African Scholar Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 18 No. 6


VOL. 18 NO. 6 SEPTEMBER, 2020 ISSN: 2110–2086



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2020 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


A Study of Intergroup Relations in Central Nigeria Area from 1914: An Antidote to National Integration.


Baba Yahaya

Department of History and International Studies, Faculty of Education and Arts, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University.



Disunity as a bottleneck to Nigeria and Nigerians integration has been a subject of discussion by many scholars from various fields of endeavour. However, attempt in this paper is to rekindle the ties that existed between Nigerians by explaining with examples from central Nigeria area that can obviously erase the erroneous thought about British Nigeria’s amalgamation. The paper examines issues in Nigeria since the colonial period that makes unity difficult up to date. It is on this premise that the paper evaluates some silent features that promotes interaction among Nigerians of all divides before, during and after colonial incursion, with focus on Central Nigeria Area. The paper used discussion approach and concluded that the challenges of national integration notwithstanding, realities on ground favoured continuous cooperate existence of Nigeria.

Keywords: Intergroup relation, national integration, national disintegration, colonialism, ethnicity, culture.




Religious Impact of Fake News on the Lives of Christian Youths in Adamawa State, Nigeria


Karlmax Haruna

Department of Arts and Social Science Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria



This study surveyed the opinions of Christian youths on the moral impact of fake news on the lives of Christian youths. The objective of the study was to find out the religious impact of fake news on the lives of Christian youths. Hypothesis was formulated to test if there is significant difference between the opinions of male and female Christian youths. Surveyed research designed method was used, structured questionnaire was used to gather data and was analysed using statistical package for social sciences. The result revealed that, there are many fake religious information on the lips of Christian youths capable of fomenting religious hatred in the society, existence of fake news makes Christian youths to deepen their faith, and share their religious views from fabricated religious information. It was recommended that, Fake news should not be look upon as completely out of place but makes it possible for Christians to be more apologetic toward their faith from external attack. The youths are encouraged to be open minded to such fabricated news so as to use it in clearing grey areas in the gospel of Christ. They should avoid using fake news to incite religious violence.

Keywords: Fake News, Christian Youths, Lives, Religious Impact, Gnostics, New Testament




Language, Violence, and the Media: Newspaper Framing of Boko Haram


Halima Shehu and Bala Muhammed Dalhatu

Communication Education/General Studies, School of Science and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology, Minna



Violence is almost always accompanied by language. When violence occurs it appears to rely on a discursive accompaniment that assigns meaning to it. This paper seeks out the connections between language and violence by examining how the media characterizes violent actions and in so doing influence perceptions and reactions to the Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. Language is seen here as an essential instrument by which societal awareness and morale can be constructed against acts of violence. As purveyors of words, the media in particular, has a social responsibility to contribute to national security through what it disseminates to the general public.  The concept of violence, the metaphorical language that describes it as well as the potential embedded in language to bring about peace is the main focus here.

Keywords: Language, Violence, Media, Framing, Metaphor




Information Seeking Behaviour of Pregnant Women in Jos South Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria.


Dalyop, Esther Bulus & Jacob, Emmanuel Eneojo

Library and Information Science Unit, Department of Social Science Education, Faculty of Education, University of Jos.



This study discusses the Information Seeking Behaviour of Pregnant Women in Jos South Local Government Area of Plateau State. Three (3) objectives were formulated to guide the study. Descriptive research design was adopted for this study, 259 pregnant women in Jos South Local Government Area of Plateau State was used as the population for this study with the sample of 152 pregnant women. The sampling technique used was the simple random sampling technique. The instrument for data collection adopted was Questionnaire (both open-ended and close-ended). The method adopted for data analysis was the frequency counts and simple percentages. The study indicated that in a quest to obtain information needed by the pregnant women, they consult different sources of information such as internet, interpersonal sources, books, radio, magazines, television programs,  among others. The findings also revealed that apart from health talks and antenatal lectures, they seek information from other sources; also for sources of information that requires finances, pregnant women in Jos South LGA still seek for information from that source. In accordance with the findings, some recommendations were made which includes: the head of the PHCs should ensure that the health staff relate friendly and freely with the pregnant women in order to understand them and help them in providing their information needs because the researcher discovered some health staff have poor attitude towards the pregnant women thereby creating fear and hindering them from expressing themselves. The researcher also discovered that majority of the pregnant women cannot read and write; also only few have attended higher institution. It was recommended that classes should be conducted for these women in order to increase their literacy level which will in turn reduce ignorance, among other recommendations.

Keywords: Information, Pregnancy, Jos South Local Government Area, Information seeking behaviour, Pregnant Women.




The Woman as a Victim of Violence/Rape


Dibie, Godfrey Atunu (Ph.D) 

Department Of General Studies, Federal University, Wukari, Taraba State.



