African Scholar Journal of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology Vol. 21 No. 1


VOL. 21 NO. 1 JUNE, 2021 ISSN: 2877 – 1990



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2021 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Effect of Chromosome Number Variations on Stomata Size and Tuber Yield in Some Accessions of White Yam (Dioscorea Rotundata Poir)


¹* Egbucha, K. C.; 2Akpanudo, S. I., and ³Andrew, O. V.

¹,²Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria. ³Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Ukana, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.



The significant role of yam in the fight against food insecurity cannot be over emphasis. This research was undertaken to investigate the effect of chromosome numbers on stomata size and the yielding potentials in some accessions of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata). 52 micro tuber accessions of Dioscorea rotundata of 3-4cm in length from National Root Crop and Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike were utilized for the study. These were planted at the screen house of NRCRI using 30cm perforated polythene bags containing 70% sterilized loam soil, 30% carbonated rice husk arranged in four rows and thirteen columns. Three replicates of the experiments were set up. Tendering and other Agronomic care were duely given. Data such as chromosome number and ploidy status, stomatal, size and tuber characteristics was collected during growth and at harvest period. The result obtained revealed that 27 out of 52 accessions were diploid and 25 mixoploid (diploid and tetraploid) in their chromosome numbers. The 25 mixoploid accessions recorded higher stomatal sizes in there leaves as well as larger tuber sizes compared to the 27 diploid accessions. Thus, variations in the chromosome number had exerted a significant effect on phenotypic and genotypic characters of the crop plant.. It is also important to mention  to that the characters measured – chromosomes status, stomata sizes and tuber yield in all the 52 accessions could be utilized for both improvement as well as taxonomical purposes. Finally, this preliminary results show that the 52 accessions of (D. rotundata) white yam maintained a high phenotypic and genotypic diversity.

Keywords:  chromosome number, stomata size, tuber yield, food security, Dioscorea rotundata, genetic variability, taxonomy.




An Overview of Eco-Friendly Green (Plant-Based) Method of Synthesizing Heavy Metals Nanoparticles and their Applications in Environmental Remediation


AB, Umar1; A. H, Dankaka1; M.S, Danjuma2; & A.A,Umar3

*Department of Biological Sciences, Northwest University, Kano. **Department of Environmental Science, Federal University Dutse. ***Department of Geography, Saadatu Rimi Collage of Education Kano



The negative impact of the byproducts generated from various chemical processes cannot be over emphasized as numerous hazardous chemicals are release into the environment day in day out. Few among the consequences of such activities include but not limited to; contamination of water, soil and air by various toxic chemicals that involves poisonous heavy metals, petrochemicals; disruption of ecosystem through introduction of alien substances into the environment and degradation of natural resources. These issues have direct link to the conventional and unfriendly methods of human activities that involves waste generation in large quantities and release of toxic substances into the surrounding. Recently, different techniques and processes were invented by various scholars around the world that involves eco-friendly methods of carrying out activities that requires lesser amount of energy and does not/produce lesser amount of waste and toxic substances. These techniques are mostly referred to as green technologies and have been used in various research and industrial activities to produce particles (including nanoparticles) in an eco-friendly manner. Employing the green method of synthesizing heavy metal nanoparticles will bring about hope of reducing level of contaminants produced through conventional method and reduces the amount of energy required for the activity. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles involves the use of living organisms to synthesize nanoparticles in a friendly manner where plants (leaves, stem, shoot, root and latex) or microorganisms acts as reducing and stabilizing agents. This review focused on the plant based methods of synthesizing heavy metal nanoparticles.   

Keywords: Heavy metals, Green Synthesis, Nanoparticles, Environmental Remediation




The Use of Bioherbicides in Weed Control: Constraints and Prospects


Osadebe, V.O1*; Dauda, N1; Ede, A. E3.; Chimdi, G. O2; & Echezona, B. C1.

1Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. 2Department of Agriculture Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State. 3Department of Agricultural Education, Federal College of Education, Eha-Amufu, Enugu State.



