African Scholar Journal of Environmental Design & Construction Mgt. (AJECM) Vol. 15 No.4


VOL. 15 NO.4 SEPTEMBER, 2019 ISSN: 1896–6783



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.


Copyright © 2019 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Aspects of Materials and Methods Deployed in Low Income Self – Help Housing: the Deleterious Effects and Proposed Remediation


*Arc. Joseph O. Oko **Arc. James I. Demenongu

*Department of Architecture, University of Jos, Jos. **Department of Architecture, University of Jos, Jos.



As a result of the necessity and quest to have own shelter emanating mainly from the ever rising accommodation rent cost, there has been a great thrust by poor urban dwellers, low and middle income earners to move to the urban fringes and start their shelter – somehow. The paucity of funds engenders the practice of cutting expenditure to the extent and effect that several building materials and methods employed are unconventional, deleterious and detrimental to the health, safety and security of such owners and users. This study investigated the extent and depth of this practice in a selected area (Gamajigo community) an urban fringe of the city of Jos, in North Central Nigeria with a view to proffering solution to the anomalous materials and methods. The methodology employed involved first of all identifying buildings that were in active construction process, investigating the methods and materials applied in their construction. Thereafter, knowledge of Architectural theory and practice was applied to propose better and more wholesome materials and methods. The findings were that the use of several cost saving measures (materials and methods) which had detrimental consequences were very pervasive. The study also found that in as much as cost saving measures were desirable to attain a low cost, low budget housing, there were some incontrovertible fundamental costs that building owners should not run away from bearing. The study therefore proffered better ways of attaining cost saving measures that would not jeopardizing health, safety and security of the owners or occupants. This study was significant and contributed to knowledge in that by adhering to the provisions and suggestions of this study, low cost housing could be attained by the urban low and middle income earners through self – help methods without jeopardizing health, safety and security of the owners of such dwellings. The study also has the promise of enhancing the durability of such structures coupled with the additional benefit of maintaining minimal expenditure for housing procurement.

 Keywords: Building Materials / Methods, Deleterious Effects, Low Cost Housing, low/Middle income earners Income Earners, Self – Help Housing, Urban Poor.




National Land Policy for Social Justice and Economic Growth in Nigeria: Systematic Review of Literature


*Muhammad Umar Bello1, Ahmed Ibrahim Kuna1, Ibrahim Idris1, Usman Mohammed Adekunle1, Sani Ibrahim Akuyam1

1Department of Estate Management & Valuation, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi.



This paper highlighted the significant of useful and effective national land policy for social justice and economic prosperity in Nigeria. Due to the importance of land and landed property to nation building. National land policies are cardinal principles for any meaningful development for human race. Good national land policy is an indication of developments and advancements in terms of land administration and management. Land as a factor of production, in many respects it needs proper management. Land is a one of main asset to urban and rural poor. Criterion for many advancements has an impact with the efficient mechanisms for land policy implementation. Different approach to national development in many spheres of nations struggle is irrelevant when land policies are not in efficient. Land tenure before and after colonial masters were reviewed to ascertain the development of different land reforms that took place in Nigeria. National land policy and economic growth relationship was established within the framework of national economic development. Economic growth and stability are the results of national land policies.  Issues bothering access and control over land was stated. Unemployment and job creation were stated that emanates from poor land policies. It was recommended that national land policy should be employed for national security and development. Issues related to access to land were incorporated to the proper land policy. The significant of national land policies cannot be over emphasised, because of it is paramount for egalitarian society. It is recommended to the concerned government agencies to reflect on importance of national land policies. And regularly inspection of statutory documents related to land policies should be revisiting for time interval. It is also recommended that public enlightenment and sensitisation should be encourage to help the citizen have knowledge on issues related to land. The study would be of immense benefit and points of direction for future researches.

Keywords: National land policies, rural and urban land, economic growth, land tenure system and land reforms




Private Sector Involvement in Reducing Housing Deficit through Land Acquisition and Compensation in Nigeria


Ogunleye, PhD.

Department of Estate Management, Federal University of Technology, Akure.



