African Scholar Journal of Environmental Design & Construction Managt Vol. 18 No. 4


VOL. 18 NO. 4 SEPTEMBER, 2020 ISSN: 2896–1783



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2020 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Analysis of a Dam Induced Land Changes and It’s Imapcts in Parts of Jibia Local Government Area Katsina State Nigeria.


Abdulkadir I. Funtua, and Hassan Musa

Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics; Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi



Construction of a 3.6km Jibiya Dam on Gada River in 1980s has resulted in the conversion of agricultural land and settlements to impounded reservoir and the laying of a 192km irrigation canal network in a 3.5km2 restricted land for irrigation and farming. This triggered population influx and unprecedented accelerated land use/land cover changes in Jibia Local Government. This paper analyze these changes and their impacts at a four year epochs in using TM and ETM+ Landsat satellite imageries of the years 1986, 1990, 2000 and 2010 respectively. Erdas imagine version 9.1 software was used for image processing and classification and ArcGIS version 9.3 software was used for map making and analysis. The result shows an increase in the surface water bodies from 2.635 km2 in 1986 to 33km2 in 2010. The settlement areas increase from 6.00 km2 in 1986 to 10.123km2 in 2010 and the agricultural land decrease from 728 km2 1986 to 622km2 respectively. The constructed irrigation structures covering 3.5 km2 imposed restriction on residential land expansion and development of especially in the most populated areas of Jibiya Magama and Faru and other villages around the dam.

Keywords: Dam Impacts, Land Changes, Jibiya, Landsat and Remote Sensing




Correlation between Environmental Variables and Rental Values of Residential Properties in Greater Port Harcourt City, Rivers State, Nigeria


*Obed-Ndukwu, Ihuoma, C. Ph.D & **Prof. Gobo, A.E

*Institute of Geosciences and Space Technology (IGST), Rivers State University (RSU), Nkpolu Oroworukwuo, Port Harcourt, Nigeria **Applied Meteorology and Environmental Management, and currently Director, Institute of Geosciences and Space Technology, Rivers State University, Nkpolu Oroworukwuo,



Property value is a function of many factors. It is a common knowledge that environmental variables and the influence of location externalities are vital to the formation of residential property value. The study assesses the relationship between environmental variables and rental value of residential properties in Greater Port Harcourt City, Rivers State.  Data was collected from both primary and secondary sources. In a wider perspective, data was collected through questionnaires, interviews, document reviews and field observations. A total of 450 out of 500 copies of questionnaires administered to the residents was retrieved while 78 was retrieved out of 116 copies of questionnaires administered to the Professional Estate Valuers managing residential properties within the study area. Questionnaire was distributed on the basis of household population in the study area and stratified systematic sampling approach was adopted in the selection of 500 (residents) respondents. Data analysis techniques used include mean, standard deviation and spearman rank correlation. Three research questions were formulated and one hypothesis tested at 0.01 and 0.05 level of significance.  Findings revealed that there is a relationship between environmental variables and rental value of residential properties.  Secondly, the study showed environmental variables that negatively influence residential property value include floodwater, air pollution, waste dumpsite, traffic congestion, noise pollution and wetland in  the study area. Based on the findings, recommendations were made among which is the need for the creation of awareness and public sensitization on environmental issues with potential adverse effect on property values and living standard was also recommended.  Essentially, the study will be beneficial to students, property developers, local planning authorities of Rivers State in regulating development and housing for the infrastructural development in the State.

Keywords:  Correlation, Environmental Variables, Rental Value, Residential Properties




Analyzing the Impact of Cost and Time as a Consideration for Construction (Concrete Contracting in Housing Development Project)


1L.N. Badom; 2R.E. Akpodee.

1Department of Quantity Surveying, Faculty of Environmental Science, Rivers State University. 2Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt Nigeria.



The issue of constructing a standard housing structures or real estate is of global concern since housing modelling are changes that occur over time in the partner and design of housing development and the most appropriate method that will minimize risk, volatility and other constraints that will affect the construction of a high quality and standard building that can stand the test of time. This study carefully analyze a comparative impact of cost and time as a consideration for construction contracting in housing development using statistical simulations on the data sets obtained from precast concrete and conventional construction proposal. The novel outputs clearly indicates thei various means, standard deviations, standard errors and  other summary results that are fully presented and discussed in this study.

Keywords: Housing Development, Mathematical Model, Precast Concrete Construction, Environmental Factors.




Analysis of Flood Vulnerability in Unplanned Settlements along the Bank of River Kubanni, Zaria, Nigeria


Mangaji S. R.; Mukhtar I.; Iguisi E. O.; Isma’il M.; and Salisu A.

Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Faculty of Physical Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria.