Weeds have known to affect human activities including agriculture since ages. Agricultural weeds can emerge rapidly, resulting in reduction of crop plant growth and quality by competing for nutrients and water provided to crops and producing chemicals that suppress crop growth. Bioherbicides are biologically based control agents useful for biological weed control.  Bioherbicides have many advantages such as clearly defined for target weeds, no side effect on beneficial plants or human health, a lack of pesticide residue build-up in the environment, and effectiveness for control of some herbicideresistant weed biotypes. Apart from many of these benefits, some factors have been noted to restrict the development of bioherbicides into profitable products.  These factors such as biological, technological, and commercial constraints have hindered progress in this area.

Keywords: Bioherbicides, Constraints, Prospects, Mycoherbicides, and Weed control




Effect of Different Inoculum Levels of Root Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne Incognita) on the Growth and Yield of Pepper (Capsicum Specie).


Gboko, C. S.; Bello, L. Y.; Wada, A. C.

Department of Crop Production, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology. Federal University of Technology, PMB 65, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.



Pepper (Capsicum specie), is a widely grown vegetable worldwide but highly affected by root knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) which poses a serious threat to pepper production. This study was conducted in the Screen House of the Department of Crop Production, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria, to investigate the effect of different inoculum levels on pepper. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design, with seven treatments replicated four times. The inoculum levels were 0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 and 3000 of the second stage juvenile (J2) of root knot Nematode. Growth and yield data were collected, including Nematode population and gall index. From the results obtained, it was observed that increasing the Nematode inoculum level, resulted in corresponding increase in the number of root galls and final Nematode population.

Keywords: Pepper, Meloidogyne specie, inoculum level, Root galls, Nematode population.




Climate Change and Smallholder Farmers in the Sahel: Adaptation and Resilience


Ahmed Abubakar1, Mohd Yusoff Ishak2, Abdullah Ahmad Makmom3, Samir Shehu Danhassan4

1School of Preliminary Studies, Sule Lamido University, Kafin Hausa. 1,2,3Faculty of Forestry and Environment, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. 4Jodhpur National University, India.



This paper reviewed the impacts of climate change especially temperature and precipitation in the agricultural sector and the smallholder farmers adaptation strategies to ameliorate the impact climate change. The review focus on the linkages between smallholder farmers, agriculture, climate change, resilience and adaptation and in Burkina Faso. The study employed systematic literature review spanning the period of 2000-2020. The documents were obtained using search string “climate change” OR “climate variability” OR “climate risk” OR “climate mitigation” OR “adaptation risk” OR “climate adaptation OR “climate impacts” OR “climate smallholder” OR “climate Sahel” OR “Adaptation ability”. The findings of study indicate that smallholder farmers adapt to the impacts of climate using various strategies such as adjustment in planting date, application of recommended fertilizer, planting improve variety crops, stones barriers, agroforestry, small dikes, half-moon, zai, quick set hedges, crop diversification and application of technology.

Keywords: Climate change, smallholder, adaptation, mitigation, Burkina Faso




Pathological Effect of Trypanosoma Evansi and Trypanosoma Brucei Brucei on Testes and seminal Plasma Biochemical profile of Yankasa Rams


Elihu, A1, Naphtali, R.S2, Godly, C2 and Sudi, I. Y.3

1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Adamawa State University Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria 2Department of Zoology, School of Life Science, Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Adamawa State , Nigeria 3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Adamawa State University Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.



This study was designed to investigate the pathological changes of the testes and seminal plasma biochemical profile of T. evansi and T. b. brucei infections in Yankasa Rams. Sixteen apparently healthy and intact Yankasa rams aged between 24 and 30 months and weighed between 22 to 25 kg was purchased from local market around Mubi and they were screened for the presence of haemoparasites, as well as endo and ectoparasites. The rams were thereafter treated with Oxytetracycline (Tridax®) intramuscularly, at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight and Albendazole orally, at a dose of 7.5 mg/kg body weight. The rams were sprayed against ectoparasites with Diazinon (Diaznol®, Animal Care, Nig. Ltd.). They were allowed to acclimatized for eight weeks and ear-tagged for the purpose of identification in a clean fly proof house, adequately fed and given water ad libitum. By the end of the eight weeks acclimatization the rams were randomly grouped into four experimental groups of four rams each, based on their weights. The rams in groups I, II and III were experimentally infected with T. brucei brucei, (Emodike strain), T. evansi and mixed inoculum of both parasites, respectively while those in group IV served as the uninfected control. Each infected ram received 2ml containing 2×106 trypomastigotes via the jugular vein. The animals in group I had the pre-patent period of 28-49 days, which was significantly different (P<0.05) from those of group II and group III that had not shown any prepatent parasitaemic period uptil the end of the research. Testes of the infected rams were characterized by degeneration of the seminiferous tubules, mononuclear infiltration of interstitial tissues, infiltrations by lymphocytes. There was significant reduction in seminal plasma glucose, potassium, sodium, ascorbic acid, fructose, while aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and total protein shows significant increase in all the infected groups compared with the control group. The results indicate that trypanosomosis due to experimental T.b. brucei, T.evansi and mixed infections had cause marked defects in the testes and seminal plasma biochemical parameters.

