African Scholar Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences (AJPAS) Vol 10 No.1

African Scholar Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences (AJPAS)

Vol 10 No.1 2018 ISSN 2321-2845


Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies, University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.


Copyright © 2017 African Scholar Publications and Research International.




Review of the Application of Radiation Technology in Polymers Industry and Shortages in their Services

1Bello, I.A., 2Vatsa, M.A and 2Simon J.

1Division of Agricultural Colleges, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria 2Department of Physics Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.



Polymer industry utilize many radiation sources in various polymer processing technique (e.g Cross linking, Degradation, Grafting and Radiation curing). This technology is used to enhance physical and chemical properties of materials and to reduce undesirable contaminants. This technology is used to modify their physical and chemical properties by using ionizing radiation to improve their properties in order to add value to them (i.e reducing undesirable contaminants). The most common radioisotopes used are Cobalt-60 (60Co) and Caesium-137 (137Cs), both are of ɣ-emitters. Other sources are electron beam accelerators and X-rays machines. To minimize hazards associated with the utilization of radiation based technologies in polymers industries, national radiation protection standards are implemented. Utilization of radiation source is controlled by international and national rules and regulations (such as IAEA and NNRA). The use of radiation sources requires regular services. There are shortages in the needed radiation sources services in polymer industries within Nigeria. This paper will outline samples of radiation based technologies used in polymer industry and paying particular attention to shortages in the radiation services needed to safe handling of the sources that need to be rectified in order to encourage the new radiation sources users to utilize radiation based technologies in the industry.  

Keywords: Application, Radiation, Technology, Polymers and Shortages



Effect of sodium hypochlorite in triploid induction in Clarias gariepinus

Olayimika, Solomon O. A. and Ojomah, C.

Department Of Water Resources, Aquaculture and Fisheries Technology School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology. Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State



The effects of chemical shock, using 1.0% sodium hypochlorite (10000ppm) to induce triploid on fertilized eggs of Clarias gariepinus was determined in the laboratory. Eggs were artificially fertilized, and subjected to 1.0% sodium hypochlorite (10000ppm) treatments five (5) minutes after fertilization at varied concentrations of 1 ml/l, 2 ml/l and 3 ml/l for 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes then incubated at 28±1 °C for 24 h. The treatments were assessed by comparing fertilized and percent hatchability in the treated groups with the untreated (control) group. Fertilized eggs treated with 1.0% sodium hypochlorite (10000ppm) at concentrations of 1 ml, 2 ml and 3 ml for a period of 5, 10, 15and 20 minutes significantly affected fertilized eggs (P≤0.05), also as the concentration increased in the treatments, fertilized eggs (that survived) and hatchability decreased due to the effect of chemical shock on the eggs.. Mean of water quality parameter were within the range recommended for fresh water fishes. In conclusion, Treatment (1ml) at duration of 5mins gave a better fertilization and hatchability compared to other concentrations    . Further research on chromosome analysis to ascertain triplodization of chromosomes.

Keywords: Sodium hypochlorite, Fertilized eggs, Triploid, Induce, Chemical shock, Duration



Assessment of Heavy Metals in Different Grains Grown   in Gashua, Yobe State.

Katuzu. M. I1, Hodi. A. I2, Lawan. L3, Lawan. M.M4 And Kabir. M. M5.

1Department of Science of Basic Science1 Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State, 2,3&4 Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu, Yobe State, 5Umar Suleiman College of Education Gashua, Yobe State.



