African Scholar Journal of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology (AJAAT) Vol. 15 No.1


 VOL. 15 NO.1 SEPTEMBER, 2019 ISSN: 2877 – 1990



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.


Copyright © 2019 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Growth Performance of Growing Red Sokoto Bucks Fed Diets Containing Two Sorghum Varieties Hay (Bush Head and Sweet Sorghum)


1Zakka, T., 1Hassan, M. R., 2Tanko, R. J., 3Munza, B. M., 1Kperun, N.T.  and 1Oyewo, T.O.

1Department of Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. 2Feeds and Nutrition Research Programme, National Animal Production Research Institute, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria 3Department of Animal Science, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria



The study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance of growing Red Sokoto bucks fed diets containing two sorghum varieties (bush head and sweet sorghum varieties) hay at the National Animal Production Research Institute Shika, Zaria. Twelve (12) growing Red Sokoto bucks with an average weight of 9.50 kg were used. The animals were allotted to three dietary treatments with four animals per treatment and one animal standing as a replicate in a Completely Randomized Design experiment (CRD). Three dietary treatments containing concentrate + Digitaria smutsii hay, concentrate + bush head sorghum hay + Digitaria smutsii hay and concentrate + sweet sorghum hay + Digitaria smutsii hay as T1, T2 and T3, respectively were fed at 4.5% of their body weight for a period of ninety (90) days. The average daily weight gain (31.81 g/d) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in bucks fed T1 and the feed conversion ratio (14.53 kg DMI/kg gain) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in bucks fed T2. The digestibility coefficient of crude protein (55.73 %) was significantly higher in bucks fed T3 as compared to bucks fed T1 (49.89 %) and T2 (37.56 %). The digestibility coefficient of dry matter (61.69 %), organic matter (66.19 %) crude fibre (75.28 %), ether extract (62.37 %), acid detergent fibre (52.55 %) and neutral detergent fibre (63.00 %) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in bucks fed T1. The nitrogen free extract digestibility was numerically higher (58.05 %) in T1 as compared to 44.08 % and 40.85 % for T2 and T3, respectively. The nitrogen retained as % intake was significantly higher (92.06 %) in bucks fed T3. The result of the economic benefit analysis showed significant difference (P<0.05) in Digitaria smutsii intake (kg), cost of Digitaria smutsii consumed (N), cost of concentrate/kg, net benefit (N) and return to investment on feed (RIF) and were all significantly higher in bucks fed T1. Diet containing sweet sorghum hay improved growth performance of Red Sokoto bucks by 20% and nutrient digestibility by 33%  in Shika, Northern guinea Savannah of Nigeria. Diet and the treatment containing sweet sorghum hay improved the net economic benefit by 67% than in bush head sorghum. Sorghum bicolor bush head and sweet sorghum varieties hay can be used with Digitaria smutsii hay in feeding Red Sokoto bucks for better performance, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention.

Keywords: Digestibility, Nitrogen balance, Performance, Red Sokoto buck and Sorghum




Entrepreneurship Orientation in Palm Oil Processing As a Panacea for Youth Unemployment in Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta


*Akinyele, Samuel Taiwo **Akinyele, Esther Feyisayo & *Okonkwo, Ifebuche. B.

*Dept. of Entrepreneurial Studies, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria **Dept. of Business Administration, School of Postgraduate Studies, Crawford University Igbesa, Ogun State, Nigeria



