African Scholar Journal of Agriculture and Agric. Technology Vol. 18 No.1


VOL. 18 NO.1 SEPTEMBER, 2020 ISSN: 2877 – 1990



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2020 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Effect of Feeding Graded Levels of Waste Telfaria Occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) Leaves in the Diet of Heteroclarias Fingerling Using the Indoor Plastic Aquaria,


Gana, E.S1*, Yisa, A.T2 and Egbudu D.A3

1&3Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Abuja. Nigeria 2Department of Water Resources, Aquaculture and Fisheries Technology, Minna. Niger State



The efficacy of the effect of wasted Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin leaves, WFPL) as an ingredient in the diet of African catfish hybrid,( Heteroclarias) fingerlings, of mean initial weight 0.23±0.17g were evaluated over a 60 day growth period, Five experimental diets were formulated at 0% (control), 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% graded levels of wasted fluted pumpkin leaves meal. A control diet without wasted fluted pumpkin leaves was formulated, the 60-day feeding experiment was conducted in an indoor plastic aquaria, each treatment had three replicates, Fish fed 15% Telfairia occidentalis leaves meal recorded the best growth performance in body weight gain of 0.64% and Mean Growth Rate (MGR) value of 8.61, Though other values of Mean Growth Rate were 5.59, 6.86, 7.06 and 5.38% respectively and those values were significantly different from each other. 10% diet of Telfairia occidentalis leaves meal recorded the best Survival Rate (SR) value of 76.68%, the 5% inclusion recorded the best Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) of 5.20, while that of Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) of 1.76 was best recorded in 0% (control) diet of wasted fluted pumpkin leaves. Although, the best Economic Weight Gain (EWG) of 13500g was recorded for fish fed on the 15% diet of Telfairia occidentalis leaves meal. There were no significant difference between the fish fed with control diet and the other experimental diet (P>0.05), the study demonstrated the Telfairia occidentalis leaves meal can be best included in the diets of Heteroclarias fingerlings at the inclusion level of 15% for African catfish (Heteroclarias hybrid) fingerlings.

Keywords: Telfairia occidentalis, African catfish hybrid and unconventional feeds




Ethnographic Study of Palm Oil Processing Among the Annang Ethnic Society of Akwa Ibom State.


UdoOgechi Sylvia1, UduakOkon Jeremiah2

1Department of Agri-Business and Management, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike Umuahia, Abia State. 2Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua, IkotEkpene, AkwaIbom State.



This paper examines the ethnographic study of palm oil processing in the Annang ethnic society. The study was carried out to determine the various method and technologies in processing palm oil in the study area. Multi-staging sampling procedure (in conjunction with purposive and random sampling techniques) was used in selecting respondents for this study. Data were collected using verbal interview and presented with the aid of descriptive analysis and pictures taken during investigation. The study has revealed that adopters of recommended palm oil processing technologies had increase in both their income and output. Respondents reported that the technologies were compatible, complex and very expensive. The specified socio-economic and institutional predictor variables collectively contributed to the variation in the levels of adoption of the recommended palm oil processing technologies. It was discovered that none of the processors had contact with extension agents, while accessibility to credit facilities was another serious constraint facing the processors. There were no functional social groups among the processors. It is therefore recommended that credit scheme should be instituted and made available to processors by government and other financial institutions. It is also recommended that processors should form cooperative societies to enable them take advantage of the credit scheme being advocated for and enjoy the benefit of group dynamics.

Keyword(s): Palm Oil, Processing, Ethnography, Annang, Study




Comparison of numerical methods in Predicting the Growth of Normal Agricultural Assets


Godspower C. Abanum1, Innocent C. Eli2 and Enu-Obari Ekakaa3

1,2Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Nigeria 3Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria



In this paper, I considered the comparison of numerical methods in predicting the biodiversity gain due to the variation of together on biodiversity scenario. However, when the model parameter values are increase, the normal agricultural variable also changes. By comparing the patterns of growth in these two interacting normal agricultural data, we have finite instance of biodiversity due to the application of four numerical methods such as ODE45, ODE23, ODE23tb and ODE15s. We have found the numerical prediction upon using these four numerical methods which are similar and robust, hence we have considered ODE45 numerical simulation to be computationally more efficient than the other three methods. The novel result we have obtained in this study have not been seen elsewhere.

Keyword: ODE45, ODE23, ODE23tb, ODE15s, Normal Agriculture




Effects of Rice Marketing on the Livelihood of Women in Jalingo Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria.


1Alam, M.K, 2Adamu, M.M, 3Melaiye, O.R, 4Musa, H.Y, 5Shelleh, A. & Daloba J.