This paper attempt to draw attention to some of the problems and highlighted the importance of Housing delivery to the individual and the economy as a whole titled the involvement of private sector in reducing housing deficit through the land acquisition and compensation in Nigeria. As Housing is one of basic necessities of life that determines social, physical and psychological well-being of human. In microeconomic terms housing is a significant component of household consumption and savings. Today, the unimaginably high demand for housing is on the increase on daily basis in our urban centres and due to the incapability of the federal, the state and the local governments in providing housing to the populace observed by the private developers, are tends to contribute to a large proportion, the entire housing stock in the country. The participation of the private sector in housing delivery provide direct use by their staff and for rental use or outright sale to the public. Unarguably, the private sector has been more efficient and reliable in the production of housing than the public sector. The relationship exists between land and economic development as a result of the significance of land. This result in the reforms of a legal and regulatory framework to support the private section participation, the legal framework for our land system remains unchanged and much needed activity in the real estate sector is yet to be felt. It is however hoped that Government would as a matter of urgency make the necessary reforms needed to support the housing sector’s development. Private individuals are also to partner with the government in ensuring a formidable partnership and sustainable housing delivery.

Keywords: Private, Sector, Involvement, Reducing, Housing.




Analysis of Adherence to Valuation Standards and Property Value Certification by Estate Surveying and Valuation Firms in Lagos, Nigeria


Nwakpuda, N .J

Department Of Estate Management and Valuation, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria



The issue of professional valuation standards and the quality of valuation reports has been the focus of considerable attention not only in Nigeria but also internationally in recent years. The specific Objectives of this paper include the following: To identify the existing valuation standards and the extent of adherence to valuation standard and property value certification by valuation firms in Lagos metropolis and determine the relationship between level of adherence to valuation standards and property value certification by valuation practicing estate surveying and valuation firms in the study area. The paper examined the profile of practicing valuation firms within Lagos metropolis which were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics with a view to investigating the extent of adherence to valuation standards and property value certification. It also reviewed earlier research works made in this field including the minimum content reporting standards employed by valuation firms in the study area and with the use coefficient of correlation in determining the relationship between them. Using the data gathered through a structured questionnaire and content analysis of 100 retrieved valuation reports. The Study shows that the level of awareness to valuation standard was 97% while the extent of adherence was 95% and 26% do not use any valuation standard manual while 45% do not include property value certification statement in their report in compliance with minimum reporting content. The study revealed that the relationship between the level of adherence to valuation standard and property value certification have a high positive correlation which interprets that the two variables move in the same direction; but at slightly different magnitude. The study concluded that the regulatory body should therefore follow up the set standards in the Nigeria Valuation Standards (Green book0 by enforcement and imposition of sanctions on the erring members after maximum awareness of and use of the Green book must have been created among the members.

Keywords: Professional, Certification, Valuation Standards, Green Book, Nigeria




Assessment of Sick Building Syndrome in Residential Properties in Minna, Niger State.


Jiya, N. D and M.T.A. Ajayi

Department of estate management, Federal university of technology Minna, Niger state, Nigeria.



Sick building syndrome has been described by The World Health Organization, WHO describes as set of non-specific symptoms occurring in a particular building and not caused by a specific illness such as allergy or infection. The sick building syndrome is a global occurrence given that the contributory factors emanate in buildings. Sick building syndrome has no specific building to which it is accustomed to. This implies that the symptoms can occur in residential, commercial, educational as well as industrial buildings as long as the contributory factors are present. However, this assessment of sick building syndrome was carried out on residential properties in Kpakungu, Bosso Estate and Zarumai Quarters in Minna in order to determine the level of occurrence of the causes and symptoms of sick building syndrome and establish a relationship between the causes and symptoms in the selected neighbourhoods. The sample size for the study is 504, comprising of Kpakungu (298), Bosso Estate (184) and Zarumai Quarters (22). The methods adopted for the analysis of data include descriptive analysis, the use of weighted mean as well as inferential statistics (Karl Pearson’s Product Moment of correlation). The study shows that the symptoms of sick building syndrome such as headache, stuffy nose, runny nose and tiredness are reported in the three neighbourhoods at differing levels. This is as a result of the various contributory factors identified such as noise, dust, inadequate ventilation and poor property maintenance. The correlation coefficient result shows that the coefficient (r) of 0.989 means there’s a very high positive correlation between the identified causes and reported symptoms of sick building syndrome in the three selected neighbourhoods in Minna.

Keywords:  Assessment, Building, Syndrome, Residential, Properties.




Accuracy of Labour Cost Estimate Towards Sustainable Construction Projects Delivery in Nigeria


Mohammed Isah Leje*1, 2; Bandi Shamsulhadi1; Abdullah Fadhlin1; Juliet Ekemena Mamman2 and Ameenah Haja Abdullahi2

 1Department of Quantity Surveying, Faculty of Built Environment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, MALAYSIA. 2Department of Quantity Surveying, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, NIGERIA.