The poverty in Nigeria is largely rural where the effects of macro- economic shocks in terms of fiscal adjustment and monetary policy reforms are felt much more. Thus, whereas poverty is expected to decline by 40% in the urban centers, it would increase by 7% in rural areas which inhabit almost 80% of the population living below the poverty line and depend on agriculture for food and income. Entrepreneurship has been the major solution to youth unemployment in Nigeria as a nation. However, here there are many people doing same business entrepreneurship is needed to be able to generate income and sustain the economy. This study evaluated entrepreneurial orientation in palm oil processing as a panacea for youth unemployment in Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 109 respondents from FUNAAB. Primary data were collected on the effect of palm oil processing on youth employment, youth unemployment on social vices and poverty to ascertain how youth empowerment leads to sustainable entrepreneurial development and the effect of entrepreneurial orientation on productivity with well- structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentages and means). Correlation and Regression results showed the mean age, marital status, year of work experience, educational qualification, esx, experience with organization were 72.6% were between 26-45years, 80.2% were single,75.5% were between 1-5years, 61.3% of SSCE, 58% of female, 66% were 1-4years of organizational experience respectively. Majority (58%) of the respondents are female. Effect of negligence on youth unemployment rate, youth unemployment leads to social vices and poverty, effect of youth empowerment on entrepreneurial development and sustainability and effect of entrepreneurial orientation on entrepreneurship productivity. ANOVA showed the significant (p=0.000) relationship between youth empowerment and entrepreneurship development and sustainability(F=12.932) at 0.00 significant level. ANOVA also showed the significant (p=0.000) relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and entrepreneurship productivity F=29.780) at0.00 significant level. Correlation showed the significant (p<0.001) relationship between negligence and unemployment rate with weak positive correlation coefficient (0.537). Correlation also showed the significant (p>0.025) relationship between youth unemployment and social vices with weak negative correlation coefficient of -.218. In conclusion, he study shows the relevance of negligence, youth unemployment and entrepreneurial orientation on entrepreneurial innovation on youth unemployment in the study area.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial orientation, Entrepreneurship, Productivity, Palm oil, Poverty, Youth unemployment, Employment generation.




The Role of Hausa Women in Community Development: Case Study of Zaria Local Government Area, Kaduna State


*Hadiza Dikko, Bello Musa and Muhd. U. Makeri

National Agric. Extension and Research Liaison Services, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, NIGERIA.



The study was carried out to investigate the role of Hausa women in the development of their community in Zaria local Government Area (LGA) of Kaduna State. Data was collected using structured questioner in the Islamic schools of the existing six zonal districts of the Zaria LGA. Simple descriptive statistics using SPSS 21.0 was used to analyze the data. The result revealed that Hausa women participated in the development of their community with majority of them as teachers (40%), health personnel (25%) and farmers (25%). Also, the result indicated that the women  were not hindered  from pursuing western education as 35% and 50% of the respondents were found to had graduated from university and other post-secondary education respectively. Furthermore, the study revealed that Hausa women do participate in all type of farming activities with 55% of them as poultry farmers, 15% as aqua-culturist and 5% were engaged in crop and vegetable farming. Hausa women were found not to be involved in politics (85%). It is recommended that Hausa women should be enlightened on the importance of engaging in politics as its facilited quick community development. They should also be enlightened on the advantages of engaging in crop farming and having their groups registered as cooperative societies, so as to be beneficiaries from the agricultural assistance disbursed by Government.

Keywords: Hausa women, community development, women empowerment, role




Assessment of Cow Dung on Fungal Growth Isolated from Spent Engine Oil Contaminated Soil Obtained from Mechanic Workshop in Minna, Nigeria


1Osazee, Eghosa ; 2Adebola, M. O; 3Falusi, O. A; 4Abioye, O. P;

1,2&3Department of Plant Biology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State. 4Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State.



Samples of the spent engine oil contaminated soils were collected from Shanchaga, Maikunkele, Shiroro, Tunga and Bosso mechanic workshops located in Minna Local Government Area. Four samples of 0.5kg each per location were collected making a total of 2kg of soil sample per site and 10kg from the five sites. Non-oil contaminated soil samples were collected from Biological Garden of the Department of Plant Biology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. The fungi were isolated from the mechanic workshop soils using dilution plate method in mineral salt medium. Five treatments (25g/kg, 50g/kg, 75g/kg, 100g/kg and 125g/kg) of different weights of steam sterilized cow dung were applied to the soil in the pots measuring 15cm  35cm filled with one kilogram (1kg) of steam sterilized soil. Standard suspension (10.02  104cfu/ml) of each of the three pure fungal isolates (R. stolonifer, A. flavus and T. harzianum) obtained among the fifteen fungi (Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium oxysporium, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium griseofulvum, Rhodotorula sp, Cunninghamella echinulata, Trichoderma viride, Penicillium chrysogenum, Mucor hiemalis, Mucor racemosus and Mucor plumbeus) screened for enhancement were added to the pots and thoroughly mixed with each of the 5ml of spent engine oil contaminated soil. The contaminated soils were allowed to stand for one week before the application of the different treatments. All treatments were replicated three times and the contents of each pot were watered and tilled twice a week for aeration. All the fungi were identified based on macroscopic and microscopic features of the fruiting bodies, spores and hyphal mass. The spent oil utilising fungal population counts (SOUFPC) were determined with the test fungi. The studies revealed that the population of the three hydrocarbon degrading T. harzianum, R. Stolonifer, and A. flavus counts in all the soils amended with the various weights of cow dung were higher compared to that of un-amended control pots. These increases in all the amended pots were higher in CD75 counts.