Flooding is one of the major natural hazards which disrupt the prosperity, safety and amenities of human settlements. The rates of population encroachment into flood plains will likely increase in Zaria as pressure for development increases. This study analyzed flood vulnerability in unplanned settlements along River Kubanni, in urban Zaria. The study identified and map out areas vulnerable to flooding and assess the causes of seasonal flood in the study area. The study made use of both primary and secondary data. Satellite images were sourced and used also questionnaire was administered to 400 systematically and randomly sampled respondents. Geographic Information System tool was used to classify the various land uses in the area as well as map out flood prone areas while primary data on causes of flood and analyzed descriptively. The study found that areas such as Gaskiya, Tudun Wada, GRA, Hanwa village and Zango were the major settlements at risk in the river Kubanni catchment area. Gaskiya and Tudun Wada were found to be on the high vulnerable areas and Hanwa village, Zango and GRA lie on the moderate vulnerable areas. It was revealed that most of the residents in settlements along the Kubanni River perceived intense rainfall (99.0%), lack of proper embankment protection (81.5%) and blockage of drainage channels (97.5%) as major causes of flood in the study area. The study therefore recommended that erection of sand bags and wall embankments should be encouraged to prevent flood. International organization and development partners should provide funds and technical assistance to build the capacity of humanitarian-based organizations, as well as the affected people when disasters occur.

Keywords: Flooding, Hazards, Vulnerability, Settlement and River




Automating the Generation of Maps Using a Novel Approach.


Ejiga, Abubakar Isa

Department of Geoinformatics and Surveying, University of Nigeria, Enugu campus



Maps which at times is the final product of surveying and mapping is the model of part or the entire earth surface. The importance of this model cannot be over emphasized. It is as ubiquitous as surveying and mapping itself as it is employed in virtually all aspects of activities that is done above, near, on or beneath the earth’s surface. Owing to this importance, it is always needed for the smooth execution of programmes    both by the government and individuals. The easy and stress – free production of this is a reasonable effort. This research has the mandate of developing an algorithm to fast track the production of map. The procedure adopted was to investigate the differences between the UTM Web Mercator of the Google and other online digital maps and that of UTM Minna projected coordinate system used in the physical terrain. These differences in both Northings and Eastings as well as the in bearings and distances were found for a sufficient number of points and averaged. These averages became a set of constants named as Ejiga_okeke_unn constants. The application of these constants to UTM Web Mercator values for any chosen number of points on an imagery automatically rectifies images geometrically and vectorisation of raster images is made speedier. The application of these constants yielded an RMS error of 0.00211 against the standard of 0.004.11  When more carefully applied, better results can be obtained. This research proposes the application of these constants instead of the tedious and expensive method of establishing ground control points (GCPs).

Keywords:  Ejiga_okeke_unn constants, GCPs, RMS error, Geometric Rectification, UTM Web Mercator, UTM Minna, Projected Coordinate System




Exploring the Effect of Landscaping on Property Value in Meeting the Contemporary Sub-Sahara Environment.


1Akinyemi, Saheed Olayinka, 2Ojeniyi Sulaiman Adekunle and 3Hadiza Ahmed Musa.

1&2Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi. 3Department of Estate Management, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna.



Landscape design of environment has not really found its way into the Nigerian property market when compared to what obtains in more civilized countries in Europe and the United State of America (Umar, 1987). In Nigeria, the need to an additional cost involved in designing a very good landscape and also the cost of maintaining such landscape have made property owners not to include landscape design in their building plans. Property owners would rather do a complete concrete flooring of the whole surroundings of the building than spending extra costs on landscaping it with flowers, trees and other decorative elements and amenities to enhance the value of the property. The study aimed at examining property landscaping in the study area with a view to determining its effect on property value. The study research questions were outlined as well as the objectives were analysed accordingly. The study adopts qualitative methodology approach, making use of secondary data due to the nature of information required and the time frame required to conduct the study, this is to say the researchers are of postpositivist methodological philosophy of research. The data were sourced from journals, textbooks, online daily newspapers and other online related publications. The recommendations were outlined and the conclusion was that, the role of a well-planned landscape in enhancing property values cannot be under-estimated. Besides the fact that it enhances property values, it also serves some other physical and environmental functions, which are of immense benefits to the owner/occupant of such property.

Keywords: Property Value, Landscaping, Land Use, Property Landscape and Value to Property.




Assessment of Soil and Groundwater Quality around Major Dumpsites in Rivers State Using Index Models Approach


*Ozoekwe, V. E.; **Gobo, A. E.; **Abam, T. K. S.; & **Ngah, S. A.

*Environmental Management and Control, Institute of Geosciences and Space Technology. Rivers State University, Port Harcourt. Nigeria. **Institute of Geosciences and Space Technology. Rivers State University, Port Harcourt. Nigeria.