The sustainability of any construction project depends greatly on the accuracy of cost estimates to meet time and budget. Despite these concerns, the accuracy of construction labour cost estimate in Nigeria still remains unclear. Hence, this study aimed to identify the factors affecting accuracy of labour cost estimation towards sustainable development. The objectives of the study include to identify the factors and evaluate the degree of agreement to which these factors are significant from construction contractors and consultants’ perspectives. A sample of 100 contractors and consultants each were randomly selected from the list of registered contractors and consultants by the Bureau of Public Procurement (BPP) which gives a total number of 200 questionnaires distributed, out of which the responses rates received were 80 (80%) each for the contractors and consultants. Data analysis include Relative Importance Index (RII) for ranking comparison among the contractors and consultants on a scale range from 1-5 for rating their responses. Kendall’s coefficient of concordance was used to evaluate the degree of agreement between contractors and consultants’ viewpoints related to the ranking of each of the factors. The results of RII revealed that the five topmost factors affecting accuracy of labour cost estimates are experience in pricing construction project, accuracy and reliability of cost information, clear and detailed drawings and specifications, site constraints and perception of the importance of labour cost estimates. The results of Kendall’s coefficient indicates a significant and strong degree of agreement between contractors and consultants towards ranking of the factors affecting accuracy of labour cost estimates. The findings are focused to provide the best way to achieve accurate labour cost estimates for a sustainable project. It was recommended that for an accurate labour cost estimates, the estimator should take into consideration these factors at the inception stage of cost estimation.

Keywords: Construction industry, Construction management, Cost estimation, Labour cost estimates, Sustainable construction project delivery.




Geospatial Analysis of Primary Healthcare Facilities in Periurban Area of Minna, Niger State, Nigeria


Otaru E.O. And Abubakar A.S.

Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.



The mapping of primary healthcare facilities in peri-urban areas of Minna, Niger State was carried out. The objectives were to identify the location of primary healthcare facilities, to evaluate the distribution of primary healthcare facilities in relation to the spatial population pattern of the study area and their corresponding distance, assess the capacities of the primary healthcare facilities in relation to the standards of World Health Organization. GPS coordinates of primary healthcare facilities and questionnaire information were the sources of data for this study while GIS software and Statistical package for social sciences were used in analyzing the data. The results of the coordinate points plotted in ArcGIS 10.5 map revealed the spatial distribution of primary healthcare facilities and their corresponding distance, the results of nearest neighbor analysis indicated that the healthcare facilities are dispersed, it also showed on the capacity level that the equipment’s in the primary healthcare facilities in the study areas are in relation to WHO standard. The Geospatial mapping, Nearest Neighbour Analysis as well as administered questionnaire provides information on the closeness of one primary healthcare to another and to the residents.

Keywords: Peri-urban areas, Primary healthcare facilities, Global Positioning System, ArcGIS and Nearest Neighbour Analysis




Impact of Urban Household Farming on Food Security in Kuje Area Council of Abuja, Nigeria


Abdullahi Mohammed1 M. B. Yunusa2

Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology, Minna.



Urban household farming is an important source of food throughout the urban developing world and is a critical food security strategy for poor urban households. The challenges to this system of agriculture remain persistent poverty and rapid urbanization brought by significant numbers of poor and hungry people into the cities. Therefore, this study examine the impact of urban household farming on food security in Kuje Area Council, FCT, Nigeria. The sources of data for this study include questionnaire administration and field survey. The method of data analysis was descriptive statistics. The result revealed that production of food ranked the highest with 31.4% of the sample population, saving money ranked second with 29.2%, increased balanced diet ranked third with 25.4% and employment creation ranked the least with 14.0% of the sample population in the study area. This implies that the major role of urban household farming on food security is food production which enhance food security. The study also revealed that the low density areas in the study area ranked the least in level of engagement of urban agriculture with 21.4% of the sample population; medium density areas ranked the highest with 53.7% and high density areas ranked second with 24.9% of the sample population. This implies medium density areas were more engagement in urban agriculture in the study area because they have better access to land and resources to farm. It’s therefore recommended that there is need to integrate household farming into urban planning by establishing a greenbelt zone to halt urban development activities especially in cities like Abuja.