Key words: Contamination, cow dung, hydrocarbon, enhancement, remediation




A Review of Some Potential Occupational, Environmental Hazards and Injuries Associated with Fish Production in Nigeria


Mshelia, M. B. Bassey, J. U. , Wanas, N. L. and Garba, U.

Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, Borno State.



A review of some potential occupational, environmental hazards and injuries associated with fish production in Nigeria was reviewed. The aim was to find out some potential occupational, environmental hazards and injuries associated with fish production in Nigeria. The activities associated with raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosures such as fish ponds, with its principal form as aquaculture or mariculture  and the artisanal fisheries or capture fisheries are all concerned with provision of proteinous food in the Country. Fish farming is multi-faceted and also presents a diverse array of environment ranging from freshwater to marine, from simple stagnant ponds to high tech computerized closed indoor water recirculation systems. The industry is therefore, fraught with potential injuries and hazards. Fish production industry has diverse occupational injuries and hazards which can be categorized into physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic and phycosocial to which fish farmers and other farmhands are susceptible to. The occupational hazards, safety concerns and risks to health in the fish processing industry are based on the types of operation, scale of production and the specific species of interest. This paper reviewed major hazards, injuries and risks associated with the fish production industry in Nigeria. It further proffered strategies for their management and control. Fish industry stakeholders should therefore ensure that guidelines and policies which promote an environmentally friendly and sustainable industry are instituted and enforced.

Keywords: Environmental hazard, injuries, Mariculture, fish pond, artisanal fisheries, Aquaculture




Mobile Phone Utilization in Agricultural Information Dissemination among Farmers of Bauchi Local Government Area


Barnabas, B1., Adi, Z.A2., Abubakar, N.B1 and Babuga U.S1

1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, P.M.B. 0248 Bauchi Nigeria 2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Taraba State University, Jalingo P.M.B. 1167 Taraba State, Nigeria



The study examine mobile phone utilization in agricultural information dissemination among farmers of Bauchi local government area of Bauchi State. Random sampling techniques were used in selecting 120 farmers across four (4) wards in the local government area namely; Birshi, Dawaki, Galambi, and Kangyare. Data were analysed using both descriptive statistics (frequency, percentages, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (Chi-square). The results showed that majority (73.3%) were within the range of 21-40 years of age. Furthermore, the result revealed that majority (75.8%) of the responders were male. Farmers perceived the importance of dissemination of agricultural information through mobile phone such as information on fertilizer availability from government, information on market price and information on natural disaster and disease outbreak information. Farmers also perceived constraints to mobile phone utilization to be charging it electrically, expensive to purchase, and technically difficult of operate as the major challenges affecting the adoption of innovation of mobile phone as means of dissemination of agriculture. The Chi-Square analysis showed there is a significant relationship between the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and their perceive mobile phone utilization in agricultural information dissemination at P< 0.05. The chi-square (X2) analysis showed that age, years of experience, educational qualification and household size were all significant at P< 0.05. The study furthermore, recommended that government should encourage adult education, creating awareness, giving trainings for farmers enables them to use mobile phone and get more knowledge which could help them to maximize their production and Strategies and models need to be developed that are appropriate and effective in the use of mobile phones as media dissemination of information in the field of agriculture.

Keywords: Utilization, Dissemination, Agricultural, Mobile Phones




Performance Indicators of Viability of Artisanal Fisheries Projects in Igbokoda Waterside, Ilaje Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria.