The rising cases of violence against women world wide is not only becoming very worrisome but such that is getting out of hand and this must be urgently addressed. The aim of this paper is to bring to the knowledge of all the various forms of violences against the woman which includes physical, sexual psychological, i.e. wife battering that inflict words on the body, sexual molestations of female children and adults, within communities homes, during communal clashes, inter tribal wars, Boko Haram attacks, riots, and many more and the need for government to take very urgent and drastic measures to put an end to this very wicked and ungodly act against the woman and also to strengthen existing laws. So that perpetrators will be dealt with accordingly. As a position paper, it draw basically from libriaries, prints from the internets relevant texts. It concludes that if government can wake up from its slumbers, and become alive to her responsibilities added to the efforts that will be made by civil societies and religious bodies to deal with the situation it will certainly reduce the acts of violence against women and this will bring a lot of peace and sanity to women and man kind.

Keywords: Violence, sexual, molestation wife battering, urgently, drastic, solutions.




Film Translation and Mass Media Violence: Exploring the Emerging Network of Gang Rivalries in Jalingo


Blessing Ginikanwa Ph.D; & Ishaq Isa El-Qassim

Department of English and Literary Studies, Federal University Wukari



Film is a polylogic genre of mass communication that involves multimodality: visual, aural and written linguistic codes that are situated within some cultural contexts. This means any holistic analysis of film usually involves relevant cross disciplinary approaches that appraise not only the flow of narratives, but also language use and the pattern and consequence of image portrayal, which combine to give the content its composite implications. This study waded into the polemic of media violence as an intercultural communicative phenomenon. The paper specifically looked into the role of linguistic film domestication in motivating possible modeling of Indian film violence in real life in a given social context. The paper investigated the use of certain language codes, weapon models and the pattern of violence in dubbed Indian films and thought to be replicated by emerging street gangs in Jalingo. Ethnography was used to collect data, specifically via covert participant observation and indepth interview for a period between September 2018 and January 2019. Social Cognitive theory was used to explain the prevailing issues in the study. The research found a strong correlation between some visual and verbal linguistic codes used in domesticated (Hausa) Indian films and the codes used by the local gangs particularly the Yan Fores (Forest Boys) in Jalingo. The study also found a correlation between the pattern of turf (yanki) protection by particular gangs commonly featured in Indian films and what is found in reality among members of Yan Fores or Forest Boys in Jalingo.

Keywords: Translation, Mass Media Violence, Exploring, Emerging Network.




A Stylistic Analysis of Selected Poems in Jumoke Verissimo’s I Am Memory


Hussaini Addau Magaji

Department of English and Literary Studies, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State.



This study examines the Style of a contemporary Nigerian poet, Jumoke Verissimo’s collections of poetry, “I Am Memory” it discusses how she uses literary style and the language use in her collections of poetry. It also examines how the poet’s deployment of style makes her poetry more accessible to a larger audience. Like the oral traditional performance, her poetry employs rich Yoruba oral literary devices in a way that is unique and glaringly innovative. Jumoke’s poetic style has a clearly defined concept and role. A brief outline of relevance theories are followed by a more detailed analysis of metaphor, rhyme, alliteration and various literary styles as they contribute to the poetic style. The methods of interpretation used in this work are magical realism and sociological theory. The study posits that any serious stylistic exploration of Jumoke verissimo’s poetry and poetry in general, must foreground the role figurations play in conveying textual messages and producing aesthetic effects.

Keywords: Stylistic, Poetry, Contemporary, Concept, Foreground




L’exil Et La Desillusion Dans Un Papillon Dans La Cite,  L’exil Selon Julia Et Chair Piment De     Gisele, Pineau


Ijah Gideon Akase

Department of French, Nasarawa state university, Keffi



Depuis le temps l’exil représente une question qui marque profondément la littérature antillaise car il est devenu une grande prédilection pour les écrivains francophones antillais contemporaine. L’exil signifie littéralement ‘hors d’ici ou hors de ce  lieu’, il  implique  donc l’idée d’un lieu privilégié parmi tous, d’un lieu idéal  et sans pareil ; La désillusion est définie comme une perte de l’illusion et un grand désenchantement qui ressurgit lorsqu’il y a un mirage éprouvé par un individu. C’est également une déception amenant de la tristesse de celui qui voit s’écrouler ses espoirs. Ce sentiment peut ressortir chez un exil qui avant  de voyager détient une vision  plutôt positive mais une fois arrivé dans le pays d’exil ses espoirs sont bafoués. En effet la prégnance  de l’exil qui se solde par  la désillusion est abordée  pendant plusieurs siècles par des écrivains parce que les exiles ayant quitté leurs pays ont découvert  qu’il y a un ancrage vis-à-vis de leur pays natal.

Keywords: L’exil, Desillusion, Papillon, Dans,  L’exil Selon Julia.




The Sociological Impacts of Covid-19 Preventive Policies on Households in FCT Abuja Nigeria.


*Godwin Agaba Ochube; *Florence Ndalazhi; & **Lawal Stephen

*Department Of Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State. **Department Of Sociology, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State.