Keywords: Urban household farming, Food security, and Challenges of urban household farming




An Investigation of 2017 Flooding Event in Nasarawa Hayi in Niger State, Nigeria


Uzoma George And Abdulkadir, A.

Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State



Floods are among the most devastating natural disasters in the world, claiming more lives and causing more property damage than any other natural phenomena. Nassarawa Hayi have had incidences of flash floods in the pasts, the experienced of 2012 floods in the area has not been witnessed in its recent history. This study investigates the factors responsible for flooding in the area. Quantitative and qualitative data techniques were used. Structural questionnaire and personal observation were made in the study area. Descriptive statistics was used to analysis data collected from the field. The findings show that Nasarawa Hayi is flood prone area and people within the areas are at risk of flood at any time. It also reveals that proximity to the flood prone area is the major cause of floods in the area. The study concludes that floods in area resulted in to displacement of people, food security, waterborne disease, Agriculture loss and adverse on socio economic of the people in the area. Thereby recommends that Government and key Stakeholders should engage the communities in making them aware of the flood risk in view of the climate variability.

Keywords: Floods, Factors, Risk and Vulnerability




Impact of Deforestation on Land Degradation in Shiroro Local Government Area, Niger State Nigeria


Sayyad, A.M., Suleiman, Y.M., Mairo, M.

Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria



The two dynamic but opposing forces that dominate the broad canvas of the history of degradation of environment in general and deforestation in particular are conservation and exploitation. This study examined the impact of deforestation on land degradation in Shiroro LGA, Niger state of Nigeria. The study utilized Landsat Image of year (TM 1998,ETM+ 2008,OLI 2018) responses from interview and questionnaire administered were analyzed. The results revealed that there were continuous changes among the various land use and land cover features, also that built up areas was on the increase from 946.9791(Km2)to 1528.277 (Km2) while forest cover was on the decrease from 2790.554Km2 to 191.001 (Km2) . The findings of the study also shows that agriculture expansion, livestock rearing, overpopulation, logging for fuel, urbanization and infrastructure development among others are the major causes of deforestation in the study area. The resultant consequence of deforestation in the study area are; reduction on crop yield and agricultural produce, exposure of top soil to erosion, decreased biodiversity, habitat loss, extinction of species, displacement of indigenous people, loss of soil macro and many more. Adaptation and mitigation strategies include training programmes on renewable energy technology to replace the use of forest produce for energy, increasing the area and standard management of protected areas, and increase the area of forest permanently reserved for timber production. It is recommended that afforestation, reforestation, tree husbandry and tree planting in the area should be encouraged, government should empower local farmers with available and sustainable knowledge on forest management, forest extension services to the rural households that engage in forestry activities should be strengthened.

Keywords: Deforestation, Degradation, Environment, extinction, mitigation




Causes and Socio-economic Implication of Herders-Farmers Conflict in Sabon Daga, Niger State


Mohammed Aminu Kandi and Abdulkadir Aisha

Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria, Department of   Geography



In recent time, Nigeria has been thrown into series of pandemonium by conflicts notably between farmers and the herdsmen in most parts of the country. This study therefore examined the causes and socioeconomic implication of herders-farmers crisis in Sabon Daga, Niger State. The study adopts the descriptive research design approach.  Primary and secondary data were gathered concurrently to provide answers to the research questions in a quantitative manner. A total of 400 questionnaire was administered on herders and farmers; 200 for herders and 200 for farmers respectively; however, only 345 questionnaires were returned completed. The study revealed that destruction of crops (4.06), stealing of farm produce (3.84), and killing of herders (3.79) are among the most predominant causes of herders-farmers crisis. The study also established reduction in farm output (4.15), displacement of farmers/herders (3.78), and reduction in farmers’ income are the major socioeconomic impact of herders-farmers crisis in Sabon Daga. The study conclude that the causes of herders-farmers crisis mostly as a result of economic issues. Therefore, adequate conflict prevention and resolution mechanism should  be put in place to forestall further crisis between the farmers and herders

Keywords:  Implication, Herders-Farmers, Conflict,  Causes, Socio-economic.




An Assessment of the Space Utilization in the Teaching and Working Environment in School of Management Studies, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria.


Abubakar Mu’azu, Zaki Blessed Mazadu, Amina Adamu, Abdullahi Sadauki, Musa Mustapha Danraka.

Department of Architectural Technology, School of Environmental Studies, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria.