Josef Bamidele Bolarinwa & Adegeye, Olayinka,

Department of Fisheries & Aquaculture Technolog, Ondo State University of Science & Technology, P.M.B 353,Okitipupa, Ondo State, Nigeria



Socioeconomic survey of the fisher folks and assessment of profitability ratios/performance indicators of viability of artisanal fishing conducted for 12 months (June 2017-June 2018) in Igbokoda waterside in Ilaje local government area. Igbokoda was purposively chosen by virtue of being an area with intense fishing activities. The study revealed over half of the fisher folks (56%) used a combination of fishing gears (cast netting, traps, spears, hooks and lines) in response to change in seasons, fishing sites and aquatic vegetations. Only 2% practiced hook and line fishing alone. It also revealed dearth of infrastructural facilities, poor access to credits, improved fishing inputs and extension services. Financial analysis of artisanal fishing in the area revealed the use of motorized boats was more profitable than the use of paddled canoes. Annual Gross Profit, Net Profit after Tax, Return on Sales (ROS), Return On Investment (ROI), Return on Equity (ROE) for motorized fishing were N454,840.00, N409,356.00, 37%, 91%, 82% respectively as against Annual Gross profit of N 220,000.00,Net Profit After Tax of N198,000.00, ROS of 31%, ROI of 73%, ROE of 66% for paddled canoe fishing. Benefit-Cost-Ratio of 1.70 : 1 for motorized canoe fishing as against BCR of 1.51: 1 for paddled canoe fishing. The researcher calls for provision of a conducive enabling environment by the government in terms of improved infrastructures, better access to credits from formal sources and extension services. Low access to improved fishing inputs was found to affect level of income of the fisherfolks. Low literacy level was observed with 18 % having no formal education, 60% had primary education. Only 28% had secondary education, None had tertiary education(0 %)  There is a need for training and sensitization of the fisherfolks. Policy makers should also adopt a ‘Bottom-up Approach’ to incorporate the specific needs of the artisanal fisherfolks who were the major stakeholders.

Keywords: Artisanal, profitability ratios, infrastructure, socioeconomics, coastal, credit.




Socio Economic Impact of Urban Sprawl on Agricultural Land in Lapai Local Government Area, Niger State, Nigeria


Etudaiye Mustapha Muhammed, M. A. Emigilati

Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.



Urban expansion constitutes one of the key agents of landuse change with the impact felt at local, regional and global levels. This study assesses urban encroachment on agricultural land in Lapai Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information techniques. Four imageries of LandSat TM 1988, LandSat ETM 1998 LandSat 7 2008 landsat 8 2018 were processed, classified using supervised classification using ArcGIS 10.4 to assess the total spatial loss of agricultural land to urban expansion. The findings revealed that the study area witnessed a significant reduction and increase in agricultural land and built–up respectively. The socio-economic impacts of urban expansion into agricultural land was derived through the administration of questionnaires to people within the study area, the results gotten showed that the area has experienced an unprecedented rate of urbanization and urban encroachment into agricultural lands which has subjected the area to some negative environmental and socio-economic impacts such as a decrease in the average crop yield, though the impacts are not so severe due to the persistence and emergence of agricultural lands in some areas. It is recommended that urban spreading to agriculture land should be controlled as this will have serious repercussions on food security. Urban expansion cannot be stopped, but with proper management and planning it can be directed in a desirable and sustainable way.

Keywords: Urban expansion, Agricultural land, Remote sensing and GIS, Lapai, Landsat.




Prevalence of Foetal Losses in Slaughtered Pregnant Ruminant Animals (Cattle, Sheep And Goat) in Mubi Abattoir, Mubi North Local Government, Adamawa State, Nigeria.


1Danladi, T., 2 FRANCIS, M., 3 Elkanah, S. O., 1Buba, Z. M. and 1Vincent, V.M.

1Department of Zoology, Adamawa State University, P.M.B. 25, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria. 2Department of Animal Health and Production, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, P.M.B 35, Adamawa State.3Parasitology and Public Health Unit, Department of Biological Sciences, Taraba State University, P.M.B. 1167, Jalingo, Taraba State.