This study examined the sociological impacts of COVID-19 on households in FCT Abuja, and discusses the policy response to mitigating the spread of the virus in Nigeria. The study utilizes, and builds on, empirical data generated through online survey administered on Facebook during the national lockdown policy. It concludes that the social distancing measures to curtail the spread of the virus came at a cost such as increased poverty, social inequalities, crime, isolation, socioeconomic crisis and has affected social relationship. A coordinated response by both the government and nongovernmental organization is needed to cushion the effects such as the provision of financial support to families and individuals. Secondly, the central bank of Nigeria should grant SMEs, entrepreneurs and corporations soft loans to help them preserve employment and their businesses, thirdly the federal government should ensure that families have access to water, electricity and other social services for free or at affordable level and should also monitor the rate of inflation in the prices of goods. Finally, government at federal, state and local government should ensure access to effective communication systems to enhance social interaction between families, friends and community members.

Keywords: COVID-19, sociological impact, poverty rate, preventive measures.




An Assessment of Local Government Bureaucracy on Service Delivery in Anambra State (2009-2020)


*Ezenwegbu Nchedochukwu Chinwendu; **Shehu Adamu Abdullahi; & **Chatta Abdullahi Enessi

*Department of Public Adminstration, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State **Department of Public Administration, Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State



Local governments in Anambra state are mandated to provide services for accelerated development and does this through bureaucratic procedures outlined by Max Weber.  However, its bureaucratic machineries rather than fueling development programmes through public service delivery is said to have hindered the growth expected. This study was therefore to, identify bureaucratic challenges that the local government areas encounters in service delivery and identify the extent to which these challenges impact on services to the people of the Local Government Area.  The study adopted descriptive design. Sample size of 210 was determined using Taro Yamen of 1964. Two sets of questionnaires were designed and administered i.e. one for the inhabitants/clients of the area and the other for employees of the selected local government, so as to capture both the views of the inhabitants/client of the local government area and the employees of the local government. The 152 suitably answered and recovered questionnaire were analyzed through the use of tables, bar graphs and pie charts, to depict the demographic characteristics, bureaucratic variables that influence service delivery, as well as the views, and opinions of respondents on service delivery by the local government area. Related literature on local government bureaucracy and service delivery were reviewed. Two hypotheses were formulated and tested to guide the study. The study revealed among others that even though there is a clear practice of division of labour, departments lack technical equipment to effectively coordinate their activities, thereby resulting in delays in meeting the expectation of clients and inhabitant. These are; lack of viable sources of revenue, mismanagement, joint account, undue interference from state government. The study concluded by recommending that local government should be made to go through bureaucratic reforms and offer its staff regular training programmes on customer care and satisfaction. It is also to provide adequate offices to enhance service delivery.

Keyword: Local Government, Bureaucracy, Service Delivery




An Appraisal of Economic Financial Crimes Commission Efforts in Fighting Corruption in Nigeria, 2000-2010


Jibrin Ubale Yahaya, Ph.D.

Department of Political Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi



The issues of bribery and corruption in Nigeria have taken a central stage in the polity as a matter of grave concern to all well-meaning citizens and Nigerian government. This is in view of the endemic nature of the corruption phenomenon in Nigeria which has hinders growth and indeed development. The issue of bribery and corruption in Nigeria has made government to set up the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) and other institutions designed to combat the malaise of corruption and to promote good governance and transparency. The major objective of this paper is to assess the performance of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) in its fighting against bribery and corruption in Nigeria, from 2000-2010. Data for the study were generated from both primary and secondary sources. The instrument for primary data collection is questionnaires, while for the secondary data collection includes published and unpublished text. The study also revealed that irrespective of the fact that, the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) has succeeded in reducing corruption in the country to some little degree, the same Act that created the Commission has on the other hand, constituted hindrance to the Commission by creating undue interference from the Office of the Attorney General of the Federation (AGF) and the Presidency, hence vitiating the autonomy of the Commission. The inability of other institutions in the temple of justice like the judiciary to apportioned appropriate punishment to the perpetrators of corruption has made the corruption issues in Nigeria as a good venture of wealth generation from peoples in power and others that are closer to them. The paper recommends for the independence of Economic and financial Crimes commission (EFCC) need to been strengthen, removal of immunity clause by the Executives, improvement in educational infrastructural facilities and speedy dispensation of justice among the prosecuted corrupt officials as deterrence to others

Keywords: Corruption, EFCC, Good Governance.




The Importances of Libraries in Uplifting the Knowledge Societies in Nigeria


Bala Suleiman Abdul; Abdulaziz Sule Moh’d; Ibrahim Usman; & Adamu Ibrahim

Department of Library and Information Science, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi



This paper examines the importance of libraries in uplifting the knowledge societies in Nigeria. In the paper various issues were discussed, including the concept of library, knowledge and information, the relations between knowledge and information, knowledge delivery, the information society and knowledge society, approaches to knowledge revolution, the changing roles of libraries and librarians in Nigeria.