Soil and groundwater quality assessment was conducted in order to determine the level and extent of contamination imposed from surface dumpsites cited within residential areas in Rivers State, Nigeria. Thirty soil and groundwater samples were obtained from dumpsite centers and surrounding residential areas for physico-chemical, heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons analysis. Sampling was carried out in the wet and dry seasons to reflect seasonal variations in soil and groundwater quality. The samples were analyzed using AAS and standard laboratory procedural guidelines. Pollution load index and water quality index were used to address soil and groundwater quality status in the area. The results of soil heavy metal pollution load ranged from 0.65 to 1.45 in the wet season and 0.74 to 1.55 in the dry season.   Soil metal pollution load revealed all dump centres have deteriorated soil quality, while 20% and 87% of soils in residential areas have deteriorated quality for wet and dry seasons respectively. Groundwater across the entire area is very acidic in both wet and dry season with pH values < 5.0. Water quality index revealed only a single borehole in Igwuruta has unsuitable water quality, all other boreholes showed good to excellent quality across both wet and dry seasons. The study recommends groundwater in the area is treated with lime or carbonates to reduce its acidity before subsequent consumption.

Keywords:  Water Quality Index, Soil Pollution Load Index, Groundwater, Soil, Contamination.




Determining Extent of Structural Material Wastage in Building Construction Sites in Ebonyi State of Nigeria


Jonathan Chinasa Nwekete; and Ernest Ituma Egba

Department of Technology and Vocational Education, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. PMB 53, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.



Structural materials constitute basic ingredients of building projects. There have been reports of abandoned building projects especially in the developing nations probably because of inadequate waste management practices in construction sites. Effects of uncontrolled structural material wastes in the building construction sites are periodic and financial project failures. This paper determines extent of structural material wastage in building construction sites to guide future studies on waste management in developing nations. The descriptive survey design was used for the study. The target population was all consultants and project managers that supervise building projects in Ebonyi state. A structured questionnaire in line with the formulated research questions was used to guide the study. The statistical mean, standard deviation, and t-test analysis were used to analyze the data. Findings of the study showed that cement mortar, Portland cement, nails, bracing and scaffolding members are structural materials that are wasted to very high extents in building construction sites in Ebonyi state. The paper recommended that personnel involved in material usage should be trained and motivated properly to ensure effective handling of the materials and minimize wastage in building construction sites. The findings of the study could be applied in building technology and engineering economics, and in waste management and control for sustainable building projects.

Keywords: Structural material, Material waste, Building construction, Waste generation, Construction site.




Investigating the Engineering Properties of Black Cotton Soil Treated With Rice Husk Ash


Aliyu, Mohammad Jungudo; Lawal Zubairu Adam; And Sani .U. Kunya

Department of Building Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi



Black cotton soils are soils that are known to exhibit high compressibility with resultant shrinkage problems at dry periods. Various researches have been conducted in order to stabilize these soils. However, most of the researches use conventional materials such as cement, lime etc, which are somehow expensive. The study was conducted to investigate the effect of rice husk ash blended with black cotton soils. The natural soils were treated with the additives in percentages at 0%,6%,8%,10% and 12% by dry weight of the soils. The results obtained from laboratory test show that both the free swell and linear shrinkage increases with increase in (RHA) to a peak of 12% and from the compaction test conducted; there was no improvement in the maximum dry density and optimum moisture content. Instead, upon increase in rice husk ash percentage, the maximum dry density (MDD) reduces while optimum moisture content (OMC) increase. The study   concludes that up to 12% of rice husk ash could be used to stabilize the black cotton soil for satisfactory performance. The study recommends that rice husk ash could be used to partially replace cement in stabilisation of black cotton soils.

Keywords: Engineering properties, Black cotton soil, Rice hush ash.




Government Violation of Acquisition Rules on Lands Schemed for Public Projects in Some Part of Imo State Nigeria


*Dr. Okoronkwo, Ndukauba Sunday Nwafor; and **Mr. Ohaegbulem, Emmanuel.