The research was carried out to determine the rate and investigate the enormous effect of foetal losses of animals slaughtered in Mubi main abattoir due to frequent slaughtered of pregnant ones.  The retrospective study conducted was on the data collected during post mortem meat inspection every day for three months by taking the record of any discard gravid uterus of slaughtered pregnant animals.  2,183, 1,958 and 1,903 of the animals slaughtered were cattle, sheep and goats respectively. Over 98% of these animals were local breeds.  Out of these, female animals possess high value proportion converted to meat as n=1338 (61.29%) cows, n=1586 (81.00%) ewes and n=1018 (53.49%) does.  Of these value n=633 (29.00%), n= 554 (28.29%) and n=439 (23.56%) were found pregnant with quite high rates of calves, lambs and kids foetuses range n=339 (53.55%), n=487 (59.39%), n=315 (49.00%) females and n=294 (46.45%), n=333 (40.61%) and n=329 (51.00%) males respectively.  Crown-rump length measured were used to stratified foetus to gestational stage as (34.09cm, 22.03cm and 20.09cm) in cattle, sheep and goats which revealed that cattle were in first while sheep and goats were in second trimester.  Over 95% responses on oral interviewed, revealed that lack of capital, ignorance, insufficient law enforcement and poor ante mortem inspection contributed significant  wastage in quest of meat whereby numerous future viable foetuses are loses.  Therefore, comprehensive ante mortem inspection and animal welfare law should been force to diminish rate of wastage.

Keywords: Prevalence, foetal losses, pregnant ruminant, abattoir, Mubi North, Adamawa State, Nigeria.




Pests Contamination of Wastewater Irrigated and Raw Manure Fertilized Vegetables in Jos City and Its Suburb, Plateau state, Nigeria


Sikiru Gbenga* and Oladejo Afolabi

Department of Pest Management Technology, Federal College of Forestry Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria



Irrigation of vegetables in developing countries including Nigeria is done using untreated wastewater and raw manure of domestic animal origin is used as fertilizer. Thus, vegetables are considered to be the principal sources of human infection with bacterial, protozoan and helminthparasites.  The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate of pests contamination of pre-harvest vegetables in Jos city (Faringada) and its suburban village, ‘Lamingo’. Pre-harvest vegetables were collected from the field during the dry season, washed using physiological saline solution, allowed to sediment overnight, centrifuged and examined microscopically for infective stages of intestinal parasites. Out of the vegetable samples examined, 32.41% in Faringada and 30.49% in ‘Lamingo’ contained at least one parasitic contaminant. Strongyloides stercoralis was most encountered parasitic contaminant in the study areas, followed by, Taenia and Entamoeba spp. Highest rate of parasitic contamination was detected on Lettuce, that was 45.5 and 41.67% in Faringada and ‘Lamingo’, respectively. Occurrence of infective stages of intestinal parasites on wastewater- irrigated vegetables may pose public health hazards to farming communities in the study areas. Therefore, evaluation and surveillance of parasitological quality of vegetables is crucial in an attempt to control vegetable-transmitted parasitic infections.

Key words: Untreated wastewater, Raw manure, Pre-harvest Vegetables, Pests Contamination, Irrigation




Production of Weaning Food Using Local Crops: Tiger Nut (Cyperus Esculentus), Hungry Rice (Digitaria Exilis) and Water Melon Seed (Citrullis Lanatus)


*Dr Gideon Onuoha and **AkaguOjonoma Grace

*Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State **AminuSaleh College of Education, AzareBauchi state



Weaning food was formulated from locally available crops such as Tiger nut, hungry rice and water melon seed. The grains were cleaned and processed into flour. Water melon seed was defatted using hot water press before processing, hungry rice was malted for 72hrs and used for processing. All the grains were milled into flour and mixed into four (4) different portions. The samples were mixed in the ratio 20:50:30, 50:20:30, 40:30:30, 30:40:30 (tiger nut, malted hungry rice and defatted water melon seed), the defatted water melon seen was kept constant because of the protein content. Proximate, functional and sensory evaluation was carried out on the weaning samples. The protein content varied from 14.1 to 15.6, fat (27.3 to 30.8%), ash (2.81 to 3.22%), moisture (2.5 to 3.2%) and carbohydrate (48.68 to 52.34%). All the result obtained for the proximate analysis falls within the recommended daily intake for children between 0-3 years. The result for functional analysis varied from 0.57 – 0.63 for bulk density, 6.6 -8.2% for water absorption capacity and 4.41 x 10-6 – 5.32 x 10-6nm-2) for viscosity. The result obtained tallied with results obtained by other scholars making the samples acceptable for children. The weaning samples were evaluated by 20 nursing mothers using a 9point hedonic scale, 80% showed acceptance of the product. The result was analysed statistically using ANOVA and there was no significant difference in the consistency and overall acceptance of the weaning samples. The slight difference obtained in the taste and colour is as a result of the quantity of malted hungry rice added. All the four (4) weaning samples can be used as alternatives to commercial weaning food.

