African Scholar Journal of African Sustainable Development Vol. 18 No.2


VOL. 18 NO.2 SEPTEMBER, 2020 ISSN: 2010–1086



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.



Copyright © 2020 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


A Sociological Insight on Computer Based Test (CBT) and the Re-Introduction of Pen on Paper Examination in University of Maiduguri


Idris Mu’azu1 Mohammed Ali Mechanic (Ph.D.) 2 Fatima Abdullahi Hassan3

Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria



The study focuses on the sociological insight on the computer based test (CBT) and the reintroduction of pen to paper examination in University of Maiduguri. The objectives of the study were to examine the importance of CBT and pen on paper examination in University of Maiduguri, identify and compare the difference in student performance between the Computer Based Test (CBT) and the pen on paper examination in University of Maiduguri, to find out the challenges of CBT and pen on paper examination in University of Maiduguri. The study adopted Behavioural Learning theory as the theoretical framework for analysis. The data were obtained from primary and secondary source. The primary source was derived from the questionnaire, while the secondary data were incurred from the reviewed of relevant literature. Purposive sampling techniques were adopted. The study used 400 questionnaires in data collection, but only 392 were returned and found fit for the analysis However, Four (4) Faculties were randomly selected and in each Faculty, four (4) Departments were selected each. The findings also revealed that majority of the respondents agreed that pen on paper examination is often more practical which seems like the best way to express themselves than the computer based test (CBT), and that pen on paper examination produce graduates that can defend their field of study. It also reveal that pen on paper examination motivates student to read more widely and understand the context more easily than the Computer based test (CBT). It is recommended that the University management should create a trusted committee for the collection of the answer sheets after the submission from each student in the examination hall. By doing this, the problem of missing scripts will be solved. The pen on paper examination provides favourable conditions for cheating during the examination. Thus, it is recommended that the University management should provide CCTVs in examination halls for monitoring, and allowing students to use only items that the school management provided, and be cautious about the students leaving the examination hall and limit student’s ability to change answer sheets during the examination period. Student’s performance is low in pen on paper examination unlike the computer based test (CBT). Therefore, the examiners should provide direct questions instead of applied question which may confuse the students, and at the end it might affect the student performance.

Keywords: Sociological, Insight, Computer Based Test, Re-Introduction and Pen on Paper




Foreign Mass Media and Dress Culture among Nigerian Students: A Study on the Level of Nigerian University Students’ Exposure to Foreign Movie and its Influence on their Dress Code on Campus


Adamkolo Mohammed Ibrahim1*, James Boyi2 and Abubakar Sufyanu Saidu Al-Sadique3

1Lecturer, Department of Mass Communication, University of Maiduguri, PMB 1069 Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria;[Department of Mass Communication, Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011 Kano, Kano State, Nigeria.] 2Department of Mass Communication, University of Maiduguri, PMB 1069 Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. 3Department of Mass Communication, Bayero University, Kano, PMB 3011 Kano, Kano State, Nigeria. [Department of Mass Communication, the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria].



This research examined the impact of exposure to foreign mass media content on dress culture among students of University of Maiduguri. The study aimed to determine the level of consumption of foreign mass media contents among the students. The Cultural Imperialism theoretical perspective was adopted to explain the data. Using a quantitative survey research approach and purposive sampling technique, a sample of 200 respondents was drawn from the population of 37,943 undergraduate students of the university. The study suggests the existence of a high levels of the students’ exposure to foreign movie contents. Therefore, this study concludes that students’ exposure to foreign media content could have an impact on their dress patterns on campus. Hence, the study recommends that a course on Nigerian movie industry (e.g., Kannywood and Nollywood) focusing on the use of Nigerian local attire should be introduced into advanced level educational curriculums, the University management should include African dress patterns in the syllabus for the General Studies.