Keywords: pathological effect, testes, seminal plasma, biochemical profile, Yankasa rams




Demographic and Hygiene of Abattoir and Meat Handlers in North Eastern Nigeria


Malachi, T. A; Shua, J. N; and Maurice C        

Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, The Federal Polytechnic, PMB, 35 Mubi, Nigeria.



A study was conducted to determine the demographic and hygiene of meat handlers in North Eastern Nigeria in an abattoir. 50 structured questionnaires were designed. Data were taken on age, educational status, health consciousness and personal hygiene of the meat handlers. Data generated were analyzed using descriptive statistic of simple percentages. Results obtained from the study shows that majority (70%) of the abattoir workers are youths aged 20-30 years. 42% of the workers are illiterates and 40% had first School leaving certificate, 14% 0,level and only 2% of the respondents had A, level certificate,  an indication that the education status of the workers is low. Result of medical checkup indicated that, 10% go for medical check- up, 90% do not go for medical check –up. On the frequency, those that go once in a month and twice in a month recorded the same value of 2%, while those who do not have fixed time for checkup were about 96% of the respondents. Results of personal hygiene of workers and the abattoir revealed that, before processing of meat 48% washed their knives, 0% washed their hands, sterilize their knives, washed the animal and the abattoir. In the same vein, after meat processing 50% of the respondents washed their hands, sterilized their knives, washed the carcass, washed the abattoir and 2% wash their knives. It could be concluded and recommended that handling of meat in the study area were in the hands of illiterate of age grade 21 to 30 years and the hygiene of the abattoir and the meat handler is generally poor.

Keywords: Demographic. Meat, Abattoir, Processing, Hygiene and Mubi




Influence of Vocational Agricultural School Farm on the Academic Performance of Agricultural Students in Secondary Schools in Lau LGA, Taraba State, Nigeria


*Melaiye, O Rufus (Phd); **Galadima, Anthony Ishaku; ***Chuboh, J. Victor; ***Yusuf, A Audu; & ****Tabi, Isaac.

*Taraba State University Jalingo, Vocational and Technology Ed. Dept. **GDSS SAYONTI, LAU LGA ***Dept. of Agricultural Education, Voc. & Tech., College of Education, Zing ****College of education, Zing, Integrated Science Dept. College of Education zing       



The study determined the influence of vocational Agricultural School Farm on the academic performance of Agricultural Science Students in Secondary Schools in LAU LGA, Taraba State. One of the objectives of vocational agriculture is to prepare students for occupation in agriculture. This important objective cannot be accomplished without the use of adequate and pragmatic strategies that will enhance teaching and learning. Employing a descriptive survey research design, the study collected data by administering a structured questionnaire to 70 respondents comprising of 50 teachers and 20 Non-academic staff. No sampling was done. The entire population was used. The questionnaire was validated, giving reliability co-efficient of 0.85%. The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation, while T-test analysis was used to test the hypothesis at .05 level of significance. The findings revealed that agricultural teachers and non-academic staff in all the schools in the study area agreed on all the items presented on the two research questions. The findings of the study form the basis to draw conclusion that efforts are highly needed in vocational agricultural school farm establishment.

Keyword; Vocational, School Farm, Teacher




Enhancing of Olericulture (Vegetable) Production through Farmers Participation in Dass Local Government Area of Bauch State, Nigeria


1Garba, M.D.; & 1Esther, A.M.