Keywords: Cyperus Esculentus, Digitaria Exilis, Citrullis Lanatus, Production, Crops.




Nutritional Lifestyle of Rural and Urban People of Lavun and Bida Local Government Areas of Niger State, Nigeria


Gbadamosi, F. O., Abiodun, M. A., Faseun, O. A. and 1yusuf, N. O.

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida.



This study is aimed at assessing the nutritional lifestyle of rural and urban people of Lavun and Bida local Government of Niger state, while the objectives were to describe the socio- economic and demographic characteristics of the respondents and to assess their food consumption patterns. The study which was descriptive and cross-sectional covered 88 adult males and females in rural area of Lavun and Urban area of Bida Local Government Areas of Niger state. Simple Random Sampling Techniques by balloting was used to select the respondents in both Local Government Areas. A well-structured questionnaire was administered which include: (a) Socio-economic and Demographic characteristics of respondents (b) Assessment of food habit. The nutritional lifestyle of rural dwellers is less affected by socio-economic and demographic status while the nutritional lifestyle of urban dwellers is mostly affected by Socio-Economic and demographic status. The diets of urban dwellers are more diverse than those of their rural counterparts. Education and income of the rural and urban people determine their feeding pattern. (a) Nutrition education should be given to rural and urban people of Lavun and Bida Local Government Area in Niger State

 Keywords: Nutritional lifestyle, Rural area, Urban area, Food consumption pattern




Effects of Seed Powder of Xylopia Aethiopica as a Pesticide against Dermestes Maculatus of Stored Smoked Fish in Jos Northern Nigeria.


Olori-Oke, O. E., and C. C. Onyeonoro.

Pest Management Technology Department, Federal College of Forestry, Jos Plateau State, Nigeria.



Effects of seed powder of Xylopia Aethiopica as a pesticide against Dermestes maculatus of stored smoked Fish were investigated in Federal College of Forestry, Jos Plateau State, Nigeria. The experiment was arranged on a Completely Ramdomized Design (CRD), comprising Four (4) Treatments and Three (3) replicates. Data collected were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).  The result of these experiment demonstrate that Xylopia aethiopica produce significant difference on mortality effect on Dermestes maculatus, a beetle pest of non-agricultural stored product. Based on the results obtained in this current study on the effect of Xylopia aethiopica on Dermestes maculatus, the highest concentrate (9.0g) gave the highest mortality rate of 5.0 at 96 hours and the lowest concentration (3.0g) gave the lowest mortality rate of 1.0 at 48 hours. Preservative effect of Xylopia aethiopica on Dermestes maculatus shows significant difference between the treatment and the control, from this result it maybe concluded that Xylopia aethiopica have a broad spectrum of activity against Dermestes maculatus, and the extracts could have potentials as bio-insecticide in stored product protection.

Keywords: Smoked fish, Xylopia aethiopica, Mermestes maculatus, pesticide, seed powder.




Proximate Composition and Sensory Properties of Bread Produced from Malted Maize –Soy flour Blends


Ejim1, M.N., Omachi2, A.B., Odor3, C.B., Abiodun4, M.A., Obafemi5, J. K.,

1,2,4&5Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida 3Department of Hospitality Management, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida



The presence of gluten in wheat has been reported to cause problems in people with celiac disease (allergy to gluten) which is now of public health concern thereby causing an interest in gluten-free (GF) products. The study aimed at producing gluten-free bread using malted maize and soy bean flour in varying proportion and evaluation of the proximate and sensory properties using 100%wheat flour bread as control. Findings showed that the formulated bread samples had the following results; moisture (24.80%- 33.80%), ash (1.70%-0.25%), crude protein (11.38%-34.88%), crude fiber (0.50%-2.00%), oil extract (29.50-32.03%), carbohydrate (4.59%-24.57%) and energy value (409.28K/Cal-446.15 K/Cal). The sensory evaluation results of the bread samples showed that the highest total score was obtained from sample D (bread sample containing 85% malted maize: 15% soy flour). In conclusion, nutritious and acceptable gluten-free bread was successfully produced using malted maize and soy flour blends. This study however recommends sample D (85% malted maize and 15% soy bean flour) because the product was the most nutritious and acceptable.