*Dept. of Estate Management, Imo State University Owerri [Principal Partner, Ndu-Okoronkwo and Company No. 17 MCC/Uratta Rd. Ikenegbu L/out Owerri Imo State] **Department of Statistics, Imo State University Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria



Official negation of statutory rules for acquisition of land for public use recently by some government authorities is creating worrisome situation for individual real property owners. The trend manifested in the acquisition of the One hundred thousand (100,000) ton Grain Silo at Obinorie Ezinnacchi Okigwe Local Government Area and, the Modern Mechanic Village projects at Umuolo/Umuehieta Avu, Owerri West Local Government Area Imo State..  The Imo State Government deviated from granting adequate opportunities to claimants to properties and improvement on the two acquired sites proper access to statutory process to revocations of rights of occupancies, assessment of claims and payment of compensation for their improvements on the site. The data for the study were conducted by certified professional firms of Estate Surveyors and Valuers who proffered Alternative Approaches to establish heads of claims and sums presented on behalf of the claimants for compensation. Notwithstanding the professional ingenuity of the dully elected Attorneys presentation of genuine cases of claimable interests of their clients to the acquiring authority, out of the composite compensation sum of approximately Twenty million Naira (N20,000,000.00) only, submitted by the consultants to the government of Imo State Ten million Naira (N10,000,000.00) only, which is (50%) percent sum of the assessed total compensation sum was released to the accessed claimants. This actually neglected the presentations and refused the claimants payments of compensation for their properties damaged as a result of institution of the projects. This paper has recommended among other measures to tame the ailing chief executive officers of acquiring authority by devising specific training and proper enlightenment programs on the due process needs for matters bordering on land administration. Executive Declarations and Order should be made to compel ailing acquiring authorities to strictly comply to the statutory guidelines of the enabling Statutes on land administration in Nigeria; as well as empower any affected persons to employ initial soft resistance to the agents of any acquiring authority invading the real property of any intended affected property owner; and,  express judicial injunction from court of competent jurisdiction restraining such acquiring authority from damaging the intended claimants’ properties without due processes being applied; while official law enforcement agencies should assist promptly to protect the interest of any intending affected individual that sought for their intervention.

Keywords: Violation, Lands Acquisition, Compensation Rules, Government Authority, Public Projects.




Evaluation of Corporate and Non-Corporates’ Clients Understanding of Valuation Reports in Bauchi Metropolis


Muhammad Umar Bello & Sakariyau Jamiu Kayode

Department of Estate Management and Valuation Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria



This study highlighted financial institution understanding of valuation report in Bauchi metropolis. Study area is experiencing rapid business and property market development. valuation of real estate and property has thus been considered as a solution to a problem, and particularly as an answer to specific questions posed by a client. It is been done by following a systematic process, called the valuation process. Key issues regarding the quality and reliability of the valuation process and valuation reports have been the focus of considerable attention, these include ensuring greater credibility and clarity in general property valuations, assessing valuers’ compliance with the reporting standards and ensuring public confidence in the valuation process. It is essential that the valuation report communicates the information necessary for the proper understanding of the valuation, free of ambiguity, and providing the intended reader with a clear understanding of the assessment provided. The methodology adopted in this study is Non-probability sampling. The respondents of the research cross over the study area. And convenient sampling was used to distribute questionnaires. Both open and close-ended questions were used. The findings of the study show that commercial banks have an adequate understanding of valuation reports submitted to them by professional valuers. Mortgage institution also show a relative understanding of valuation reports in the study area. The study concludes that Housing valuation are paramount in ascertaining the actual value of property at a given period of time. The results of the research study vindicated that understanding of valuation report within the financial institution within the study area. Professionals that provide the valuation report need to communicate the main issue in the valuation report. Future researches would be of great beneficial if the researchers would dwell on this aspect of research so that generalization of the result finding would vindicate current and future significant of clients’ understanding of valuation reports.

Keywords: Valuation reports, Mortgage valuation, commercial banks, Housing market and Professional valuers.




Challenges of Affordable Housing in Madanya, Mubi South Local Government Area, Adamawa State


Gideon Jafiya; James Jesse Shingu; & Stephen Joseph

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi



Housing is one of the basic need for man after food and water, and its beyond the reached of the people in the study area. It was discovered during the survey that high population growth rate, overcrowding, inadequate planning and development, high cost of land and construction materials are the major challenges to affordable housing. Others are poor implementation of good policies on housing, dilapidated structures, lack of drainage and sanitary system, housing conversion etc. the survey also revealed that houses in the area are in bad condition, they are rented houses and that 3-5 people lived in each room. Individual developers are the major stakeholders in housing delivery in the area and financing the project through personal savings. The research also found out that more people spend more than 30% of their monthly income to paying rent and other utilities, and finally recommendations were given to achieve desire goal.

Keywords: affordability, Challenges, Housing, condition, stakeholders.




An Assessment of the Challenges of the Architectural Profession for Its Implication to the Architectural Technology Curriculum in Nigeria


Ndandok, Christy Thyeno; Arc. Zemo, Stephen Audu; & Mustapha, Muhammed Aliyu

Department of Architecture, College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic.