This study investigated how learning, teaching and working spaces within the school of management studies of Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria are being utilized with the aim of analyzing the situation and developing various space utilization and management techniques which can prove useful for purposes of capital planning in the school and the polytechnic at large. The population of the study was 110 staff and a stratified random sampling approach was adopted to get a sample size of 26 for the study. The instruments used to get information where observations, interviews and questionnaires. Descriptive analysis of frequencies, percentages and mean ratings were used to answer the research questions. The major findings showed that there was a great difference between staff strength, student population and available facilities. It further showed that staff were not satisfied with their working spaces and some classrooms were not fully utilized within the week because of preferred time or rescheduled time and preferred days for lecture. Therefore, the study recommended that a few large classrooms or an auditorium should be provided to cater for the very large class sizes to ease congestions and also save teaching time and costs. Additional office spaces are required which can be flexible in the office space arrangement so as to accommodate the increase or decrease in staff strength. Furthermore, allocation of teaching spaces for classes should be based on class size, course requirements in respect of teaching materials, equipment and furniture needs. This will make the instructional rooms to be used more often by different groups of learners based on their needs.

Keywords:  Assessment, Utilization, Teaching, Working, Environment.




Assessment of the Preparedness Level of Fire Disaster in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria


*Adegboro, Oluwaseun **Dr. S. Ojoye

*Department of Urban and Regional, Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State **Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State



Man’s environment is under constant threat from his own activities, Fire is the greatest hazard man has to face, but at the same time, fire is extraordinary helpful. It gave human the first form of portable light and heat. The study examines the preparedness level of the firefighting officers and the residents towards fire disaster in Minna. Data were collected from both Primary and Secondary sources. Two structured questionnaires were formulated and analysis was based on two statistical techniques. The findings show that fire hazards elements are feasible in all the neighborhoods in Minna which makes it highly susceptible to fire hazard because there is no fire management capacity, most of the buildings have no facilities and means of preventing fire hazards. The study thereby recommend that Fire Service should carry out fire awareness and sensitization within the study area to orient the residence on the risk of fire disaster, its prevention, usefulness of fire safety and firefighting equipment.

Keywords: Fire, Disaster and Preparedness Level 




Problems of Inadequate Budgetary Allocation on Housing Development in Nigeria (A Case Study of Kwara State)


Esv. Alli Kehinde Abdulrasheed

Department Of Estate Management, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin.



This paper examines the problem of inadequate budgetary allocation to housing development in Nigeria with particular focus on the budget of Kwara State in the last 10years. Secondary data were collected from Kwara State Ministry of Planning and Economic Development through their yearly financial reports. The total estimate for the yearly budget and amount allocated to housing were collected and analyzed. The findings were presented in tables, showing the budget estimates and percentage of amount allocated to housing. Among the major findings is that low priority was accorded to housing development through the budgetary allocation to housing, there is no political will to carryout housing development, less than one percent of the total state budget is allocated to housing, lack of affordable accommodation led to increase in rent by private developers. Each state government is encouraged to allocate enough fund for housing development in the state, government should have political will to develop housing sector to achieve “post” vision 20-20-20 in the near future. Housing Replicability method should be adopted by agencies responsible for housing development for continuing provision of houses for the society.

Keywords: Inadequate Budgetary Allocation, Housing Development, Housing Finance, Budget Estimate, Residential Building.




Effect of Alkaline Treatment on the Tensile, impact and morphological Properties of Okro Bast Fibre/Unsaturated Polyester Resin Composites


1A.T. Sule, 2I. Umar Hindatu, 1M.S. Mato and 1K.S. Abdullahi

1Department of Textile Technology and Fashion, Kano State Polytechnic, Kano 2Department of Art and Industrial Design, Kano State Polytechnic, Kano



Composites of okro bast fibre with unsaturated polyester resin were produced using the hand lay uptechnique. The fibres were treated with NaOH solution of 5%, 10% and 15% concentrations, with variation in filler content. The composites were subjected to tests to evaluate their physical and mechanical properties. Tensile strength elongation and impact strength were found to increase with increase in filler content and NaOH concentration. The result obtained from scanning electron microscope indicates better adhesion for the treated OBF/UPR.

Keywords: Okro fibre, unsaturated polyester resin, tensile strength, impact, and scanning electron microscope.




Urban Planning Practice and Environmental Sustainability in Nigeria: Challenges and Way forward


1Adah, Paul Danladi1 & Abok Galadima2

1Department of Urban and Regional Planning, the Federal Polytechnic, Idah, Kogi State 2Department Urban and Regional Planning College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna.