Key words; gluten-free bread, proximate composition, malted maize-soy flour, celiac disease, sensory properties.




Insecticidal Effects of Datura Stramonium Flower Powder on Sitophilus Zeamais in Jos Northern Nigeria.


1Popoola A. S. And 2O. Adedire.

1Forestry Technology Department, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State. 2Statistics Department, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State.



Insecticidal effects of the flower powder of Datura stramonium (Jimson weed) were studied on Maize weevil in Federal College of Forestry, Jos. The experiment was set up on a completely Randomized Designed (CRD), with Four (4) treatments, replicated three (3) times. Different concentrations of the powder such as 0g, 10g, 15g and 20g were used over a period of 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours respectively. Data collected were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results shows that all treatments with the exception of the control had significant effect on the Weevils, resulting in high mortality of weevils and reduction in number of holes on the maize grains in the set-up. A concentration of 15g dosage is recommended for an effective effective repelling and mortality of maize Weevil. The result of this work suggest that Jimson weed can be a good source of insecticides for the control of insect in a stored grain for effective post harvest handling of Agricultural production.

Keywords: Datura stramonium, Flower Powder, Sitophilus zeamais, Mortality, insecticide.




The Effects of Moringa Oleifera Lam Leaf Extract on the Growth of White and Yellow Varieties of Maize (Zea Mays L.)


Yusuf Azizat and Aisha Umar



Field experiments on the influence of the leaf extract of Moringa oleifera on the growth of two varieties of maize were conducted. The objectives were to assess the effects of different concentrations 11 application of Moringa leaf extract on the growth of yellow and white varieties of maize. The experiment was made up of eight combinations comprising of levels of Moringa extracts (5, 10, 15g/100ml) and control where no extracts was sprayed). These treatments were laid out in complete resign (CRD) and replicated four times. Three (3) seeds were planted in each pot containing 3 kilogram of soil, fresh leaves of Moringa oleifera were macerated in a household electric blender, sieved and the extract was sprayed on the two maize varieties in different concentration. Applications of the extracts indicated significant (P<0. 05) in plant shoot and leaf length of the two varieties of maize at 15g/100ml concentrations. For the leaf width, significant (P < 0.05) differences were at 15g/100ml concentrations. Moringa leaf extract significantly influenced (P<0.05) the number of leaves in the two maize varieties at 15g/100ml concentration. Application of Moringa leaf extracts at 15g/100ml concentrations is for enhancement growth of the yellow and white varieties of maize.

Keywords: Maize, Moringa oleifera, fertilizer, growth




Soil Exchangeable Cations and Aluminium in of Mangrove Soil of Akwa Ibom State


1Etukudoh, Ndarake Emmanuel and 2Gbarabe, Roland

1Department of soil science, Faculty of Agriculture, Akwa Ibom State University, Oruk Anam Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. 2Elechi Amadi Polytechnic, Romula, Rivers state. Nigeria.



This study is to determine the soil exchangeable cations and Al3+ in mangrove swamp soil of Akwa Ibom State. Exchangeable cations and Al3+ will be measure by ammonium acetate and potassium chloride. Three soil samples is randomly take at Ikot Abasi Local Government Area to determine organic carbon %, PH, Electrical conductivity, total Nitrogen, exchangeable bases, % Al saturation, and particle size. Results show Kcl extracted more Al3+, and Mg than Ammonium acetate. The soil is high in % base saturation whose values ranged from 70.55-88.16% in surface and 51.82-81.16% in sub-surface layers. The soil is saline in nature because its electrical conductivity value is above 1ds/m. These soils have more than 50% sand on the average are classified as loamy sand.

Keywords: Exchangeable, Cations, Aluminium, Mangrove, Soil.