Keywords: Information, Knowledge, Knowledge Society, Information Society and Library




African Literature and Illustrations on Cover Pages: A Semiotics Analysis


Agboola, Elizabeth Abiade

Department of English, School of Secondary Education (Language Programmes), Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo



Book cover designs are a graphic representation of related and unrelated images to a work of art for advertisement, literary strategies and semiotic constructions. As argued in this study, studies on African literature in the last century have focused on content at the expense of the cover designs and their significance. However, beyond aesthetics, culture propagation, marketing strategy, book cover designs are a critical resource to generate meaning, reinforce ideas and compliment author’s narratives. Consequently, this study explores the cover page designs of literature from the, North, South, East and West Africa to consolidate writers as artists, particularly with consideration of their attributive and suggestive visual techniques employed to endear readers to their texts. The primary data comprised of cover designs of the following titles, August Wilson’s Fences, Chinua Achebe’s Arrow of God, Nawal El-Sadaawi’s Woman at Point Zero, and Athol Fugard’s Sizwe Bansi is Dead.  They were subjected to critical analysis using Visual Semiotics. Barthes’ denotative and connotative; and Pierce’s (iconic, indexical and symbolic) theories are used for data analysis. Among other functions, the study indicates that cover designs are used to compliment titles, themes and messages of texts, foreshadowing of plots and to attract readers to an author’s text.

Keywords: African, Literature, Illustrations, Cover Pages, Semiotics.




The Radio and Promotion of Indigenous Language in Nigeria: A Case of BRTV Maiduguri Kanuri Broadcast at Khaddamari, Jere Local Government Area of Borno State


Adamkolo Mohammed Ibrahim1, Dorcas Rika Yake2 and Abubakar Sufyanu Saidu Al-Sadique3

1Department of Mass Communication, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria; PhD student, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria. 2Department of Mass Communication, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria; NTA Television College, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. 3Department of Mass Communication, Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011 Kano, Kano State, Nigeria; Research Scholar, Department of Mass Communication, The Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.



This study aimed to document the impacts of the Kanuri broadcast service of BRTV Radio in the promotion and preservation of Kanuri language among the people living in Khaddamari town. Using the snowball sampling technique, 14 participants were recruited for in-depth interviews from BRTV radio and Khaddamari town. The study found that BRTV’s Kanuri broadcasts’ contribution toward the promotion of Kanuri language at Khaddamari is progressively diminishing compared to how much it could have done so three decades ago and that some of the listeners were dissatisfied with several BRTV’s Kanuri programmes/news broadcasts. The study concluded that BRTV radio’s contribution toward the promotion of Kanuri language in Khaddamari town is crucial but was minimal, often hampered by the dwindling broadcast power and reach of BRTV radio signals. Therefore, BRTV should address its infrastructural deficits and formulate articulate broadcast language policy.

Keywords: Radio and indigenous language, BRTV Maiduguri, Indigenous language preservation, Kanuri language




Perception of Discrimination against Women Working in Media Organizations in Kaduna State, Nigeria


Belinda Anyanwu

Department of Mass Communication, College of Administrative Studies and Social Sciences, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna.



The study examined the perceived discrimination against women employees of media organizations in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study employed survey method using questionnaire as research instrument for gathering relevants data with a population of 285 respondents. The study is anchored on Liberal Feminist theory which focuses on gender roles in social, political, legal and economic equality. Major findings have shown that under-representation of women in leadership positions, sexual harassments and violence against women, unequal promotional opportunities and unequal employees’ promotions are some of the manifestations of gender discrimination against women in media houses in Kaduna State. Other findings show that poor media content, mistrust among employees, apprehensive and discontentment, constant conflicts in the stations, de-motivation of female employees, decreased production as a result of no team work, are the effects of gender discriminations on women’s performances in media organizations in Kaduna Sate. Based on the findings, the study recommends that media organizations in Kaduna State should have affirmative action for effective development of women career and provide gender sensitive training to both male and female so as to promote non-discriminatory working relationships and respect for media employees of Kaduna State.

Keywords: Gender, Discrimination, Women, Perception, Organization




Boast Practs in Selected Nigerian Print Media Political Interviews


Odekunbi, Sunday Kehinde,

The College of Education, Lanlate, Oyo State



This research, unlike the earlier studies that examine the political media discourse from the theoretical angles of community of practice, face work, or modified version of face work, is out to examine how Nigerian politicians use boasts to either define their political agenda or sell their candidacy. For data, interviews with political orientations, granted by three notable Nigerian politicians: Senator Bukola Saraki, Senator Ali Ndume and Doyin Okupe in Premium Times between January and December 2019, were randomly selected for analysis. The findings revealed two broad categories of boasts – personal and group. Five types of group political boast, namely: quality-based, superiority-based capability-based, disintegration-based and effectiveness-based political boasts are also identified. Similarly, personal political boasts are divided into quality-based, vision-based, capability-based and clout-based personal political boasts. It is discovered that the instances of boasts in the texts pract vaunting, bragging, assuring, justifying, applauding, extolling, branding and calculating. Pragmatic and form features such as shared situational knowledge, relevance, reference and metaphors are found to characterise these functions. It is believed that in addition to helping Nigerian politicians to discover the functions their boasts perform, the study will be of immense help to scholars working on political discourse.