Department of Agricultural Science Education and Home Economic Education, Federal College of Education (Technical), Gombe



The study was conducted to determine the level of farmers’ assessment in enhancing vegetable production in Dass Local Govt Area of Bauchi State, Nigeria. The population of the study consisted of 400 vegetable farmers distributed across the four wards of the Local Government Area, which were:  Wandi, Durr, Bununu East and Dabardaq. While the sample population was obtained by random selection of 25 farmers from each of the four wards in the area, thus giving a total sample of 100. Structural questionnaires were used to obtain information from the respondents. Percentages and mean were used to analyse the data collected. The results of the study showed that majority of the farmers were male (10%) as against the 2.8% who were female, mostly youths were between 20 – 35 years, over 3.9% had education above primary school as much as 5.4% of the farmers have been engaged in vegetable farming for over five years. However, findings from the study also revealed that the community has been participating in the production of vegetables but not above other crops and are hampered by constraints such as inadequacy of farm inputs, poor soil fertility, land tenure, pest/diseases, marketing, inadequate extension services and financial support. The study therefore recommended that extension services be intensified in the area, while policy interventions including measures of obtaining loans are made easy to the farmers for increased participation and production of vegetables.

Keywords: Vegetables, Community, Production, Constraints.




Comparative Prevalence of Ectoparasites of Cattle, Sheep and Goat in Oyo Town


Wahab, Asiata Omoyiola and Okunlola, Deborah Olukemi

Department of Biology, School of Secondary Education (Science Programmes) Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo



An investigation into the comparative prevalence of ectoparasites of cattle, sheep, and goats was carried out in Oyo town. The population of the animals sampled was three hundred and sixty. Ectoparasite collection was usually done in the early mornings from the body of the animals and not from the ground, to minimize accidental occurrences from other livestock. It was observed that Cattle, sheep, and goats were infested by ticks, mites, and lice. The prevalence of tick infestation on cattle (64%) was common than in sheep (48%) and in goats (40%) in this study. The study also shows that female cattle had the highest rate of ticks (78%) in all the animals sampled. There is a significant difference in cattle and goat ectoparasite infestation (F₍₂,₁₅₎=35.74, p<0.05); ( F₍ ₂, ₁₅₎=7.80; P<0.05), while there is no significant difference in sheep ectoparasite infestation ( F₍ ₂, ₁₅₎=3,38; P>0.05). Good awareness should be created among livestock farmers on how to manage their animals. High-quality feeding practices of the livestock should be observed. The periodic and strategic ectoparasites control programme should be instituted by every livestock owner in Oyo town.

Keywords: Ectoparasite, Cattle, Sheep and Goat




Agro-Climatic Land Suitability Map for Sugarcane Production in Adamawa State, Nigeria


Isah Jibrin Masha1; IORNONGO Terseer2; Usman A3; and Yakubu Ibrahim4

1,3,4Department of Geography, Niger State College of Education, Minna 2Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria



Agro-climatic conditions were used in mapping out suitable sites for sugarcane production in the southern parts of Adamawa state of Nigeria. The study covers eleven Local Government Areas with total area of about 20,739.30 Km.2 Data on rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, sunlight, soil, relief and drainage were transformed into spatial datasets and integrated in the process of Weighted Sum overlay in ArcGIS 10.2 and in line with the FAO guidelines on suitability analysis for the sites selection. Four classes of suitability were arrived at, which are Most suitable, Moderated suitable, Marginally suitable and Not suitable sites for sugarcane cultivation. The results show that, most suitable areas cover a total area of about 849.51 Km2 (4.10% of study area), moderately suitable areas cover about 10,978.18 Km2 (52.93%), marginally suitable areas cover about 6,247.64 Km2 (30.12%)and not suitable areas 2,663.97 Km2 (12.85%). Both most suitable and moderately suitable areas for sugarcane cultivation cover a total area of about 11,827.69 Km2. This is about 57% of the total area of study. This area is substantial enough to produce sugarcane in a quantity that can boost the economy of the state and the country at large. Therefore, the government of the state should key in to this potential area of economic diversification by inviting stakeholders in the area of sugarcane production to look into this finding with the aim at promoting sugarcane production as one of the major source of income to the state.