1,4,5&6Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, College of Agriculture, Jalingo. 2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Taraba State University, Jalingo. 3Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Taraba State University, Jalingo.



The study determined the effects of rice marketing on the livelihood of women in Jalingo Local Government Area of Taraba State. It specifically described the socio-economic characteristics of women rice marketers, determined the effects of rice marketing on the income of women rice marketers and identified the problems affecting women rice marketers in the study area. Primary data were obtained from 105 women rice marketers using purposive and random sampling techniques. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and tobit regression model. The result shows that majority of the rice marketers were young, active and their productive years. They were married and formally educated and have many years of rice marketing experience but depends mainly on their personal savings for funds. The tobit regression shows that: age, marital status, source of funds have negative effect on their income, hence it affected the level of their rice marketing in the area. The major constraints affecting women in rice marketing includes: inadequate fund, high cost of transportation, poor marketing facilities, price fluctuation, insecurity, lack of credit facilities, among others. The study recommended that women rice marketers through their association should source for credit facilities from government and financial institutions to boost their business in addition effort to ban the importance of foreign rice should be intensity by government so as to create marketing opportunities for women to market their local products at a profitable price.

Keyword: Effects, Marketing, Rice, Livelihood, women.




Effects of Entrpreneurial Competencies on the Performance of Cassava Processors in Abia State, Nigeria.


1Udo Ogechi Sylvia, 2Uduak Okon Jeremiah, 3Udo Ginikachi Cynthia

1 Department of Agri-Business and Management, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State. 2Department of Estate Management, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua, Akwa Ibom state. 3Department of Financial Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri.



The study analysed the effects of entrepreneurial competencies and performances among cassava processors in Abia State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to ascertain the various forms of value added cassava products produced by the respondents;    analyze the influence of entrepreneurial competency and associated socio-economic variables on the processors entrepreneurial performance; and make recommendations based on the findings. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 70 respondents. Primary data were collected through the aid of a well structured questionnaire. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics tools such as frequency, mean, tables, percentage as well as multiple regression analysis. The result of the multiple regression result indicated that the coefficients of age, gender, education, religion, and marital status were statistically significant at different levels of probability. The study therefore recommended that cassava processors should be given enough orientation to enable them manage their inputs and also to understand the business environment in order to identify the market needs.

Keywords: cassava processors, multiple regression, entrepreneurs competencies, performance




Return Periods and Annual Exceedance Probability of Rainfall Events in Port Harcourt, Nigeria


Johnson, Dumka Valiant

Institute of Geosciences and Space Technology, Rivers State University, Nkpolu -Oroworokwu, Port Harcourt. Nigeria.



Return periods and exceedance probability of rainfall events in Port Harcourt, Nigeria from 1981 to 2016 (inclusive) was investigated with the use of many statistical tools. Results obtained showed that the highest rainfall event experienced during the study period was in 2007 with yearly rainfall value equals to 2790.9mm and also having probability to re-occur or be exceeded every 37years (return period) and an annual exceedance probability (AEP) of 0.027 or 2.7%. The least rainfall event of the study period was recorded in 1983 with a value of 1632.0mm. It has a probability to re-occur or exceeded once every year or return period of 1.028years. The probability or AEP was calculated to be 0.973 or 97.3%. This means that there is approximately 100% chance of study area experiencing this type of rainfall every year. Extreme rainfall is often responsible for flood so builders and designers of drainages, dams, dykes, irrigation facilities, farmers, Insurers must understand the rainfall probabilities and return periods of heavy and extreme rainstorms in order to design, build and plan effective mitigation measures against flood.

Keywords: Rainfall Event, Return Period, Exceedance Probability, flood, extreme, mitigation.




Growth Performance, Cost Benefit and Comparative Analysis of Different Fish Feeds on African Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus)


1N. Abdullahi; 2A. Abubakar; 2T. M. Abdulrazak; 2F. B. Shittu

1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences Bayero University Kano, Nigeria 2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Applied Science Federal Polytechnic Offa, Kwara, Nigeria



African Catfish, clarias gariepinus: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of imported fish feed as compared to local feed on the performance of juvenile African Catfish (clarias gariepinus). 12 weeks feeding was conducted using 870 juveniles which were randomly assigned to two different ponds i.e pond  A and C at a stocking rate of 470 and 400 per pond respectively. Fish in pond A had the best growth rate because they were fed with local feed only from the sixth week which has high  protein content ( 50.1%) when compared with pond C which was fed with foreign feed all through. Since protein is majorly responsible for the growth performance of catfish, it was therefore observed that the fishes that were fed with local feed only, shows a remarkable growth. 

Keywords: Clarias gariepinus, Feed.