The need for environmental sustainability in the increasing population and rapid urban growth cannot be over emphasized in view of the fact that environmental sustainability is said to be one of the biggest challenges and the most important targets of the present times. Sustainability as a concept is the ability to sustain or support from any kind of irreversible negative environmental impacts or effects. The goal of urban planning is to guide and manage for orderly development of urban, suburban and rural areas with the interest of sustaining the environment.  The activities of urban planning practice such as land use planning, preparation of development plans of different types, as well as preparation of planning schemes/layouts contributes to attaining environmental sustainability. The qualitative approach was adopted for the study. The data for the study were mainly from secondary sources. Analytical desktop approach was used in scrutinizing the materials collected. The finding of the study indicated that urban planning through existing urban planning laws, ordinances, standards and policies to some extent has contributed to environmental sustainability through prevention of environmental challenges and mitigating natural hazards. Contraventions of planning laws, unguided development and political influence are some of the major constraints to effective delivery of urban planning mandates in Nigeria. The way forward to achieving environmental sustainability is by strict adherence to planning regulations and standards for urban development, integrating environmental concern in urban planning design and engaging the citizen in planning decision making.

Keywords: Urban planning, sustainability, environmental sustainability, challenges and way forward.




Environmental Effect of Artisanal and Small Scale Mining Activities on Water Quality in Gurara Local Government Area, Niger State, Nigeria


Usman, U.S., Suleiman, Y.M and Yunusa, M.B

Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria



Artisanal and Small Scale Mining (ASM) activities have been identified as a major economic activity in Gurara Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria. This study evaluated the environmental effect of ASM activities on the environment, of Gurara LGA. The study utilized data from the ASM sites especially the soil and water samples to ascertain physicochemical parameters and heavy metal in waters. The result obtained were compared to the WHO acceptable standards. The results indicated that most of the water samples were polluted with lead, Aluminum, Zinc, among others and thus, unsafe for domestic use and aquatic life. Also, the concentration of the Lead, Aluminum and Zinc in the water sample was found to be higher than that of the control sample especially during the wet season. It has, thus, been discovered that ASM activities have significant effects on the water quality of the study area, because the water in the area. Therefore, there is the need for urgent measures to monitor and regulate the mining activities in the area, in order to reduce the effects on environmental quality especially the water.

Keywords: Mining, environment, standards, physicochemical parameters.




Analysis of the Spatial Distribution of Filling Stations and Vulnerability to Fire Hazard in Kaduna South Local Government Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria


1Musa Kulausa Hena, 2Musa Anjili, 3Richard Sunday Thlakma

1Department of Environmental Science, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State 2National Council for Arts and Culture (National Research Center for Durbar Traditions) Kaduna Zonal Office 3Department of Geography, Federal University Kashere, Gombe State



This study analyzed the Spatial Distribution of Filling Stations and Vulnerability to Fire Hazard in Kaduna South Local Government Area, Kaduna State. The methods includes data used for the names and addresses of filling stations in the study area as well as guidelines and staSndards for setting up a filling station was obtained from the Department of Petroleum Resource (DPR) and verified on site, while their coordinates were obtained by the use of hand-held Global Positioning System receiver (Germin 76S). These were plotted on a base map using ArcGIS 10.1. Maps are used to determine the locations, distribution, compliance to standard and densities (concentration) of the filling stations. The result of the study shows that the areas with the highest concentration of filling stations are in Makere and Kurmin Mashi and about 82% of the filling stations do not meet regulatory requirements for proximity to major roads. In addition, with the high population density in the study area, about 52 out of 93 filling stations are located within residential areas, which have vulnerable to fire hazard. It was recommended that both government and regulatory institutions should implement the concept of sustainable urban growth in order to balance land and urban development. Also investors must understand that investments are meant for public good and not the other way round. Therefore the general public should always insist on respect for their safety and lives by making sure that utilities or developments in their vicinity conform to safety regulations and development standards.

Keywords:  Petrol, Filling-station, Vulnerability, Hazard, Disaster, Risk and Fire.