Keywords: Foreign mass media, Cultural media content, Foreign films and movies, Nigerian university students, Campus dress code




Integrating Indigenous Culture into English Language Teaching and Learning in Nigeria


*Agbo, David Oklo; **Baba, Lydia; and ***Ibrahim, Salihu Khadijat

*Federal University of Kashere, Faculty of Education, Department Arts and Social Science Education, Gombe State. **Niger State College of Education, Minna, Niger State ***University of Abuja, Faculty of Education, Department of Arts Education, Abuja, FCT.



The study aimed at integrating Indigenous culture in English language teaching and learning in Nigeria. The design was descriptive survey design. The population of the study consists of thirty eight (38) students offering English Education in the Department of Arts and Social Science Education, Faculty of Education, Federal University of Kashere in Gombe state. A purposeful random sampling technique was used to select one Department out of the various Departments in the University. Simple random sampling technique was used to select a sample of thirty eight (38) students offering English Education (male 10 and female 28). Two research questions guided the study. A structured questionnaire; Students perceptionwas the instruments for data collection, and instruments were validated by two English Language experts in the Faculty of Education of Federal University of Kashere, Gombe. Reliability index of 0.75 was obtained by usingpearson’s product moment correlation. The data was analyzed using mean and standard deviation. As a result of this research work, it was discovered that integrating culture in language teaching has great impacts on students learning and teaching of languages. Some recommendations were made, which include: language planning and language policy should be built around culture, curriculum planners should integrate culture to form contents of language lessons.

Keyword: Integrating, Indigenous, culture, Language, Teaching and Learning.




Analysis of Global Market Space for Nigeria Economic Development


1Iliya Bawa, PhD, 2Maku Samson Hassan and 3Abubakar Haruna

1Department of Business Administration, Federal University Lokoja, Kogi State – Nigeria  2Department of Business Administration and Management, Nasarawa State Polytechnic, Lafia – Nigeria 3Department of Marketing, ISM Adonai University, Cotonou Republic of Benin



The level of marginalization is noted in the distribution index between developed and undeveloped nation. This margin is a clear indication why some countries are richer than others. In other to address these problems, research purpose is formulated which aims to analyze the of effect global market space on Nigerian economic. Quantitative research methodology was used. Data source from CBN statistical bulletin for 2002 – 2018 was used for the analysis. Using unit root test, it shows that foreign direct inflow, total import, total trade and balance of trade are stationary at 1st and 2nd different level of differencing, while the levels of the differencing show that Gross Domestic Product and total export are non-stationary after second differencing. The results of regression analysis when economic developmentproxy as Gross Domestic Product (Dependent Variable) and foreign direct investment inflow, total import, balance of trade, total trade and total export proxy as globalization (independent variables) shows that all the independent variables are positively and significantly related to Gross Domestic Product except total export which was found to be negatively related to Gross Domestic Product. Base on these findings the study recommended that the government should implement strong macroeconomic and structural policies required to gain confidence of foreign investors so as to boost the country’s productivity, growth and competitiveness.

Key Terms: Globalization, Economic growth, Gross Domestic product, Co-integration, Nigeria




Development of One – Fit-All Intelligent Tourist Information System [Oitis] For Kogi State Nigeria.


Ejiga, Abubakar Isa

Department of Geoinformatics and Surveying, University of Nigeria, Enugu campus



Tourism has become a major income earner for many countries Worldwide having a contribution of about 11% of the world’s GDP. Its contribution to trade and businesses and creation of employment is attested to by many authorities. However it is faced with some challenges which hamper its progress and maximum utilization of the enormous potentials. Among these challenges is the near absence of the information about tourism potentials of Nigeria and indeed Kogi state in distant nations and countries. When tourist eventually arrive the country, they are faced with problems of how to locate their choice destinations and how to interact with the locals. Any system that can provide the needed information about tourism destinations to potential tourist in their distant countries to enable them plan their visit and itinerary in a convenient and easy fashion would immensely reduce their rigour and enhance their zeal for visit. The procedure adopted was the integration of remote sensing, GPS and multimedia GIS and customization of Google map via Google my map Application. The multimedia data was used to correct the limitations of Google map as navigation tool to enhance its applicability. The cyber link power 2 Go8 was used in converting sound to wave files. While cyber link Photo Director 5 converted photographs and textual information to video clips. ULEAD was used in transferring multimedia elements from the digital camera into the PC. Other software used included the Movavi video suite used for fixing playtime of video and audio as well as converting the audio from 3gpp to MP4, the tunestotube software converted the sound and text into compatible format for the system before finally being moved into the YouTube channel. All the multimedia elements were hyperlinked onto the Google map from the YouTube. The database therefore resides in the YouTube. The map generated is highly responsive and to every query raised, it gave corresponding answer.