An Overview of the Cosmological Big Bang Theory of the Universe


Emmanuel Leghara Ikpendu1 and Datti Ahmed Shinge2

Department of Industrial Physics Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Uli Anambrastate.1   College of Agriculture Damaturu, Yobe State.2



The most popular theory of our universe’s origin centers on a cosmic cataclysm unmatched in all of history—the big bang. This theory was born of the observation that galaxies are moving away from each other with great speed, in all directions, as if they had all been propelled by an ancient explosive force. This paper therefore reviews the big bang theory and its observational evidences and concludes with the present understanding of the Big Bang.

Keywords; Galaxy, Universe, Big Bang, Matter Atom and Expansion




Utilization of Forest Herbal Resources among Rural Farming Populace in Niger and Kogi States, Nigeria


1Mohammed, U., 2Muhammed, H.U., 3Ahmad, B.S., 4Nabara, I.S., 4Mohammed, U.

1Department of Planning, Research and Statistics, Niger State Ministry of Agriculture, Minna 2Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Federal University of Technology Minna. 3National Cereals Research Institute Baddegi, Niger State. 4Niger State College of Education, Minna



This study analysed forest herbal utilization among rural farming populace in Niger and Kogi State. Multistage sampling was used to select 326 of farming populace. The first stage involved selection of all the agricultural zones in both States. At the second stage, one (1) LGA from each agricultural zone was randomly selected. The third stage involved random selection of four communities from the selected LGAs. At the fourth stage, 10% of the farmers were randomly selected from the sampling frame of each communities. In all, a total of 326 respondents were selected as the sample size for the study. Data were collected from primary source using questionnaire complemented with interview schedule. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage and mean). The mean age of the respondents was 40 years while 80.7% of the respondents in the study area were married. It was found that the average of 4.7 years was spent on formal education. Further findings showed that 23.5% of the rural farming populace utilised trees shrub/leaves when fresh. While 23.0% of the rural farming families utilize tree shrubs/leaves when boiled. Moreover, 23.6% of the farming populace utilized skin herbal for their medicinal purposes such as cough, fever and charming while 14.1% of the rural farming populace utilized feather when dried for medicinal and domestic uses such as  cure of paralysis and skin rashes. Wind blowing possess the most environmental hazard in the utilization of forest herbal resources (x̅-2.44) while bush burning leads to animal going into extinction (x̅-2.42).  It is therefore recommended that farmers should be trained and sensitized by the extension agents on how to safely explore forest resources in order to curb negative incidents while rural farming populace organize themselves into community self-help group for protection of forest against bush burning.

Keyword: Woody vegetation, Environmental hazard, Fire wood, Farming populace, Utilization




Categorization of Cattle Farmers Based on Market Participation in Adamawa State, Nigeria


Mohammed Ibrahim Girei, PhD

Department of Agricultural Education, Federal College of Education, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria



The paper was designed to categorize farmers based on market participation among the cattle farmers in Adamawa state, Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was employed. To achieve this procedure, structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 400 respondents. The data were analyzed using the descriptive statistics. The result revealed that the majority of market participants were net sellers (78.51 %) (Sales greater than purchase), net buyers were (purchase greater than sales) 12.95 % and only 9% were autarkic (sales equal purchase). The study recommends that, Government should provide more effective security services in cattle farming communities, which is very important as the market participants in the study area were net sellers (producers), it will help in addressing the problem of cattle rustling and promote more investment in cattle industry. There is a need to establish a standard cattle market, vetnary services and grazing reserves in the area, so that to facilitate the cattle production and marketing system in the area.

Keywords: Categories, Cattle, Farmers, Farmers, market, Participation




Detection and Evaluation of Deforestation Trend in Pandam Game Reserve Plateau State, Nigeria.


1Popoola, A. S., 2Okechalu, S. O., 3Likita, M. S., 4Lapkat, L. G., 5Bako, A., 6Maikano, S., 7Ademola, T. O., and 8U. F. Yahaya

1Forestry Technology Department, Federal College Forestry, Jos Plateau State. 2, 4, 5Horticulture and Landscape Technology Department, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. 3Basic Science Department, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. 7Agricultural Technology Department, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. 6Forestry Technology, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. 8Agricultural Extension, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State.