Clients’ Perception of the Quality of Property Valuation Report in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria


Yusuf Abdulmutallib and Muhammad Hassan

Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Nuhu Bamalli Polytecnic, Zaria




The study examines clients’ perception of the quality of valuation reports in kaduna metropolis with a view to examining their satisfaction level and thus improving on the quality of the valuers’ reports. The survey method employ the use of self administered questionnaire coupled with interview to obtain the relevant data. A total of 15 Banks and 20 estate surveying and valuation firms were studied. Data collected were analyzed using tables and relative importance index. The result of the examination of 18 valuers’ reports in comparison with the standard expected shows that valuers’ reports were meeting the standard. The result also showed 53.3% of the banks are at least satisfied with overall contents of their valuation reports. However the examination of clients’ needs revealed that they would prefer to see more details on the reports. The result shows that “clients demands more information on the larger property market and valuation calculation to convince them on how the valuers arrived at the value; a portion stating the complexity of the market and the position of the property in the market; more emphases on the analytical aspects of the valuation and the estate surveyors and valuers should state how certain they are about the valuation figures”. The study concluded that there should be greater understanding between the clients and estate surveyors with respect to the needs of the clients in the area of valuation reports as well as greater understanding of the limitation of the value figure.

Keywords: Property Valuation, Valuation Report, Quality, Clients, Estate Surveyors and Valuers




Application Of Geospatial Techniques In Water Distribution Management In Bauchi Metropolis (Nigeria)


Surv. Umar, Shu’aibu & Babayo, Ahmed

Department of Surveying and Geo-informatics, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria



Water as a resource to any nation, should be well planned, developed, conserved, distributed and managed effectively. But due to accelerating urban growth and lack of updated Map showing the existing water distribution network in Bauchi metropolis, it has increasingly become difficult to manage the water distribution effectively. This study has established survey controls points (Table 1) in the study area. These controls provided the needed control stations for the georeferencing of the analogue map and the satellite imagery.  Traverse and detailed survey of the existing water pipeline routes in part of New GRA, Bauchi was carried out using these controls. Spatial database were created to show the relationship of pipe with attribute data. At the end of the study a spatial database that shows the water distribution system of part of Bauchi metropolis, Bauchi state was created. This study has provided reliable, up-to-date spatial information of the study area.

Keywords: Water Distribution System (WDS), Geospatial Techniques (GT), Spatial Database.




Going “Green” in the Nigerian Built Environment: The Challenges and Prospects


Abubakar Muazu Aliyu1, Zaki, Blessed Mazadu2, Aliyu Isa Soba3, Amina Adamu4, Musa Mustapha Danraka5

Department of Architecture, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.



The activities of the building industry have been a major source of environmental degradation and an impediment to the sustainable agenda. Because of this, there is a global call upon the building sector to improve the manner in which it operates and   going “green” has emerged as the paradigm. Most nations especially the developed ones have aligned to this agenda and Nigeria seems to be lagging behind. This paper therefore highlights what green architecture is all about and the circumstances surrounding issues of green architecture in Nigeria. A descriptive and quantitative research method was carried out to sample opinions of 38 built environment stakeholders on the issues surrounding green architecture in the country. The findings show that insufficient information on green products; inadequate training of industry professionals on sustainable design methods and lack of enforceable policies by government and industry professional bodies were major causes of the challenges. The study therefore recommends a clear definition of enforceable policies; a retraining and reorientation of built environment professionals; public awareness on the need for green building amongst others.

Keywords: Green Architecture; Sustainability; Nigeria; Built environment




Household Solid Waste Generation and Characterization for the Determination of Waste Management Option in Chikun Local Government Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria


Shekarau Joshua Asabe1, Muhammed Dalhatu Zainab2 and Yunusa Zubairu Lawal2

1Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria, Kaduna State 2Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria, Kaduna State



A large amount of solid wastes is generated from homes. Household waste accounts for major amount of solid rubbish, some are reusable and others non-reusable. The generation of waste is an inevitable part of human activity. About 85.8% of Nigerian waste is generated by households of this about two thirds of wastes are dumped indiscriminately on the streets and in the drains thus posing serious environmental health hazards. Every household activity results in solid waste generation and it is becoming more and more acute in the current technology- driven days.  The composition and generation rate of domestic solid waste in Chikun local government area, Kaduna state, Nigeria was assessed by the use of data on domestic waste composition and quantity of domestic waste generation sourced through field and questionnaire survey. The study was conducted on 396 respondents which were selected using systematic random sampling from the five urban wards in Chikun LGA. Data were analysed descriptively. The results from the study was then applied to determine the waste management option for the domestic waste in Chikun LGA.  Results showed that 76% of the waste generated in Chikun LGA were biodegradables which are mostly vegetables and food waste which weighed 1106.7kg and 542.9kg respectively. The average domestic waste generations in Chikun LGA are 455.8kg/day, 1.2kg/household/day, and 0.66kg/capita/day. The average bulk density was found to be 1484.8kg/m3. The high percentage of the biodegradable waste and amount of waste in general calls for an urgent attention as this could lead to adverse health effects. Based on the results of this study, it was recommended that an integrated solid waste management system consisting of incineration with energy recovery process, composting of household waste and enhanced recycling and sanitary landfill be established for the people of Chikun LGA, Kaduna State.