Keywords: agro-climatic, site suitability, sugarcane, suitability analysis, spatial data




A Study of Techniques for Sustaining Healthy Environment through Microbial Degradation of Polyethylene and Plastic Pollutants


Chukwudi C. Iwuozor, 1John O. Okara & Aderonke A. Oshinowo

School of Science Education, Federal College of Education (Technical), Asaba, Delta State



Polythene and Plastic wastes range in types including pure water sachets, cellophane bags, plastic packaging of confectioneries, bakery products, toiletries, laminating materials, soft drinks, pieces of plastic buckets, plates, cups, wrappings etc. They are found in household wastes, refuse dump sites, municipal drainage system, street refuse collections, where they constitute menace; where they constitute serious pollution, health hazard and endangerment to the environment. Removal of these pollutants by bioremediation using viable microorganisms is the crux of this research. The ability of Bacillus mycoides and Bacillus subtilis to biodegrade polyethylene was studied. Low density polyethylene and high density polyethylene films were exposed outdoor for 24 weeks. The two isolates were able to grow on polyethylene (PE) forming visible biofilms. The mean heterotrophic bacterial counts in the soil sample ranged between 2.311 X 105-3.20 X 108 CFU/g. The rate of degradation was determined by measurement of the residual weight of the PE films. Biodegradation in Erlenmeyer flasks by the bacteria after 60 days of incubation ranged between 8.41%-23.15%. The result showed that certain Bacillus sp. indigenous to the Niger Delta soil are capable of growing on PE films and biodegrade them, after an initial abiotic degradation. Bioremediation processes using the test bacteria is strongly recommended to be incorporated into waste disposal systems for a clean and healthy environment

Keywords: Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus subtilis, biodegradation, natural weathering, waste disposal, polyethylene, plastics.




Assessment of Some Selected Heavy Metals in Water, Sediment and Fishes of Geidam River, Geidam Local Government Area, Yobe State, Nigeria


1Haruna, A.; & 2H. Mohammed Farafara

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Mai Idris Alooma Polytechnic, Geidam, Yobe State, Nigeria 2Department of Electrical and Electronics, Mai Idris Alooma Polytechnic, Geidam, Yobe State, Nigeria



The aim of this study was to assess heavy metal concentration (Arsenic, Chromium,Cadmium, Copper and Zinc ) in sediments, water and two selected fish species Cat fish (Clarius gariepinus) and Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Geidam river. The samples were collected from February to August, 2020 at five different sampling sites. The heavy metals concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the results obtained for water and sediments samples ranged from 0.000mg/kg to 0.405mg/kg and 0.011mg/g to 2.600ml/g for Arsenic Chromium,Cadmium, Copper and Zinc  respectively and fish had concentrations of 0.000mg/g to 0.930m/g and the data was analyzed using one way analysis of variance and shows there were statistically significant differences in metal concentrations among the sampling sites and sampling months in sediment. Significant differences accepted at p ≤ 0.05. All the heavy metals detected were found to exceed the limits stipulated by FAO/WHO which could be due to inflow of domestic waste and industrial effluent into the river. The results show the need for an ecosystem approach towards sustainable management of reservoirs. This will curb aquatic pollution which is a public health threat to people consuming aquatic resources contaminated with heavy metals

Keywords: Heavy metal, Contamination, River, Sediment, Fish, Water




Assessment of River Channel Alteration Due to Urbanization in Maiduguri, Northeast, Nigeria


Mustapha Mala1; Shettima Alhaji2; & Alhaji Usman Maina3

1Department Geography, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri. 2Department of Geology, University of Maiduguri. 3Department Agricultural Technology, Yobe State College of Agricultural Technology, Gujba.



Rapidly change in the population of Maiduguri has brought tremendous change in the land use and land cover patterns of the Ngadda river basins. Increasing urbanization in the basin is followed by a variety of serious impacts on the conditions of the river system. Alteration in the hydrology and geomorphology of the streams are the most detrimental effects identified due to urbanization. This paper reviews the various ways of stream alterations due to urbanization, methods to assess these effects and the existing research gaps in the field of study. The changing river basins provide opportunity for the river watersheds management planners, and engineers to study the system – response relationship between urbanization and river basin. This may help for further research and better river basin management.

Keywords: Urbanization, Channel, Alteration, Stream.