This study evaluates deforestation trend in Pandam game reserve of Qua’an pam Local Government Area. The study used the scientific technique of Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote Sensing to identify and map out the rate and magnitude of deforestation in the Game reserve. Google Earth pro software was employed to download an internet imageries of the study area which serves as a referenced image and a complementary to reconnaissance survey. Arc GIS 10.5 version was employed for the delineation of the study area from the map, clipping of the image to the study area and preparation of image for analysis. IDRISI Terraset, one of the GIS software was used to analyse the imageries leading to the final result. Data were prepared using the landsat satellite imageries of 1997, 2007 and 2017 downloaded from United States Geological Service (USGS) which showed the Land Use Land Cover Distribution (1997, 2007, 2017) of the reserve as follows; VEGETATION in 1997: 26500.86 (67%), 2007: 24959.16 (63.14%) and 2017: 18437.58 (46.64). FALLOW LAND in 1997: 12895.20 (32.62), 2007: 14384.70 (37.33), and 2017: 20944.08 (52.98). the study observed a drastic decrease in forest cover of the reserve as a result of indiscriminate deforestation activities. It was also observed that the forest cover changes may likely follow the trend in 1997/2027 if precautionary measures are not considered. It was therefore concluded that the decrease in the forest cover change is leading to a low benefit impact of the reserve to biodiversity and tourism. Thus the findings suggest a better management practice of well trained staff supervision and the employing of modern equipment facilities to monitor the game reserve against illegal felling of trees.

Keyword: Detection, Evaluation, Deforestation, GIS, Remote sensing, Forest cover.




Homestead Catfish Farming: A Way out of Covid-19 –Induced Economic Recession.


Josef Bamidele Bolarinwa & Folajuwon Ajose Fakumoju

Department of Fisheries Technology, Lagos State Polytechnic, P.M.B 21606,Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria



There is a declining fish output from capture fisheries globally. The situation is further worsened by the global pandemic corona viral attack popularly known as ‘Covid-19’. To make the best of a bad situation, there is a need to look for an alternative source of fish production which is homestead fish farming in Nigeria. By virtue of ease of construction, relatively low capital outlay, limited space requirement, environment-friendliness and economic viability, homestead fishfarming is becoming popular in Nigeria. The paper therefore examined the technical and financial viability of homestead catfish farming using a 5m*4m concrete pond in the Department of Fisheries Technology of Lagos State Polytechnic. The study revealed the profitability of catfish farming in concrete pond. The gross Sales revenue was N1,800,000.00 ( One million, eight Hundred Thousand Naira only). Profit before Tax was N552,500.00 ( Five Hundred and Fifty Two Thousand, five hundred Naira only) while Net Profit after Tax was N497,300.00(Four Hundred and Ninety- seven Thousand, three hundred Naira only). Other performance indicators such as Return on Sales(ROS) and Return On Investment (ROI) were 28% and 74% respectively.  There is a need for training and sensitization of the economic worthwhileness of homestead fisheries at this Covid-19 era. Strictly monitored soft loans should be provided for small-scale farmers/unemployed youths wishing to go into culture fisheries.

Keywords: Homestead, profitability ratios, Covid-19, Loans, viability, fisheries,




Production of Biogas Using Cowdung and Poultry Droppings


*Udosen, I. E.; **Samuel, E.*Nasai, J.  and *Shehu, A. I.

*Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. **Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.



The production of biogas through anaerobic digestion was carried out using cow dung and poultry droppings. Three 10litter bioreactors were used for the study and the water displacement method was used to investigate the volume of biogas yield daily. The pH of the slurry before anaerobic digestion are 8 for cow dung, 8.5 for poultry droppings and 8.5 for mixture of cow dung and poultry droppings at equal concentration. The pH, Temperature and proximate analysis of the sample, before digestion were determined using standard method .The total aerobic and anaerobic count for cow dung are 8.9×106 and 7.5×106 before digestion, 4.9×106 and 8.2×106 after digestion .While the total aerobic and anaerobic count for poultry droppings  are 1.21×106 and 9.4×106 before digestion,6.8×106 and 1.15×106    after digestion. The cultural morphology revealed Gram positive rods with creamy irregular edges and the identified organisms are Bacillus species and Clostridium species. The result of this research shows that high quantity of biogas can be produced using cow dung and poultry droppings.

Keywords:   Production, Biogas, Cowdung, Poultry, Droppings




Anti-microbial Activity and Wound Healing Evaluation of Acacia Gum Arabia Aqueous Cream


Sikiru Gbenga K., Olori Oke Olusolape., Olorundare.O., Ayorinde James.,Oladejo Afolabi O., Adedire O.