The architectural profession is one that is growing and evolving all over the world, Nigeria therefore is no exception to this. Developments in science and technology, socio-economic and cultural needs in the country have had tremendous impact on the architectural practice and education. A review of the architectural technology curriculum is therefore a great necessity in order to remain relevant in today’s society.  In order to review the curriculum appropriately, there is a need to understand the challenges faced by the architectural profession. Through literature review, the study assesses the various challenges to the architectural profession in Nigeria and identifies its implications to the architectural technology curriculum. The study also considers how this information facilitates the review of the Architectural technology Curriculum. The paper concludes by stating that the curriculum is not in synergy with the present day society and its issues, and that it is these societal issues that result in the current challenges experienced in the architectural practice/proffesion. The paper suggest that the review of the architectural technology curriculum will help to create a paradigm shift in the value system for polytechnic education in Nigeria which will contribute intensely to socio-economic development in Nigeria by placing the technical education in its right place.

KeyWords: Curriculum, Architectural Technology, Architectural Profession, Architectural Education and Architectural Challenges.




Compositional Approach to the Assessment of Depreciation for Property Valuation Purposes: ‘An Explorative Analysis’


1Muritala, A. O., 1Ajibade, N. A., 1Olojede, I. O., 1Adeleke, M. A., 2Onifade, A. O.

1Department of Estate Management and Valuation, the Oke- Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Oyo State. 2Department of Architectural Technology, the Oke- Ogun Polytechnic, Saki, Oyo State.



A method that is commonly adopted in situations where market evidence is unavailable is the Depreciated Replacement Cost method. As the name suggests, this involves estimating the Replacement cost of the property as new and making allowances for accrued depreciation, which is the subject matter of the valuation. The provision for depreciation is important because it allows for the estimation of value that reflects the current state of the property. The determination of such depreciation for valuation purposes has been a subject for a number of empirical studies. There is however no consensus within the valuation profession as to which approach to estimating accrued depreciation addresses the key elements that are of concern to estate surveyors and valuers viz; age, level of condition and functional obsolescence. This paper proposes one such approach that incorporates all these elements in the estimation of accrued depreciation for valuation purposes. The approach first considers separately, the individual causes of depreciation and uses different methods to estimate accrued depreciation for each of the causes of depreciation. Total accrued depreciation is then estimated by first taking account of curable physical depreciation and then age and functional obsolescence. The approach proposed presents a basis for a more comprehensive discussion and a subsequent application of a common methodology that valuers can adopt to estimate depreciation.

Keywords: Depreciation, Obsolescence, Accrued Depreciation, Property Valuation.




The Influence of Subjective Determinants on Mode Choice for Long Distance Passenger Travel from Abuja to Kaduna, Nigeria


*Dahiru Umar Abubakar; **Jafaru Maigida; & **Mohammed Babangida Usman

*Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa **Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna



This study investigates the influence of subjective factors as determinants of travel mode choice for Road and Railway mode along Abuja-Kaduna national corridor. A sample of 575 passengers (300 for Road and 275 for Railway) were randomly selected from Jabi and Kawo park for Road; Idu and Rigasa for Railway. Results of primary data analysis show that security and safety are the largest determinants for choice of railway while choice of road is influenced by a combination of flexibility, reliability, intermodal transfer and freedom. It was therefore, recommended that the Nigerian Railway Corporation should consider improving Rail connectivity by providing metro-lines in both cities and ensuring their connection to main stations in order to ease intermodal transfer difficulties. It was also recommended that government should improve security on the highway considering the fact that, it is the only gateway connecting North Western States with Nigerian Federal capital.

Keywords: Subjective Determinants, Travel Mode Choice, Rail Passengers, Road Passengers, Long Distance Passenger Travel




Rural Transportation System in Nigeria: Focus on Ido Local Government Area, Oyo State


Lasisi, Kamil Oluranti; and Makinde Hammed

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, the Polytechnic, Ibadan



Rural transportation is a significant channel of ensuring effective movement of rural people and the collection and exchange of goods and services for enhanced rural economy and development in Nigeria. The study appraised rural transportation system in Ido Local Government Area, Oyo State with a view to suggesting appropriate measures towards rural development. The objectives pursued are to analyze different modes of transportation in the study area, assess the role of transportation system in the development of rural communities and identify the basic challenges confronting rural transportation in the study area. The study adopted simple random sampling technique to administer 271 pieces of questionnaires to respondents. The paper is anchored on the interaction and gravity models. The findings reveal that bad conditions of the roads affect cost of transportation of goods and services which in turn affect the rural dwellers’ income. Therefore, the study recommends that Ido Local Government Council should be equipped with finance, personnel and equipment to manage and maintain rural roads for effective movement. It was noted that the residents often encounter series of road accidents, leading to body dislocation and fracture thus, making it imperative for Federal and State governments to embark on various policies measures involving road rehabilitation towards enhancing rural development in the study area.