Challenges Facing Agricultural Development in South West of Nigeria by Pipeline Vandalism and oil Spillage


Ayanlowo Yode Moses; Marcelinius Liwhu Mary; & Ogunsola Rachael Olubunmi

Federal School of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Oyo, Nigeria



Pipeline vandalism and oil spillage are serious challenges to the agricultural productivity of Nigeria. This study examined effects of pipeline vandalism and oil spillage on agricultural activities and rural livelihood in South-west Nigeria. Research  objectives include: description of  the socio-economic characteristics of respondents; investigation of the perceived causes of oil pipeline vandalism; examination of the consequences of oil spillage on agricultural practices; determination of the average farm size, output and income of farmers before and after the oil spillage; and identification of  the mitigating strategies by respondents to the consequences of oil spillage. Methods involve a 3-stage stratified sampling technique, design of structured questionnaire for data collection, mapping of affected areas of spillage and descriptive/ inferential statistics such as chi-square and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Findings show that: most  respondents (67%) were males, 71% married and 58.9% claimed to be depended solely on farming, 41.1% have other business; perceived causes of pipeline vandalism were unemployment (= 1.94), economic gains (=1.92), poverty (=1.86), attitude (=1.75), political reasons (= 1.67); majority of respondents (75%) strongly agreed that pipeline vandalism and oil spillage caused damages to forest species, arable crops, water and soil and are generally affecting people’s  livelihood; significant relationship exists between oil spills through pipeline vandalism and loss of life which we find very interesting in this part of the country where such occurrence is not common, standard of living, disease outbreak and destruction of farm land (Exp. β=.000, p<0.05); rural livelihood (x2=.013) and agricultural practices (x2=.005) of respondents is dependent of oil spillage (p<0.05); farmers’ average farm size (2.44ha), yield (2.32 tonnes) and income (N25,000.00/ha) after oil spillage were lower than their average farm size (5.22ha), yield (8.0 tonnes) and income (N105,000.00ha) before oil spillage; and mitigating strategies of respondents were on-farm work (=3.34), local trade or business (=2.52), and bunkering (=1.29).

Keywords: mapping, pipeline vandalism, oil spillage, agriculture, development, statisics




Effect of Compost Manure on Growth and Yield of Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor [Moench]) in Bauchi, Northern Guinea Savannah Zone of Nigeria.


Abubakar I. A.; Yohanna H.; Babuga, U. S.; and Abdurrahman M.U.

Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi



This sudy was conducted at the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Research and demonstration farm to evaluate the effect of compost manure on growth and yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) in the 2019 rainy season. The treatments included four levels of Compost Manure (0t/ha, 2.5 t/ha, 5.0t/ha, 7.5t/ha) with 50kg/ha NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer on a blanket application. The treatment were laid down in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated three times. The effects of compost manure on  plant height, number of leaves, leaf area index, grain yield and 1000 grain weight were significant at P=0.05 level of significance.  Higher and significant values were recorded for T4 for most of the growth parameters and yield while the lowest values were recorded for the control treatment respectively. Compost manure at 7.5 tonnes/ha produced significantly higher grain yield (1238 kg ha-1) at harvest and so is appropriate for smallholder farmers in the study area. However, similar studies over seasons and locations with economic analysis are required to give a conclusive recommendation. 

Keywords: Compost manure, Sorghum, Yield, Bauchi




Effects of Mixture Toxicity of Erythromycin, Diclofenac and Ibuprofen on the Freshwater Isopod, Asellus Aquaticus


Ogunbanwo, Olatayo M.,

School of Agriculture, Department of Fisheries, Ecotoxicology Research Laboratory, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu. [Faculty of Environment, School of Geography (Physical), University of Leeds, UK].



Pharmaceuticals are continuously released into the aquatic environment mostly as waste water effluents through sewage treatment plants, run-offs, effluents from pharmaceutical manufacturing companies etc. This results in chronic exposure of aquatic organisms to these substances and their metabolites. Although, the concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment are usually in ngL-1 to  mg L-1 range, they are not likely to result in lethal toxicity. Nevertheless, extended and unabated exposure to low concentrations of drugs could lead to sublethal effects or even multigenerational effects. The aim of this study was to seek to improve the understanding of the effects of prolonged low-level exposure of Asellus aquaticus (aquatic macro-invertebrates) to mixtures of erythromycin, diclofenac and ibuprofen. On exposure to the mixture, growth rate decreased, feed intake was reduced but mortality was not significant for A. aquaticus. The effects of these pharmaceuticals on the growth, feeding and mortality of the test animal were as a result of the actions of the drugs and not attributed to a more general stress response. Although pharmaceuticals are indispensable to human health their usage and discharge to the aquatic environment coupled with their ecotoxicity to aquatic life may lead to ecological problems in the near future. Furthermore, this research confirms the suitability of the test species (A. aquaticus) as ecotoxicological test species that is both amenable to laboratory culture and sufficiently sensitive to provide reliable quantification of environmental risk.