Department of Pest Management Technology, Federal College of Forestry Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria



The aim of the present study was to characterize the antimicrobial properties of Acacia Gum Arabia crude extracts and Acacia Gum Arabia aqueous cream against certain selected quality control microorganisms. A serial concentrations were prepared 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of Acacia Gum Arabia. Anaqueous cream with 5% concentration of Acacia Gum Arabia were prepared and evaluated. A quality control tests were conducted to check the stability, organoleptic properties and pH of the cream. An in vitro evaluation against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa) and yeast (Candida albicans). The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) were determined. Out of sex (6) tested microorganisms, it is found that 5% is the optimum concentration that most of the microorganisms are reported to shows zone of inhibitions. A further experiments were conducted for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). The MIC values are found to be Proteus 1.25%, Shigella 2.5-1.5%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 1.25%, and Klebsiella 2.5%. The quality control tests for Acacia Gum Arabia cream reveals that for the spreadability test the measured diameter of each types (spreadability), in which the average diameter of aqueous cream and acacia cream ware 2.4 and 2.2 ± 0.14, respectively. The topical treatment with Acassia gum cream showed significant healing effect on excision wounds and demonstrated an important role in the inflammation process by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities, thereby accelerating the wound healing process and reducing tissue injury. It can be concluded that Acacia Gum Arabia demonstrate an antibacterial activity for certain types of bacterias. And the Acacia Gum Arabia cream can be used as an antibacterial cream.

Keywords: Acacia Gum Arabia aqeous cream; Cream quality control; Disc diffusion method; and Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC)




Assessessment of Income Inequality and the Effects of Poverty on Input Used and Output Obtained by Farmers of Some Food Crops in Adamawa State


Christopher Raymond

Department of Agricultural Technology, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola



The Study assessed income inequality and the effects of poverty on input used and output obtained by farmers of some food crops in Adamawa State. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 309 rice, maize, millet and bean farmers. Data were collected through structured questionnaires and analyzed using the gini coefficient and regression model. The gini results showed a disparity in income distribution among the respondents, with only about 66% controlling most of the income. The regression model revealed a significant difference in the average levels and prices of input used, and also, in the average quantities of output obtained for the crops by the poor and non poor farmers respectively. Mean of input used by farmers indicated that the Average quantity of land used were 2.5476ha and 3.842ha, Average prices paid per units of fertilizers, herbicides and hired labour used were (₦4,877.4 and ₦1,839), (₦16,391 and ₦15,521) and (₦39,544 and ₦23,114) respectively for the poor and non poor. The non-poor paid less since they buy in bulk due to higher level of purchasing power and for labour wage due to economy of scale. In year 2015, the average outputs of rice obtained were 14.2308MT and 52.1923MT for the poor and non poor respectively, in 2018, the average outputs of rice, maize, millet and beans obtained for non-poor farmers were relatively higher with 25.9231MT, 22.7959MT, 17.1667MT and 12.6250MT, while the poor had 9.1250MT, 18.3333MT, 11.2500MT and 11.5000MT respectively. The study recommended a proactive poverty policy effort to be formulated to equilibrate the production capabilities of poor farmers with that of the non-poor.

Keywords: Inequality, Poverty, Effects, Input, Output.




Human Activities Accelerating Geomorphic Processes along River Ngaddabul Implications for Catchment Management


*Mustapha Mala; **Alhaji   Usman Maina; and ***Shettima Alhaji

*Department of Remedial Arts, Ramat Polytechnic P.M.B 1070, Maiduguri, Borno State **Department of Agricultural Technology, Yobe State College of Agriculture, Damagum. ***Department of Geology, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State



The study focuses on assessment of human activities accelerating geomorphic processes along River Ngaddabul. The data used for the study were obtained from direct field observation and measurement of channel variables such as channel width, depth, slope angle and distance of the channel from infrastructures using measuring tape, Abney level and ranging pole. Also, examined were various human activities such as deforestation, livestock grazing, in stream mining refuse dumping and farming. Also, soil sample were collected in six locations sieve analysis and subjected to laboratory and descriptive statistical analysis. The result revealed that Ngaddabul River in Maiduguri is situated in a relatively flat terrain haven relief area of 320m to 322m above mean sea level. The slopes along the channel in the six locations shows gently sloping angle ranging   from 30-70.Sieve analysis of soil sample shows higher percent mean sand 52.22%; moderate mean clay 26.73%; and lower mean silt 22.88% respectively. The findings also shows that human activities such as residential and infrastructural development, ploughing and crop cultivation, In stream mining, deforestation, Livestock grazing, refuse dumping on the channel bed, and deforestation coupled with the soil texture having high percent of sandy to sandy loam have exposed the soil to numerous erosion processes which culminated to varying geomorphic processes disfiguring the channel banks. The study recommends effective land use planning and making policy to protect and conserve the already threatened environmentally so as to curb the consequences of human role that aggravate geomorphic processes. This study also suggest that individuals and government are encouraged to pursue an integrated program of basin land use and structural alternatives which can prefer solutions to the issue been addressed. Reafforestation of the channel basin will encouraged infiltration in urban areas and reduces rapid flows into the existing river channel.