Keywords: Boast, Pract, Political interviews, Nigerian print media and pragmatic acts




An Alternative Perspective to Understanding Climate Change-Induced Farmers-Herdsmen Conflict in Nigeria


Ahmad Sabo

Department of Public Administration, School of Business Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi



Hazardous socioeconomic activities on environmental resources among various contenders pose the threat of desertification that inevitably exacerbates conflict between the farmers and herders with devastating effects. Abundant literature analyzed the cause and  nature of farmers–herdsmen conflict substantial of which focused on widespread social tension and political instability, whereas inadequate literature continue to remain an inherent characteristic of climate change as catalyst reinforcing farmers-herders conflict. The magnitude, recurrence and escalation of the farmers–herders conflict recently inspired dialectical delusion that the conflict will be unending so long the climate change persists. Employing literature review, this paper infer that threat of environmental degradation (desertification) reinforce competition for scarce resources (fertile soil and water) and consequently led to incessant violent conflict between farmers and herdsmen. Persistent of farmers-herders conflict cannot be debased from misconstruing the conflict as ethnic and religious clash, and the inability of the major actors/stakeholders including the government and media houses to adopt adequate, robust, sustainable and all inclusive measures to mitigate the conflict. Some of the plausible solutions to achieve sustainable peace and security include reconstruction of all-inclusive framework to deal with the climate change induced conflict, building trust between stakeholders, setting up of administrative mechanism for peace and conflict resolution, capacity building training on modern system of agricultural practice and curtailing the influx of illegal small firearms and light weapons; and illegal migrants.

Keywords: Climate change, Desertification, Scarcity, Migration, Farmers-herdsmen conflict, Nigeria.




Analysis of Leadership as Affected by Ethical Dimension of the Government of Nigeria


Admin Nzadeno Kola Gidily,

Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola, College of Administrative and Business Studies, Numan Campus.



Centuries ago people did not see any importance or relationship between ethics and politics. A prince in Italy named Machiavelli was the first person to disregard theological teaching about salvation. He was rather convinced about poetry, art and expanding standard of living. During this period, it was the church leaders that dictate the political wellbeing of the people. In the ordinary period men come to leadership to control, protect, direct, dictate the destiny of the nation. They are smart, not self-serving, not egocentric, not corrupt, they were the role model, even though there are flaws in their decisions and actions (Borner, 1987). Human rights in liberal politics is seen as trustworthiness, and ethics in this paper will he viewed as the right the people will possess in their regard as human beings. The paper was concluded with recommendations on ethics, type of leadership both elected and traditional rulers that may affect leadership due to non- formulated and adherence to ethical norms.

Keywords: Analysis, Leadership, Affected, Ethical Dimension, Government.




Sociolinguistic View of Bargaining Strategies: A Study of Yorubanized North Central Indigene (Ilorin) In an Open Market Situation


Akinola Olayode Johnson

Kwara State College of Education, English Department P.M.B. 1527 Ilorin.



This study focuses attention on the bargaining strategies among the Yorubanized North Central (Ilorin) indigenes in an open market situation. A thorough discussion on how the market men and women end up at gainful sales through their careful choice of lexical items is made. In addition to that, the article investigates the linguistic exchange between traders and their customers in some main markets of the metropolis. Three markets are selected to serve as setting for data collection. Two bargaining interactions are randomly observed and recorded in each market and they are used as data for participatory observation. To achieve the above, the author uses sociolinguistic parameters to highlight communication strategies required in price negotiation and discusses the sociolinguistic implication of bargaining conversation. A self – made Model of Interactional Analysis derived from a blend of Dell Hymes’ Ethnography of Speaking (1964) and Howard Gile’s Communication Accommodation Theory (1972) was theoretical base for data analysis. The application of the theory to commercial bargaining interaction among the selected market traders revealed that principle of politeness, persuasive statement, linguistic dominance and evasion are employed by the traders to arrive at gainful negotiation agreement between them and their potential customers. The context of this study revolves around an open market system where bargaining and haggling are the modus operandi and whoever has the better dexterity in bargaining skills often gets a better deal.

Keywords: Sociolinguistics, Bargaining, Strategies, Markets and Interactions.