Keywords: Pharmaceuticals, Sub-lethal, Asellus aquaticus, Mixture toxicity, Ecotoxicology




Determination of Climatic Conditions on the Planting and Establishment of White Yam (Discorea Ratundata) in Sugu Ganye Local Government Area Adamawa State, Nigeri.


*E. D Sini **W. Chinda *O. Peter; *L. Y. Tarimbuka; & ***J. Tize

*Department of Basic Sciences, Adamawa State College of Agriculture P. M. B 2088, Ganye, Adamawa State, Nigeria. **Department of Fishery production and Technology, Adamawa State College of Agriculture Ganye ***Department of General Studies, Adamawa State College of Agriculture



The studies observe the climatic condition on the planting and establishment of white yam (dicoria ratundata) in Sugu Ganye local government area Adamawa state Nigeria. The study used daily monitoring and observation of two hundreds (200) tubers of yam seed from planting to establishment. The observation shows that the establishments of yam in the study area are not the same, about 75% of the yam planted at the same time in the study area established within the period of 64 days, while 25% delayed with period of 18 days after. This is as a result of the climatic influences, selection of good quality seed and timing of planting date. Base on observation temperature, moisture and wind were the most important climatic determinant for the establishment of yam. Base on the findings, it was recommended that farmers are advice to make use of timing in planting date, planting date should not exceed between ending January and February, avoid planting in the months of April and May, selection of good quality seed,

Keywords: Climatic, Establishment, White Yam, Planting, Conditions.




The Impact of Growing Ornamental Plants for Environmental Management in Kaduna, Nigeria


Maryam Suleiman1, Muhammad Mustapha Ibrahim2 Aisha Shuaibu Abubakar3 and Abdulazeez Aliyu Onotu4

1Department of Primary Education, College of Education, Billiri, Gombe State. 2 & 3Department of Social Sciences, College of Education Billiri, Gombe State  4Department of Geomatics, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria – Nigeria



This study sought to investigate the impact of growing ornamental plants for environmental management in Kaduna Nigeria. A descriptive survey was adopted in carrying out this study. The population for this study comprises of all Kaduna state residents that has a social media presence. An online questionnaire tagged Growing Ornamental Plants for Environmental Management Questionnaire (GOPEMQ) containing 15 items was used in collecting data for the study via several social media platforms like Facebook, WhatsApp, Twitter and Instagram using purposive sampling technique. A total of 104 respondents participated in this survey. The data obtained was analyzed using Microsoft excel.  The authors reported the data analysis and findings in simple frequency and percentages. Majority of the respondents agree that ornamental plants beautify the environment, soil erosion is a major problem in the environment and that incessant felling of trees is a major cause of deforestation. The study recommends Kaduna state Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources to encourage every household to grow ornamental plants in their environment, ensure that citizens who are dedicated towards conserving natural resources are handsomely rewarded and that Policy makers should employ strict measures in protecting forest reserves.

Keywords: ornamental plants, soil erosion, deforestation, environmental management, Kaduna




Assessment of Factors Influencing Poultry Production in the Agricultural Zones of Adamawa State, Nigeria


Mohammed, A.S Abba1*, Lawal, A.U1, And Gapsiso R. H1

1Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi. Adamawa State. Nigeria



This study was conducted in the four Agricultural zones of Adamawa State, Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to investigate the factors influencing poultry production among poultry farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Two hundred (200) questionnaires were distributed to poultry farmers in the four Agricultural Zones of Adamawa State. All were retrieved but only 160 were completed correctly and analyzed using simple percentage. The information obtained shows that the factor influencing poultry production in the Agricultural Zones of Adamawa state, based on the data obtained in the questionnaires which shows that lack of capital 23 (20.3%), disease outbreak 22 (19.5%), lack of feeds 19 (16.8%) respectively are the major factors influencing poultry production in the study area while the minor factors includes lack of day old chicks 18 (15.9%), lack of vaccines 17 (15.0%), and harsh weather condition 14 (12.4%) respectively. The poultry industry have a very good prospect in the study area, to solve some of this problems and encourage those in the business and those planning to go into the business, As majorities of the respondents have never received any form of assistance from the government. I believed that, these problems can be solved through the provision of interest free loans to the farmers by the government and Bank of Agricultures to boost production, also provision of  more  veterinary services, extension agents, animal scientists and more availability of feeds, feeds mill industries and vaccine are required in other to enhance productions.

