitated Facility Location Problem (Uflp)


*Shehu Hussaina, And, 1 Morufu Olalere,

1Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria 2Department of Cyber Security Science, Federal University of Technology, Minna Niger State, Nigeria



The Uncapacitated Facility Location Problem (UFLP) is one of the widely studied discrete optimization problem due to its application in modelling and solving various real life problems. In UFLP, the minimum cost of connecting a facility with some demand points is being sought. Due to its NP-hard (nondeterministic polynomial time) nature and increasing complexity of the problem as the dimension increases, metaheuristic optimization algorithms have been proposed in solving them. In this paper, the performance of two successful and recent metaheuristic optimization algorithms (the Ant Lion Optimizer (ALO) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)) which were applied to solving UFLP were evaluated and compared. The data set used for the experiments were obtained from OR-library (Operational Research Library) and the results shows that the algorithms were efficient in obtaining a minimum cost and minimize distance of travel to yield a better facility location. The performance of ALO algorithm when compared to PSO show much better results in terms of obtaining the minimum city-facility connection cost.

Keywords: Facility location, Un-capacitated Facility Location Problem (UFLP), Ant lion optimizer, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)  




Analysis of Variance on Groundnut Production in Bauchi State


Hamisu Idi, Dauda Madalla, Luka Joshua & Isa Yahaya

aDepartment of Mathematics & Statistics, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi



This study assesses the application of analysis of variance (ANOVA) on groundnut production in Bauchi State. The study adopted descriptive and correlation research design. Data for the study was collected from Bauchi State Agricultural Development Program (BSADP) for period of four years (2014 – 2017). The data was analysed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA and regression techniques. The result of the analysis reveals that there is no significant difference between the mean production weights of groundnut for the past four years, there is significance difference between the mean production weights of groundnut within the twenty local governments in the State. The study recommends that government should encourage the production of groundnut by providing fertilizers, herbicide and other material needed for its production.

Keywords: ANOVA, Regression Analysis and descriptive statistics.




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