Study of Forms and Functions of Esu – Oja Representational Objects in Yewaland, Ogun State, Nigeria


Ayedun Matthew Kolawole

Fine and Applied Arts Department, School of Vocational and Technical Education, Tai Solarin College of Education, Omu – Ijebu



The representational images such as pots, rattles, bracelets, stones, cutlasses, wooden combs, staffs, mortals, brooms, etc. are religious and its significance for the worshippers were that they had faith in it. The denominator in the worship of all gods and spirits everywhere is faith. The power of an image was believed to be more real than that of a living being. The Yoruba appear to be satisfied with the gods with whom they are in immediate touch because they believe that when the Orisa have been worshipped, they will transmit what is necessary to Olodumare. This paper examines the traditional practices of the people of Yewa and discovers why Esu is market appellate.  It focuses on the classifications of the forms and functions of Esu-Oja representational objects in selected towns in Yewaland.            

Keywords: appellate, classifications, divinities, fragment, forms, images, libations, mystical powers, Olodumare, representational, sacred, sacrifices, shrine, spirit archetype, transmission and transformation.




Assessment of the International Political Economy of Technology Transfer


Veno Micloth Yongo

Department of International Relations and Strategic Studies, School of Social and Management Sciences, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria.



In this paper, I investigate and presents the political economy of international transfer of technology. The paper looked at the seeming insincerity of the so-called technology transfer as there are strings attached to all that is involved in the process and implementation of the transfer especially from the North to the South. The paper briefly exposes the fact, that the so-called transfer of technology is after all, not genuine and that is almost a continuation of exploitation of the South by the North in a sense. One of the recommendations is that, Africa should be declared a priority action zone and to make full use of the instruments provided by the Council of Europe’s North-South Center in Lisbon, by devoting a quadripartite meeting to discussing sciences and technology in Africa and in particular, the question of technology transfer and development.

Keywords: Assessment, International, Political, Economy, Transfer.




The Impact of Boko Harām Insurgency on Islamic and Western Education in the North-East Nigeria: Focus on Borno State


Muhammad Usman Muhammad, PhD, Bukar Kolo Modu & Babagana Isa

Mohammed Goni College of Legal and Islamic Studies (MOGCOLIS) P.M.B. 1526, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria



This paper is concerned with the impact of Boko Harām insurgency on Islamic and Western education in the North – East Nigeria, focus on Borno state. The paper goes to memory lane to trace the origin of the insurgency and the causes of Boko Harām terrorism. The study revealed that Boko Harām insurgency has cost more than 20,000 lives, displaced more than a million, and destroyed hundreds of schools. Furthermore, the insurgency further resulted in kidnapping of school girls, killing of students and teachers as well as closure of private and public schools. This has created palpable fear and apprehension in the minds of parents which resulted in withdrawal of thousands of children from schools in an area already the most educationally backward in the country. The study further revealed that the insurgency have affected the smooth running of Islamic scholarship and learning which Borno was noted for. One of the major setbacks was assassination of number of high profile Islamic scholars in addition to relocation of many scholars to other parts of the country, and even some left the country because of fear of attack by the sect. This has brought a major setback not only in the progress of Islam but also to the development of Islamic and western education. For the policy recommendations, this paper recommends among other things that government should make Islamic education compulsory core subject so as to break the ideology of Boko Harām. In addition, Nigerian government should embark on more viable programmes like free education at all levels particularly in Borno, Yobe and Adamawa states; Islamic scholars and teachers, especially in the north eastern parts of the country should be given incentives, such as special allowances to continue to compensate them for untold hardship they suffered as a result of Boko Harām insurgency.

Keywords: Boko Harām, Insurgency, Islamic and Western education, Northeast, Borno




Analysis of Recreational Facilities Provision in the Gurara Waterfalls


1Ononogbo Kingsley Ugochukwu; 2Tsado Martha N.; 2Habeeb Mohammed Aishetu; and 2Chinekeokwu Sylvia Uchenna

1Department of Leisure and Tourism Management, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida 2Department of Hospitality Management, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida.



The ambience of the Gurara Waterfalls presents potentials for different kinds of recreations including swimming, canoeing, mountain climbing, boating and aerial recreations such as the cable car to view its landscape and scenery. This study was prompted by the fact that the Gurara Waterfalls ought not to exist in isolation, but built to serve humanity by providing enabling recreational facilities, which are presently unavailable at the destination. The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of recreational facilities provision on patronage and development of the Gurara Community. The instrument used for the study was validated questionnaires, which were administered on the staffers of the Niger State Ministry of Land and Housing as well as visitors at the Gurara Waterfalls. Using the SPSS and EXCEL packages, data were coded and presented in statistical tables, while the frequency count and percentage were used to describe the variables in the study. The alternative hypothesis, which states that there is significant relationship between the provision of recreational facilities and the rate of patronage at the Gurara Waterfalls, was accepted. The implication of this finding is that the provision of recreational facilities at the Gurara Waterfalls will impact positively on the rate of patronage, thereby facilitating high tourists’ arrivals at the destination. The study also observes that not only will recreational facilities enhance tourists’ choice of the Gurara Waterfalls; it will also improve the destination image. The study recommends that the Niger State Government should provide and maintain adequate and standard recreational facilities at the Gurara Waterfalls for the benefit of both domestic and foreign visitors.