Keywords: Geomorphic Processes, Human activities, Ngaddabul, Channel




Comparative Study of the Burning Rate of Briquettes Made from Agricultural Waste


Abodenyi, V. A. and Yakmut, S.

Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria



Wood and wood charcoal has been the primary fuel for cooking in Nigeria despite its cardio respiratory hazards from its smoke. This research was carried out to investigate the burning rates as well as other characteristics of briquettes produced from selected agricultural wastes(rice husk, sawdust, sugarcane bagasse and groundnut shell) in various composition ratios of 1:1:1, 2:1:1 and 3:1:1 respectively and analyzed using randomized complete design (CRD). The results showed that briquettes produced using groundnut shell at ratio 3:1:1:1 had the best burning rate and exhibited the best boiling time for water boiling test. Charcoal briquettes had far less emission, and were more environmentally friendly, and has the potential of reducing deforestation and desert encroachment can as well serve as a sustainable source of income generation for the teeming population especially youths and  rural women. 

Keywords: Comparative, Burning, Briquettes, Agricultural, Waste.




Classification of Some Selected Soils of Challawa – Gorge Microwatershed in Kano, Nigeria


1Danazumi Daya Danboyi; 2Alhaji Usman Maina; and 3Mustapha Mala

1&2Department of Agricultural Technology, College of Agriculture Gujba, Yobe State 3Department of Remedial Arts, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Borno State.



A semi-detailed survey was conducted to evaluate the soils of an agricultural landscape in Challawa – Gorge micro watershed in Karaye Local Government Area of Kano State. Three soil mapping units A, B and C were identified on the basis of land forms and surface texture. The soils were classified into Typic Endoaqualfs and Plinthic Kanhaplustalfs (USDA) and Stagnic Gleysols and Plinthic Acrisols (Eutric) world reference base soil resource. The upper slope was classified into soil unit C, middle slope as soil unit B and lower slope as soil unit A.

Keywords: Land, Suitability, Capability; Fertility, Classification, Evaluation.




Factors Influencing Adoption of Improved Grain Storage Technologies by Farmer in Selected Villages of Bauchi LGA, Bauchi State. Nigeria


*Abubakar I. A, *Yohanna, H *Babuga, U. S and **Garba A.  

*Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi **Department of Forestry Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi



This study was carried out to find out the factors that influence farmers’ adoption of improved grain storage technologies in selected villages of Bauchi Local Government Area of Bauchi State. Data for the study were collected from a total of 60 respondents who were randomly selected from two villages of the Local Government Area. The variables examined in the study include gender, age, marital status, major occupation, level of formal education, number of dependents, farm size, grain storage experience, type of storage technology use and types of grains stored. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression model were used to analyze the data. The result of the study indicated significant relationship between farm size (0.978) and grain storage technology adoption. Level of education (0.737) and age (0.847) also significantly influences adoption of improved grain storage technologies. This study recommends dissemination of technologies that will benefit both educated and uneducated farmers such as through Practical demonstration of the effectiveness of various improved food grain storage methods. However, future research needs to examine the benefits and costs associated with various on-farm storage structures. Knowledge of farmer perceptions about improved storage structures might also provide an insight to what extension package should be used to disseminate these technologies.

Keywords:  Factors, Influencing, Adoption, Improved, Farmer.




Constraint Of Fonio (Digitaria Exilis) Production In Jos South Local Government Area Of Plateau State, Northern Nigeria.


1Popoola, A. S., 2Olori-Oke, E., 3Akanbi, A., 4Yakubu, C. K., 5Mbah, J. J., and 6O. Adedire

1Department of Forestry Technology, Federal College of Forestry, P.M.B 2019, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. 2Pest Management Technology department, Federal College of Forestry, P.M.B 2019, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. 3Agricultural Technology department, Federal College of Forestry, P.M.B 2019, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. 4Horticulture and Landscape department, Federal College of Forestry, P.M.B 2019, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. 5,6Statistics department, Federal College of Forestry, P.M.B 2019, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.