Keywords: Composition, Generation rate, Households Waste and Chikun.




Assessment of Traffic Flow and Management Measures at Selected Road Intersections in Ilorin Metropolis


Adekanye, Emmanuel Sunday and Yahaya, Mistura Iyabo

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin.




This study provides a pilot investigation into the assessment of traffic flow and management measures at selected road intersections in Ilorin metropolis. The study relies on both secondary and primary data for achievement of the aim of the study. A total number of 360 copies of questionnaires were administered using a purposive sampling technique. Three indices were developed for this study; these include Causes of Traffic bottleneck (CTBI), Effect of Traffic bottleneck (ETBI) and Effectiveness of Traffic Control Measures (ETCMI). The study established that Murtala/Amilegbe junction recorded the highest volume of traffic among the studied road intersections with 5829 vph and 5898 vph for morning and afternoon peaks respectively while motorcycles recorded highest average vehicle type (1701 vehicles) at the sampled junctions. The study observed that increase in population has the highest CTBI in the city with CTBI value of 4.06 and identified Lateness to work as the major effect posed by traffic congestion across the study area with ETBI value of 4.31. The study also revealed that Availability of law enforce agents is effective (ETCMI= 4.54). The study recommended Provision of CCTV at strategic locations and some problematic intersections in the City, encouragement of public/private partnership investment and operation of mass transit and provision of proper signalization i.e functional Electronically Control Traffic Device among others in the study area.

Keywords:  Transportation, Intersection, Traffic Flow, congestion, Traffic Control Measure, accessibility.




Geographical Study of Rural Urban Migration in Damaturu


Mohammed Alhaji Abdullahi1, Ali Adamu Mahadi2, Modibbo Babagana Kyari3

Department of Basic Science, Yobe State College of Agriculture Gujba1, 2, Department of Geography, Yobe State University Damaturu3



The migration from rural to urban areas is an important part of the urbanization process in Damaturu town. Even though it has been the focus of abundant research over the past five decades, some key policy questions have not found clear answers yet. To what extent is rural-urban migration a desirable phenomenon and under what circumstances?  Should governments intervene and if so with what types of interventions? What should be their policy objectives? To shed light on these important issues, I survey the existing theoretical models and their conflicting policy implications, and discuss the policies that may be justified based on recent relevant empirical studies. A key limitation is that much of the empirical literature does not provide structural tests of the theoretical models, but only provides partial findings that can support or invalidate intuitions and in that sense support or invalidate the policy implications of the models. My broad assessment of the literature is that migration can be beneficial or at least be turned into a beneficial phenomenon, so that in general migration restrictions are not desirable. I also identify some data issues and research topics which merit further investigation. With the recent development of Damaturu town, the town witness a high rate of development and population growth. Reduction in the number of the migrating groups because of hardship and warfare, Changes in physical characteristic of people Encountered through inter-marriage, Changes in cultural characteristic of people encountered, linguistic changes, and also affected by cultural adaptation of the people in the study area. This research aimed to examine the geographical study of rural-urban migration in Damaturu town and find out possible solution to it. At the end of this research work findings revealed that”. The young adults in the rural areas are migrate to urban area in order to improve their economic conditions. They (young adults) are pushed out from their origin (rural) because of the relative non-availability of employment opportunities. The research found that the desire for gainful employment is the ultimate factor behind rural-urban migration. However other less compelling motivator such as the desire to enjoy the social amenities service likes electricity, good roads, and good drinking water. Rural-urban migration is highly selective in terms of age, sex, educations and occupations. Furthermore, the study found that younger adult in rural areas is the most dominates migratory and are more migratory than the old age. While men migrate more than women. Rural-urban migrations are selective in terms of educations because environment requires one form of formal educations or the other and the necessary skill to do urban jobs.




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