Keywords: Rural, transportation, accessibility, development, interaction and challenges




Water Intake Characteristics of Soils in Federal College of Forestry Farm, Jos, Northern Nigeria


1Popoola, A. S., 2Yakubu, C. K., 3Francis, M. J., 4Mbah, J. J., 5Adedire, O., 6Oladejo, A. O., and 7E. Olori-Oke.

1,3Department of Forestry Technology, Federal College of Forestry, P.M.B 2019, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. 2Horticulture and Landscape department, Federal College of Forestry, P.M.B 2019, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. 4,5Statistics department, Federal College of Forestry, P.M.B 2019, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. 6,7Pest Management Technology department, Federal College of Forestry, P.M.B 2019, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.



The water intake characteristics of soils under different soil conditions were studied in Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. The study aimed at examining the effects of different soil condition as it affect water intake characteristic. The Gravimetric and infiltration test was performed in three different condition of the soil, tilled, untilled and Tractor tracked soil. Double ring infiltrometer was used to study the infiltration characteristics of the soil on farm and Horton’s equation was adopted for the data analysis. From the analysis, the soil characteristics constant K obtained were 0.038, 0.020, and 0.023. The soil intake characteristic equation for all the three soil conditions were expressed as F=9.0t + 2921.05[1- F=1.56t + 3702[1- F=4.44t+1335.65[1- The result shows that Tilled land had the highest average infiltration of 120cm/hr while Compacted land experienced the least average rate of 38 cm/hr which implies that most irrigation methods could be adopted on the Tilled plot while sprinkler and drip systems of irrigation can best suit the non-tilled and compacted land.This study enable the comparison of the parameters obtained from all the soil conditions of the location. These results will guide farmers in designing a good and workable irrigation system in the future.

Keywords: Infiltration capacity, infiltration rates, Soils, infiltrometer, Horton.




Challenges and Prospects of Physical Development Control in Jooro Village, Asa-Dam Road, Ilorin, Kwara State


Fadipe Samuel Bamidele   

Urban &Regional Planning, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin



The challenges and prospect of physical development control cannot be overlooked especially in the case of Asa-dam area which is an urban area designated by Kwara State Ministry of Housing & urban development, Ilorin. This study is aim to examine the challenges facing Town Planning and Development Authority and to assess the prospect that can be derived from adequate development control. The objectives of the study, is to assess the land used applicable to the study area, also to determine the compliance of developer in relation with the physical development control policy. This study is carried out through direct survey of physical development activities in the town, which administer of 86 questionnaire in three zone(Zone A, Zone B, & Zone C) to the developers on site and 10 questionnaire to development control agency in Ilorin Kwara state and were retrieved respectively. With the interview of development control agency in Ilorin, Kwara state revealed some hindrances as lack of planning tools and equipment, inadequate funding of the concern authority above all lack of organized public enlightenment programme. Having identified the aforementioned hindrance, the study however, recommends proper funding of the development control agency, provision of equipment and enactment of standing rules That will enhance effective development control mechanism and eventually create a conducive living, working, and recreating environment.

Keywords: development control, planning permit, building codes, prospect and challenges




Analysis in Exposure to Heat in Jimeta Residential Neighbourhood in Adamawa State, Using Spartial Synoptic Classification System


Tanko, Binibonori Salihu

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa state



The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is defined as elevated surface and air temperatures in urban areas relative to surrounding suburban and exurban areas (Solecki et al., 2005). Problems that result from the UHI include decreased air quality, increased heat mortality, increased energy and water use, failure of infrastructure, and altered regional precipitation patterns (Stone, 2005; Gartland, 2008; Baik et al, 2000). Adamawa state Urban Planning Development Authority is increasingly taking action to analyze and reduce UHIs. Yet, past research provides insufficient information for researchers and planners on 1) the relative contribution of neighborhood physical characteristics to UHIs and how those physical characteristics’ contribution may change during different times of day, 2) the accuracy of land cover quantifications necessary to predict UHIs,  This study examines how different physical features measured at the neighborhood scale contribute to the UHI intensity in eight (8) residential neighborhoods in Jimeta metropolitan area of Adamawa state using synoptic classification system. During the dry season of 2019, we collected air temperature measurements in neighborhoods selected to represent different land cover mixes, neighborhood building configurations, and adjacent heat sources and sinks. Consistent with coarse-scale investigation that rely on surface temperature proxies, the predictors with the most explanatory power of elevated air temperatures at night were land cover variables. We found that light winds at night resulted in stronger relationships between the physical characteristic variables and UHI intensity at 2 a.m. (adjusted R2 = 0.68) than at 4 p.m. (adjusted R2 = 0.26). At night percent impervious was a better predictor of UHIs relative to building configuration. The relationships changed during the day. The significant predictor of UHI intensity shifted to upwind adjacent factors during the afternoon likely due to higher wind speeds. During the afternoon we found that a neighborhood’s distance to upwind industrial areas was a better predictor of UHIs relative to land cover factors. This research is an important contribution to understanding how municipalities embarking on UHI reduction should prioritize limited financial and political resources to reduce the heat vulnerability of residents.