The study assessed the constraint of Acha production in Jos South Local government Area of Plateau State. Primary data were generated from copies of questionnaire schedule, distributed through purposive random sampling procedure to 80 farmers. Simple descriptive statistics and Chi-square were used to describe the socio-economic characteristics of respondents, and constraint to Acha (Fonio) production. Results show that, about 28% of the respondents were within the age range of 36-45, while majority of the respondent were male. Also about 71% of the respondents had a family size of 6-12 and about (43%) had secondary level of education. The result of the problem analysis captures; difficulties encountered during weeding (0.048) and threshing processes (0.004), Time wastage during production (0.029), Stress involve (0.031), Grain quality reduction (0.049), Windnowing (0.027) and loss of grains (0.051) in the production processes as their constraint to production. Farmers did not considered the following as constraints despite their contribution to Fonio productions; Lack of herbicides (0.999), lack of Pesticides (0.170), access to fertilizer (0.999), Fulani herds men intruding into farm (0.374), insulficient rainfall (0.816), general cultivation (0.729), lack of improved seeds (0.938), and lack of fertilizer (0.519). The study recommends that farmers should have unfettered access to formal credit to enable them increase their level of resource use. Well-orchestrated enlightenment to prospective Fonio farmers should be carried out by Agricultural extension organization, non-government organization and then promotion council, on the benefit of Acha growing. This will go a long way into encouraging farmers to invest in Acha (Fonio) development.

Keywords: Digitariaexilis,Acha, Fonio, Constraint, Food security.




Assessment of Heavy Metals in Okra (Abelmoschus Esculentus) from Fadama Farms, in Maiduguri, Nigeria.


Bukar, P. H. 2onoja, M. A. and 3muhammad, A. I.

1Departmentof Science Laboratory Technology, Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology Zaria. 2Department of Physics, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria 3Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology Zaria.



The contamination of the environment with heavy metals is one of the challenges that constitute Nigeria’s environmental problem with urbanization as one of the major causes due to unavailability of proper waste dumpsites and the act of landfills for infrastructural development thereby polluting rivers and streams around them. Cultivation of vegetables along channels and rivers that transcend major cities have been a concern globally in the recent decades due to accumulation of heavy metals and introduction of heavy metals into the food chain. Assessment of concentrations of heavy metals namely Aluminum, Iron, Lanthanum, Manganese, Chromium, Rubidium, Antimony, Scandium, Barium, Samarium and Zinc were carried out in Okra (Abelmoschus esclentus) samples obtained on farmlands along the bank of river Ngadda and Alau dam and cultivated through irrigation. The samples were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) analytical technique with the aim to assess their levels of accumulation with heavy metals and with the objective to ascertain the food safety status of the vegetable by comparing the values obtained with maximum permissible limit (MPL) recommended by FAO/WHO for vegetables. The result showed that the concentration levels ranged from below detection limit (BDL) for Aluminum, Chromium, and Antimony to 843 ± 16 ppm, 1.3 ± 0.2 ppm and 0.26 ± 0.03 ppm respectively, Barium 7 ± 1.0 to 12 ± 1.0 ppm, Iron 11 ± 0.4 to 303 ± 36 ppm, Lanthanum 0.203± 0.03 to 1.93± 0.05 ppm, Manganese 22.9 ± 0.2 to 40.2 ± 0.2 ppm, Rubidium 7 ± 1 to 13± 1 ppm, Scandium 0.02± 0.00 to 0.05 ± 0.01 ppm, Samarium 0.02 ± 0 to 0.24± 0.01ppm, and Zinc 8± 1.0 to 24±0.1 ppm. This result also indicates that the maximum concentration value of Manganese exceeds the 25.95 ppm value of MPL recommended by FAO/WHO for vegetables therefore the consumption of Okra (Abelmoschus esclentus) cultivated from the study site has a potential health risk due to the presence of Manganese above recommended value.

Keywords: Assessment, accumulation, heavy metals, irrigation, Okra (Abelmoschus esclentus)




Responses of Soil Moisture Content to Water Depletion in the Soil Root Depth Zone of Amaranths, Onion and Garlic in Sandy-Loam Soil Condition


Awoniyi G. O1., Adeniran, K. A2., & Owoeye, O. D3.

1Department of Agricultural and Bio-environmental Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria. 2Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, University of Ilorin, Nigeria. 3Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria.



The research was focused on the soil moisture response to water depletion in the root depth zone of amaranths, onion and garlic. The soil moisture content models developed was based on 40 cm soil profile and of months December, 2015; January, 2016 and March; 2016. Models for forecasting future depletion in soil moisture content were found to be ; and with R2 of 0.9042, 0.9498 and 0.9539 for December, January and February of the respective years under investigation. The model was able to forecast the daily instantaneous moisture contents for the period under research. Available water (AW) depleted faster in the first 9 days in ascending order of December, January and February. While AW depletion was more pronounced in January and least in December from the 10th day after irrigation at field capacity (FC). The water in the root depth zone became  fully depleted on the 23rd day, 21st day and 23rd day after irrigation at FC for December, January and February respectively.