Keywords: Recreational facilities, Gurara Waterfalls, sustainable tourism development.




An Appraisalof the Role of Community – Based Radio Stations in the Development of ‘Tsangaya’ Integrated Model Schools in Bauchi State: A Study of 3 Selected FM Radio Stations.


Abubakar Baba Garba

Department of Mass Communication, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.



Tsangaya’ is a Hausa word which literally means a learning centre, destination or location. But in this modern era the word is technically and commonly used to refer to a form of Islamic education specially intended for preparing young persons to become Islamic scholars. In Nigeria, especially in the northern part of the country particularly, this system of education has succeeded in graduating many eminent scholars and judges who helped immensely in the sectors of education and judiciary. But nowadays the system suffers from lack of parental and institutional care as well as community support which consequently makes the children enrolled into it vulnerable to all kinds of social vices. This has generated concern among Nigerians to advocate for government intervention to make the old tradition as perfect as formal education in order to suit the contemporary social realities. Today, we are witnessing reforms in this system of education by government under the auspices of Universal Basic Education Commission which integrated the Almajiri education, hence, offers opportunities for the vulnerable children to explore their potentialities. This paper attempts to examine the role of community – based radio (FM) stations on the development of the ‘Tsangaya’ integrated model schools in Bauchi state. Methods adopted were survey and content analysis. The paper identifies the capacity of radio, especially community – based, in sensitizing parents, policy makers, stake holders and the society generally on the benefits that could be derived from such reforms. More so the paper identifies lack of commitment from the stakeholders to actualized the intended goal of the project, misplacement of priorities and corruption were identified as major laxities that hinders the total progress of the project. It is thus recommended that commitment from government and stakeholders must be ensured in order to actualize the goals of the project. 

Keywords: ‘Tsangaya’, Contributions, community – based, Radio stations, and Development.




An Appraisal of the Constitutional and Legal Structure for Combating Corruption in Nigeria


*Umar Ibrahim Wunti Esq; *Usman Bappah Darazo Esq; & **Peace John Shekara Esq.

*Department Of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi **Department Of Estate Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.



The study focuses on the constitutional and legal structure for combating corruption in Nigeria. Basic objective of this study is to understand the various anticorruption legislations and the issues that have arisen in the cause of the war against corruption. The legal framework for curbing corruption needs to be realistic and versatile to curb the ever emerging issues that are arising in the course of curbing the ugly tide. Related studies on the concept of corruption, causes and types of corruption were reviewed. The study concludes that despite the exposition on these issues, the major problems of the anti corruption fight are institutional based and no matter how well the legislations are designed, it will make little or no difference if the institutions are unwilling and unable to enforce them. The study basically recommends that serious background checks should be conducted before recruiting officers into the various anti graft agencies to ensure that men of integrity and dedication are saddled with this task of national cleansing.

Keywords: Appraisal, Constitutional, Legal, Structure, Combating.




Analysis of the Factors Influencing Choice of Radio Station Programmes among Listeners in Bauchi Metropolis


Adamu Muhammad Hamid; Abubakar Sufyanu Saidu Al-Sadique; & James Comfort Ronke

Department of Mass Communication, Department of Mass Communication, the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.



Media economics has become an important area of study in media studies especially because provide interests have continued to invest hugely in the establishment of broadcast media outlets since the deregulation of the industry in 1992 and the subsequent return of Nigeria to democratic rule in 1999. This study was undertaken to determine the factors that influence the listenership base of radio houses in Bauchi metropolis, Bauchi State. In Nigeria today, there are over 250 radio houses, and in Bauchi metropolis with a large proportion of being them funded by private investors, mainly to serve business and political interests of their owners. In other words, they are purely profit-making ventures. At the moment, there are six radio stations in Bauchi metropolis with the federal and state governments owning four of them without commensurate adequate source of funding. The profit generated by these radio stations comes through repeat patronage and customer satisfaction, which therefore makes it imperative to be explored in order to provide information on the underlying reasons why listeners prefer one radio house over others especially in terms of the uses and gratifications that listeners seek from radio broadcast medium. Primary data for the study was obtained through the administration of a questionnaire on a sample size of 150 respondents. 110 questionnaires were duly completed, which constituted the actual sample size. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for data coding. It was also used in conjunction with frequency counts, percentages and weighted means for data analysis. The study came out with the major finding that there are differences in listeners’ perception of radio houses in the study location. This is occasioned by differences in the quality of their services as determined by the following variables: radio accessibility, radio listenership, radio program preferences, satisfaction derived from radio etc. Arising from these findings is the major recommendation that programming strategy of radio houses must take audience perceptions, expectations and preferences into consideration. The study also recommends that radio houses in the study area must find ways of factoring commercials in an on-disruptive manner into their programming for without revenue earned from such commercials, they will close down shop as many have in different parts of the world.