Keywords: Urban Heat Islands, Urban Heat Island Evaluation, Urban Climatology, Heat Vulnerability, Urban Climate Planning




Interpretation of Subsurface Structures over Part of Northwest Basement Rocks, Nigeria Using Magnetic Method


Abubakar Nda’asabe Dzukogi; Mohammed Bello Mahmud; and Mahmud Kudu

Department of Civil Engineering, the Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger state.



High resolution aeromagnetic data were interpreted for subsurface structures in part of Northwest basement complex, Nigeria. The study area lies between longitudes 50 00′ E to 60 00′ E and latitudes 100 00′ N to 100 30 N. It covered two aeromagnetic sheet 40 and sheet 141 with a total area of 6,050 km2. The magnetic data were analysed to detect and identify fractures, fault and structural contact in the area. First vertical derivative and center for exploration targeting methods were used for the data analysis. The first vertical derivative was used to identified and sharpen the magnetic anomalies associated with geologic features. These anomalies were linear magnetic features. Magnetic lineament were prominent at Kontagora, Bomi, Tegina, Kagara and Zungeru in the study area. The center for exploration targeting (CET) method was used to detect fractures/fault and structural contact in the study area. The fractures and fault identified from CET were prominent with high density of structural contact at Kagara, Tegina and Zungeru at the southwestern part of the study area. Magnetic lineaments (fracture/fault) were observed trending northeast direction. These  could be deep or near surface fractures and faults or linear geologic structures.The observations in trend and location of the fracture/fault and the structural contact from CET analysis all agreed with the anomalies identified in the study area through derivatives. These structures and structural contacts could be associated with near surface intrusion which suggests mineralization potentials in the area. The fracture/fault could serve as potential area for ground water exploration and their trend could also represent the tectonic trend that affects the study area and the Nigeria basement complex at large. This study will serve as a guide for further geotechnical study in the area.

Keywords: Lineament; anomalies; Fracture/fault.




Assessing the Adoption of Leadership Styles by Project Managers within Construction Firms


Mairami, M. B; Ombugadu, T. J.; & Olaleye, Y. O.

Department of Quantity Surveying, College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic



To bring about the refocusing of African communities’ fundamental changes have to be adopted aimed at achieving improvements and innovations as enshrined in the Transformation agenda in this era. For this to succeed, organizations need to provide leadership that will bring about these changes. Leadership styles should come up with tools and techniques that would not only be effective but ensure improvement and handling changes that will steer the organization in those directions. This paper aimed at identifying four leadership styles adopted within the business environment that will bring about this change. It assessed their level and likelihood of adoption, and effectiveness by project managers within construction firms. The leadership styles include coaching, visionary, facilitative and team leadership styles. A structured questionnaire was administered in a survey manner to project managers selected randomly within Kaduna Metropolis. 50 were administered and 37 were returned amounting to 74% response rate. Analysis conducted on a Likert Scale format showed that the most likely, as well as frequently adopted style was that of coaching leadership. While the most effective style is facilitative leadership style. The study recommends that the facilitative leadership style should be adopted more often     

Keywords: Change, Improvement, Leadership, Leadership Style, Leadership Techniques,




Architecture and Politics: An Exposition of the New Reichstag Building by Sir Norman Foster.


Zaki Blessed M.; Danraka Musa M.; Adamu Amina; Abubakar Mu’azu Aliyu; & Yusuf Abdulsalam

Department of Architecture, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria.



Architecture is not only classified as describing the elegant and formal preferences of an architect, but it can also reveal the hopes, power struggle and the elements culture of the society. As architecture can control the way we understand the world, looking at architectural history the relation between the monumental architecture and political power can consistently be seen. Architecture gives us the choice to visualize mentally and support societies to create systems that shows their social and cultural traditions and practices. This study is therefore geared towards showing architecture as a tool of connection between social occurrences and political values of a nation. It is in this light that the New Reichstag (the German parliament building) as renovated by Sir Norman Foster is explored because of what it represented at its time of being remodelled.

Keywords: Architecture; Politics; Germany; Reichstag building; Norman Foster




Evaluation of the Impact of Building Artisans on Residential Housing Delivery in   Mupin Town, Ado-Odo/Ota Local Government,   Ogun State.


Orekan, Atinuke Adebimpe and Okanlawon Babatunde

Department Of Estate Management, College of Environmental Sciences, Bells University of Technology, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria.