Keywords: Factors, Influencing, Poultry, Adamawa State.




The Use of Sand Materials to Filter Sewage Water for Household Irrigation


Sani Isa Abubakar

Department of Agricultural and Bioenvironmental Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bali Nigeria



A sand filter for filtration of sewage water was fabricated. Four different sizes of local sand materials in the size of 1.00mm, 1.18mm, 2.36mm and 4.25mm were selected and used as filter media for the research. Each of the selected sizes was tested at four levels of filter thickness (0.20m, 0.40m, 0.6m and 0.7m). Filtration tests were conducted and sample of the filtered water collected for quality analyses. The quality parameter tested was the coliform counts of the water. Results revealed that a mixture of finer materials and heavier beds was more effective in the removal and reduction of Coliform bacteria. Since the filter materials deteriorates with time due to accumulation of sediments and probable growth of bacteria on the surface of the filter bed, it is recommended that filtration unit should be designed to make provision for backwashing  of the filter materials.

Key words:  Sand Materials, Filter, Sewage water, Irrigation




Agricultural Productivity, Agricultural Exportation and Economic growth: The Nigerian Experience


Nasiru Adamu; & Kabir Ladan

Department of Economics, Isa Kaita College of Education Dutsin-ma, Katsina State.



This study analyses the connections between Agricultural export and economic growth in Nigeria for a period of thirty-two years (1988-2019). The study employed the conventional unit root test to satisfy the Stationarity property of the series variables, Cointegration test based on Johansen frame-work indicates the absence of a long-run relationship between agricultural exportation and Economic growth while Granger causality test to identify the direction of flow between the variables of interest. This study found the presence of a long run relationship between Agricultural export and Economic growth, while Exchange rate is reported to have no significant relationship with Economic growth. However, causality test revealed that Economic growth causes Agricultural export in a unidirectional flow and that exchange rate has no cause on economic growth. This study recommends for supplementary policies and Progammes that will improve the access of agricultural input and facilities at affordable cost to farmers to increase productivity which will boost the production of exportable agricultural  products. 

Keywords: Economic growth, Agricultural Export, trade openness, Causality.




Single and Combined Effect of Bacteriocin of L. Plantarum and Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Goat Milk against Bacteria Associated with Selected Food Produce


1Okusami-Ihum, T. A; 1Olagunju, O.D.; and 2Kayode, E.A

1Durable Crops Research Department, Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria 2Food Processing Laboratory, Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria



The combined and individual effects of Bacterocin of L. plantarum and silver nanoparticles synthesized using goat milk at different concentrations (50, 75, 100 µL) was tested against food spoilage organisms (Enterobacter cloacae AS10, Escherichia coli 2013C-3342 and Staphylococcus aureus CIP 9973) isolated from selected food produce (Maize (Zea mays), Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Eggplant (Solanum melongena), Cow pea (Vigna unguiculata) and Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis). Results showed that silver nanoparticle/bacteriocin combination exerted notable influence against Enterobacter cloacae AS10 (25 ± 0.16 mm, 27 ± 0.22 mm, 30 ± 0.5 mm), Staphylococcus aureus CIP 9973 (24 ± 0.2 mm, 27 ± 0.27 mm, 30 ± 0.29 mm) and Escherichia coli 2013C-3342 (24.07 ± 0.4, 26.27 ± 0.25 and 30 ± 0.2 mm) at aliquots of 50, 75 and 100 µl respectively with increasing concentration as compared to the individual effects of bacteriocin and silver nanoparticles. Besides the use of bacteria, fungi and other macromolecules, goat milk could also be harnessed in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles while also exploring its use in the nearest future as an antibacterial and preservative agent.

Keywords: Antibacterial; Bacteriocin; Food spoilage organisms, Preservatives, Silver Nanoparticles.




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