The concentrations of Heavy Metals in grains cultivated in Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria were evaluated using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. [(Pb, Cr, As, Cu and Fe were found to be 0.00mg/kg, 0.50mg/kg, 0.00mg/kg, 130.0mg/kg and 60.00mg/kg respectively for Oryza Sativa), (Pb, Cr, As, Cu and Fe were found to be 4.50mg/kg, 2.50mg/kg, 0.00mg/kg, 91.50mg/kg and 170.0mg/kg respectively for Zea Mays), (Pb, Cr, As, Cu and Fe were found to be 0.00mg/kg, 9.00mg/kg, 15.00mg/kg, 65.00mg/kg, and 54.50mg/kg respectively for Pennisetum glaucum), (Pb, Cr, As, Cu and Fe were found to be 7.15mg/kg, 10.00mg/kg, 3.45mg/kg, 151.50mg/kg, and 101.0mg/kg respectively for Triticum Spp), and (Pb, Cr, As, Cu and Fe were found to be 21.00mg/kg, 0.00mg/kg, 0.00mg/kg, 150.0mg/kg, and 355.50mg/kg respectively for Sorghum bicolor)]. More than ninety percent (90%) of the tested grain samples contained one or more heavy metal that is above the maximum permissible limit as being recommended by FAO/WHO. People living in this area should not solely depend on their cultivated food stuffs, so as to avoid excessive accumulation of heavy metals.

Keywords: heavy metal, accumulation, food stuffs, concentrations, Spectrophotometer, Zea Mays.



Infrastructure Inadequacy and Fisheries Development in Nigeria.

1Bolarinwa J. B, 2 Ogunbanwo O.M and 3Ishola, O.J

1,2Department of   Fisheries Technology, Lagos State Polytechnic, P.M.B 21606, Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria 3Department of Animal Production Technology, Lagos State Polytechnic, P.M.B 21606, Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria



One of the major challenges facing fisheries development in Nigeria is infrastructural inadequacy in all its ramifications. Nigeria’s under-investment in infrastructural development has blurred her vision to be among the World’s 20 largest economies by 2020. The persistent self­-insufficiency in fish production in Nigeria despite the immerse natural and human resources could be attributed to infrastructure inadequacy especially in the area of modern fishing inputs, post-harvest technologies, roads, housing, water and sanitation, hospitals, airports, seaports, transport, fish marketing facilities and energy. This paper gave a historical review of fisheries and infrastructural status in Nigeria. The need for soft and hard infrastructural facilities in Nigerian fishing industry was highlighted. Recommended solutions to the current status of infrastructure deficit include policy stability, improved funding of infrastructure, research and development, Public-private sector collaboration and good maintenance culture. The philosophy of ‘Developmentalism’ which considers the sociocultural needs and environment of Nigerians should be adopted in infrastructural development. The local content of the Public Procurement should also be improved using local experts of proven and verifiable performance records.

Keywords: Infrastructure, Fisheries, Developmentalism, Procurement, underinvestment, Research and Development


Production and Quality Assessment of Gluten Free and Nutrient Dense Bread from Millet, Unripe Plantain and Acha Flour

*Azeez, L.A. and Adedokun, S.O.

Department of Food Science and Technology. The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic Saki, Oyo State



Consumption of gluten free bread is highly recommended to reduce celiac diseases which is an health problems often related to the consumption of gluten rich bread. Therefore, production of bread from three flour blends of acha, millet, and unripe plantain flour was made in ratios: 80: 10: 10; 60: 20: 20 and 40: 30: 30, respectively. The bread samples were compared with control (100% wheat flour). Proximate analysis, physical properties, functional properties and sensory properties of the bread samples were analyzed. The proximate composition of the bread ranged from 22.5% to 34.80% for moisture, protein 7.15% to 11.18%, fat 3.56% to 6.45%, ash 0.37% to 3.10 %, crude fiber 0.12% to 0.58%, and carbohydrate 49.43% to 62.62%. Physical studies exhibited a decreased in the loaf volume and specific volume, while the loaf weight of the bread increased significantly (p≤0.05) with rising levels of acha, millet and unripe flour supplementation. The results of functional properties showed that there were no significant different (p ˃ 0.05) between values obtained for solubility of the bread, while   there were significant differences (p < 0.05) between values obtained for bulk density, swelling capability and water absorption ability of bread samples. There were no significant difference (P< 0.05) in parameters evaluated for sensory evaluation from the bread samples produced from the blends of acha, millet, and unripe plantain compare to the control (100% wheat flour). Therefore, the production of gluten free bread from acha, millet and unripe plantain is expected to meet the needs to reduce the health problems related with the consumption of gluten rich bread.

Keywords: Acha, Millet, unripe plantain, Bread, physico-chemical and sensory properties.

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