This study examined the impact of building artisans on residential housing delivery in sub-urban area using Mupin town in Ado-odo/Ota Local Government Area in Ogun State. The major objectives of the study were to identify the building artisans in residential housing delivery, assess their impact in residential housing delivery with a view to recommending ways of improving housing delivery by building artisans in the study area. Out of the 32 community development association, 17 CDAs were randomly selected. 100 property owners were selected through stratified random sampling and questionnaire were administered to them. Questionnaires were also administered to the (17) seventeen Community Development Associations (CDA) Chairmen that oversee housing development within their various jurisdiction.  The study revealed that about two-third of the population of the property owners agreed that lack of apprentice trainee has affected the productivity of the building artisans in residential housing delivery within the study area. It was also shown that 78% of the respondents agreed that building artisans are not well equipped technically and need to enhance their skills in modern technology towards achieving better productivity.

Keywords: Artisan, Housing Delivery, Residential Housing, Community Development




A Discourse of Some Selected Hybrid Ceramic Art Works in Nigeria


Akanni Daniel O1; Dakyes, S. U2; & Azi, J. A2

1Faculty of Environmental Studies, Department of Art, Design and Printing Technology, the Polytechnic, Ibadan 2Department of Industrial Design, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna.



A discourse of the selected conventional hybrid ceramic works are based on their intrinsic conceptual ideologies that are quite inspiring. They tend to mirror societal issues. The aim of the paper is to by and large review the intricate, technique, style and philosophical undertone of those selected art works. The review will be based on a theory that, ceramic work is an aspect of visual arts, education, socialization, politics, economic reformation, transformation and growth (Alasa, 2011). This is in tandem with the concept that, “African creative hands built potteries are often motivated by social, political and philosophical nuances rooted in the negritude of the society and cultural background of the artists. Oloidi (1999) describes those creative concepts, as ideological rooted in the artist’s traditional leaning to deflate vices of his society and other dominating flattering forces of colonial parasitism. The works were purposive, selected from three geographical zones in Nigeria based on cultural background of the artists. The paper adopts analytical description by which the “conventional hybrid ceramic works were discussed. It was discovered that, the selected works were synthesis of contemporary traditional motifs and styles structured into aesthetically and ideological visual forms. It was also discovered that, the works were inspired by the artists’ cultural environment and training. The selected works appear to be more or less ideologically philosophical than utilitarian purposes. It is hoped that, the philosophical dispositions of these works will benefit knowledge seekers, historians and artists in their research works. It might have documented the near extinct of hand built philosophical hybrid ceramic art works in Nigeria.

Keywords:  art, ceramic, ceramic-sculpture, industry,  pottery, production




Architectural Case Study as a Research Method- A Review


Musbau Bello Adewumi1; Kabiru Zakari2; & Dauda Ali Madu3

1The Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria. 2&3The Department of Architectural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. P.M.B. 0231, Bauchi Nigeria.



The case study research method has been adopted in the critical assessment of the values, limitations, ethical and practical issues that may arise in the research and findings of architecture. This review study adopts the compare and contrast of existing building typology that have importance role in architectural research. This methodology has developed within the social sciences. A first generation of case studies originated in anthropology, but this came under criticism during the era of logical positivism, a period when social science methodology became divided into two distinct types: quantitative and qualitative research. Case study research in architecture will transcend the bounds of what is conventionally considered a way of evidencing research by including artefacts, such as models, exhibitions or design process. One basic kind of design research is the study of a designers work from the first conception of an idea to a finished design. The case study approach allows, amongst other things, critical assessments, interventions, policy developments and programme-based service reforms to be studied in detail in a real-life context. Considering the frequency with which implementations of innovations are now taking place in research, the case study approach can, if carefully conceptualized and thoughtfully undertaken and reported, yield powerful insights into many important aspects of architectural project delivery.

Keywords: Context, Innovations, Methodology, Research, Service




Guide for the Development of Database for the Management of Buildings in Estates


Musa Abdul & Bashir Lawal

Department of Building, College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic Kaduna



Organizations are increasingly becoming more and more reliance on databases for their functions. Even though powerful in its functions, database development is not so complex. This paper explains database concepts and developed a simple guide for database development. The process of developing database for the Management of Buildings in Estates, using Structured Query Language (SQL) is described. MySQL, a standard RDBMS which is freely available for the use of the general public is used for the development. It is discovered that the use of software by Builders and Estate Surveyors is common, but not indigenous. It is recommended for Builders and Estate Surveyors to collaboratively develop database for managing Buildings in Estates together with their associated facilities.

Keywords: Database, Simple guide, Structured Query Language (SQL), MYSQL & Database development.


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