Keywords: Influencing, Radio Station, Programmes, Listeners, Bauchi Metropolis




Liability and Compensation for Environmental Damage


Muhammad Sani

Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi


Keywords: Compensation, Liability, Institutions, Environmental, Damage




Examining Social Problems Associated with Boko Haram Insurgency in Yobe State.


Fatimoh Aderoju Olowooribi, Adams Atata Yahaya, Abdulkarim Umar

Department of General Studies, the Federal Polytechnic Damaturu, Yobe State.



The aftermath of the widespread nefarious activities of the Boko Haram in Northeast Nigeria, is especially evident in the society and the life of those directly affected. The destruction of lives and properties are serious issues that could not be dismissed with a wave of hand, since these leave behind several social problems that directly and indirectly affects the people concerned and the society at large. The research examines the social problems associated with Boko Haram insurgency in Yobe State, Nigeria as it is one of the most affected areas by the Boko Haram Insurgency. The study was carried out in four-selected vulnerable areas within two LGAs: Buni-yadi (Gujba LGA), Pompomari, Kandahar, and Alimarami wards of Damaturu LGA, Yobe State. Through proportionate random sampling technique, one hundred respondents were drawn for the administration of the structured questionnaire. Data collected were analysed using Ms-Excel software for both the mean and standard deviation. A criterion of 2.50 was pegged and used to obtain the answers to the research questions, in which anything below it signify a rejection. From the study, the result obtained confirms that activities of these insurgents adversely affect the life of the people of the state, and has introduced several social problems such as educational backwardness, food insufficiency leading to hunger and malnutrition and infrastructural decadence, With respect to the identified social problems, this study recommends immediate Government and Non Governmental organizations (NGOs) interventions to arrest these social problems.

Keywords: social problem, insurgency, educational backwardness, infrastructural decadence, NGOs.




An Analysis of Insecurity Challenges in Northern Nigeria: A Case of Banditry and Insurgency


Dr. Ahmad Sabo1 & Musa Ibrahim Abubakar2

1Department of Public Administration, School of Business Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi 2Department of Public Administration, School of Management Studies, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic Bauchi



Insurmountable challenge to internal security is evident in Nigeria given the formation, proliferation armed non-state actors across the different parts of the country occasioned by deterioration of social conditions, conflicts, insecurity, political assassinations and unemployment among other challenges. Being theoretical, the study adopt the use of secondary data sourced to frame and analyze causes, pattern and response to insecurity challenges in the northern Nigeria. The remote and immediate causes of deterioration of the security include among others, absence of institutional capacity resulting in government failure; wide social inequality, absence of fairness and justice; ethno-religious conflicts; and disconnect between the people and the government. These and many other factors like, porous borders, rural-urban drift, poverty and unemployment have combined to further aggravate the problem of insecurity in the north. Although insurgency is identified as the most daunting security challenge facing the region, threats of farmers-herders conflict, armed robbery and communal clashes are threatening the peace, the region is known for decades. The general dissatisfaction with the various government including performance of electoral officials at all levels, lack of transparency and accountability, endemic corruption created opportunities that were exploited by insurgents to recruit poverty ravaged vulnerable persons to join their cause. Thus, explain the nexus between governance and security. As an impeccable means of ending violence, authorities are required to step up holistic measures and demonstrate commitments towards protecting lives of all groups and communities, as well as their assets and property.

Keywords: Farmers-herders conflict, Boko Haram insurgency, communal clashes, North.




Assessment of  the Impact of Collaboration Between Government and NGOs on the Management of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) In Jere, Local Government, Borno State, Nigeria


1Balu Bukar Abba; 2Hajja Bintu Bukar; & 1Adda Gana Bukar

1Department of Industrial and Labour Relations, Ramat Polytechnic 2Department of Public Administration, Ramat Polytechnic



The study assesses the impact of collaboration between government and NGOs on the management of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in Jere, Local Government, Borno State, Nigeria. Using both, simple random and proportionate sampling techniques 360 IDPs were sampled from the study area. Data were obtained using primary and secondary sources and analyzed using descriptive techniques such as percentage, mean and frequency tables. The result of study revealed that IDPs in Jere have access to health care services provided by the Government and NGOs in IDP. The finding also shows that there is effectiveness of collaboration of SEMA and MSF in improving health status of the IDPs in the camp. The study also found out that collaboration has been effective in the provision of maternal services to the IDP women organized by SEMA and MFS. The IDPs are fully aware of the interventions by both agencies. This program has positive impact on the health status of the IDPs. The study also established that only MSF as NGOs are involved in the supply of sanitation and hygiene facilities to IDPs in the selected camps. However, there is a collaborative approach in the distribution of these facilities by both SEMA and MSF. This collaboration is effective and has positive impact on the health status of the IDPs.

Keywords: Assessment, Impact, Collaboration, Government, NGOs, IDPs, Jere, Borno



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