Keywords: Soil moisture, Root depth zone




Water Qualities of Open Wells Located at Fuel Stations in Ilorin Metropolitan


1I. K. Adesina, M. A. Adedeji, 1* 2F.A Adeniji and O. A. Oyedele3

1Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria. 2Department of Food and Agricultural Engineering, University Malete, Kwara State, Nigeria. 3Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.



Water is one the most inevitable and treasured natural resources for the existence of all living organisms on the planet earth. Management of the quality of this precious resource is, therefore, of special significance.  This study evaluated the quality of water samples collected from different twenty-seven open wells located at nine selected fuel stations scattered within three Ilorin metropolitan areas. Three stations each, in the three local government area were randomly selected. Physiochemical parameters of samples and the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPHC) were analysed for any possible petroleum product leaking from the stations underground storage tank into the nearby wells, using standard methods for the analysis.  Physiochemical values of the samples for Ilorin South fuel Stations (SFS); pH, colour, electrical conductivity, turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), total iron (TI), copper, manganese, nitrate, chloride, TPHC, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD); are 5.06 to 8.87, 1.00 to 2.57 pt-Co, 424 to 484 μS/cm, 2.10 to 4.01 NTU, 1170 to 1750 mg/l, 259 to 590 mg/l, 0.05 to 0.86 mg/l, 0.37 to 0.63  mg/l, 0.04 to 0.28 mg/l, 17.81 to 22.00 mg/l, 20 to 117mg/l, 0.006 to 0.125mg/l, 13.61 to 22.40mg/l, and 6.48 to 12.12 mg/l, respectively. For Ilorin East fuel stations (EFS); 6.22 to 7.70, 0.00 to 6.40pt-Co, 104 to 848 μS/cm, 0.21 to 4.41NTU, 1206 to 1717mg/l, 280 to 410mg/l, 0.05 to 0.56mg/l, 0.37 to 0.81mg/l, 0.04 to 0.66mg/l, 18.65 to 22.01 mg/l, 76 to 217mg/l, 0.006 to 0.021mg/l, 13.12 to 21.20mg/l, and 6.45 to 11.28mg/l, respectively. And for Ilorin West fuel stations (WFS) ranged as follows: 6.30 to 7.72, 1.21 to 5.00pt-Co, 424 to 993 μS/cm, 0.46 to 4.13NTU, 1292 to 1683mg/l, 210 to 256mg/l, 0.03 to 0.28mg/l, 0.19 to 0.25mg/l, 0.06 to 0.13mg/l, 17.77 to 22.50mg/l, 25 to 129mg/l, 0.004 to 0.006mg/l, 9.15 to 13.39mg/l, and 8.11 to 14.21mg/l. Data analysis showed that factor area and location accounted for 51.17% (BOD), 62.75% (COD) and 38.51 % (TPHC) of the well within Ilorin Metropolitan area.

 Keywords: water, qualities, open wells, fuel station and petroleum hydrocarbon and physiochemical




Nutritive Value of Sweet Potato Vines Silage Treated with Additives


*Kuttu Julius Musa; *Abdulwahabs Ismail Harbau; *Ramatu Isyaku; *Hussaini Usman; and **Kuttu Arki Musa

*Department of Agricultural Education, School of Secondary Education (Vocational) Federal College of Education (Technical) Bichi, Kano State.  **Bejafta Chemical and Agro Allied Services Nigeria Ltd (Bejafta Fertilizer) No. 30 Rayfield Road, Opposite Steel Rolling Mills Quarters Jos, Plateau State



The experiment was conducted to determine the nutritive value of sweet potato vines silage (SPVS) treated with additives. The experiment was laid in a 2 × 3 × 4 factorial arrangement of a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), three ensiling period (3, 5 and 7 weeks) with three silage additives (molasses, urea and yeast) and a control designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively, with vines obtained from two sweet potato varieties (King J and Danchina). The data generated was subjected to analysis of variance, (ANOVA) at p<0.05, Where significant differences occurred, the means were separated using Tukey of the SPSS version 2.0. The result of the proximate analysis revealed significant ((P<0.05) differences in the content of Ash, OM, CF, EE and NFE,, while the analysis of fiber fraction showed significant differences (P<0.05) on, ADF, DMI, DDM and RFV on the proximate composition of vines, ensiling period and additives. In conclusion, King J and Danchina varieties of SPVS on nutritive values make a good silage with control, molasses, urea and yeast as additives. It was therefore recommended, that King J and Danchina varieties of SPVS can be used for feeding livestock. During dry season, sweet potato vines silage can be used to supplement protein deficiency in livestock nutrition in the sub-saharan Africa.

Keywords: Nutritive value, Sweet potato Vines, Silage and Additives



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