Climate Change in Poultry Production System – A Review


Ahaotu, E.O1, Osuji, F.C2,  Ibe, L.C2 and Singh, R.R4

1Department of Animal Production Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Nigeria 2Department of Estate Management, School of Environmental Management Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, Nigeria. 3Department   of Livestock Production Management, Vanbandhu College of Veterinary Science and AH, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat, India.



Due to the tremendous growth and unpredictable figures of production in Nigerian poultry sector, there are several problems affecting growth of the industry, among which are environmental challenges which imposes severe stress on birds thus leading to reduced performance. Invariably, reviewing the impacts of heat stress on poultry production seems to be the main research area in the present study. The purpose of this article therefore is to review the seasonal fluctuations and its detrimental effects on poultry production systems.

Keywords: Poultry production, Seasonal Fluctuations, Environmental Challenges, Management.




Agroforestry Systems; Towards Sufficiency and Sustainability in Organic Farming in the Nigerian Savanna Ecosystem


Akwarandu, Karachi E.1, Alaji, Deborah G.1, Amshi, Ahmed M.1, Babagana, Mohammed G.2, Ahmed, Salisu B.3., Goni, Mohammed2, Maigana Goni2, Ali Mohammed2

1Forestry Technology Department, Yobe State College of Agriculture, Gujba 2Agricultural Technology Department, Yobe State College of Agriculture, Gujba 3Basic Science Department, Yobe State College of Agriculture, Gujba.



The savanna biome of Nigeria, which is agriculturally strategic due to its high level of food productivity, is fast being degraded partly due to climatic variability, and majorly due to impacts of human livelihood, especially farming technologies and cultures. For sufficient and sustainable production of food, organic farming, which integrates trees and woody perennials in various combinations on farms, is here introduced and discussed. This paper showcases the various advantages of organic farming and agroforestry on crop yield, crop quality, soil health and environment and human health. Some techniques for application of these methods are also discussed.

Keywords: Per-Capita Land, Slash and Burn, Sustainable Agriculture, Food Security, Food Sufficiency, Land Hunger.




Percieved Effects of Bush Burning on Arable Crop Production in Bauchi Local Government Area of Bauchi State, Nigeria.


Barnabas B., Jibril S. A., and Abubakar, N.B

Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, P.M.B. 0248 Bauchi Nigeria



The study examined farmers’ perceived effects of bush burning on arable crop production in Bauchi local government area of Bauchi state. Random sampling techniques were used in selecting 80 arable crop farmers across four (4) wards in the local government area namely; Birshi, Dawaki, Galambi, and Kangyare. Data were analysed using both descriptive statistics (frequency, percentages, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (logit regression). The results of the study showed that majority (75.1%) of the famers were within the age range of 20-50 years of age. Furthermore, the result revealed that majority (63.1%) of the farmers were male. Furthermore, the results revealed that most (95%) of the farmers are literate. The result also revealed that most (96.3%) of the arable farmers perceived bush burning help to clear farm land for cultivation. The result showed that majority (86.3%) of the arable farmers perceived bush burning help in weed control. Furthermore, the result revealed that most (90.1%) of the arable farmers perceive that bush burning help to control pest and diseases. The result also showed that majority (88.8%) of the arable farmers perceive bush burning destroys soil microorganisms. Furthermore, the result revealed that most (92.6%) of the arable farmers perceive that bush burning increases the tendency for soil erosion and land degradation. The result also showed that majority (86.2%) the arable farmers perceived that bush fallowing should be encouraged to reduce the effect of bush burning. The also revealed that majority (77.5%) of the arable farmers perceived lack of herbicide and insecticide to control pest and disease as a constraint of farmers against bush burning. The result of logit regression analysis of the socio-economic characteristics of the arable crop farmers on perceive effect of soil of bush burning, the result showed that educational qualification, years of experience, and marital status were found to be significant. The study concluded that despite the advantages farmers perceive they drive from bush burning, its effect on arable crop land remain higher among farmers in Bauchi local government area of Bauchi state. The study furthermore, recommended that effort should be made to reduce indiscriminate bush burning, focus on alternative energy resource such as solar energy, planting of trees, as well as emphasize on extension service to create more awareness of its effect on agriculture and environment as a whole.

Keywords: Bush Burning, Arable crop, Perception




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