Keywords: Customization, Cyberlink, Movavi, tunestotube, multimedia, YouTube, One – Fit-All, Intelligent




On the Evaluation of Cost and Time as a Consideration for Construction (Concrete Contracting in Housing Development Project)


1L.N. Badom; 2R.E. Akpodee.

1Department of Quantity Surveying, Faculty of Environmental Science, Rivers State University. 2Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt Nigeria.



Evaluation of cost and time in the consideration of construction contracting in housing development is very vital and necessary procedure in the feasibility study on labour cost, material cost, total cost and construction time. An in-depth analysis using this approach has been well examined in this work. The result displayed shows the various outputs and the implications of cost and time in conventional method and the precast method of construction and the mostly prefer method in terms of spread, volatility and risk handling. Furthermore, other results available in this work indicates an overview of the necessary analysis that is needed to be done before a project proposal submitted is been considered for an award of a contract. Full detailed results are hereby presented and discussed.

Keywords: Housing Development, Mathematical Model, Precast Concrete Construction, Environmental Factors.




The Effect of Human Trafficking on Socio-Economic Development in Northwest Nigeria


*Muhammad Mustapha Fagge **Nuhu Tukur Ibrahim; **Abubakar Tafida Jibril; & ***Abdullahi Bala Ado

*Department of International Relations and Strategic Studies, Igbinedion University, Okada **Department of Public Administration, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria ***Department of Local Government Studies, School of Rural Technology and Entrepreneurship Development, Rano, Kano State Polytechnic, Kano Nigeria.



Human trafficking have become a worldwide industry, incorporating millions of people annually and generating an annual turnover of billions, besides drugs and gun running which negatively affect our socio economic development. Besides women and children, Nigeria is a country of origin, transit and destination for human trafficking: the main objectives of the study was to assess the effect of human trafficking on socio economic development in northwest Nigeria, despite the effort of government to curb the menaces of human trafficking through Immigration, NAPTIP, police and NDLEA, but yet the numbers of incidences are increasing imperfectly, the research methodology  was exploratory based on content analysis, secondary data were also utilized for the study. The study revealed that data generated from the irregular migration section of Kano state indicated that on 13th/04/2019 nine suspected victims of migrant smuggling were arrested by joint operations with NAPTIP and the case has been transferred to NAPTIP, More so, the study found that there was inadequate funding to match the responsibilities of human trafficking and rehabilitation of the victims. Therefore, the study indicated that there was low motive behind public enlightenment and awareness through seminars, workshops and television programs as well as other means aimed at educating the public on the effect of human trafficking on socio economic development, also research shows that there was inadequate security personnel particularly immigration (border patrol/border guard) that would curtail the menace of human trafficking. The study recommended that government should create public enlightenment and awareness through seminars, workshops, radio and television programme as well as other means with aimed to educate the public on the effect of human trafficking, it was recommended that the government should put more effort to address the root cause of poverty and unemployment to our teaming youth in order to reduce the incidence of human trafficking. However, it also recommended that government should provide enough fund on budgetary allocation to the responsibilities of fighting human trafficking and rehabilitation of the victims as well as adequate provision of security.

Keywords: Human Trafficking, Effect, Socio- Economic Development, Northwestern Nigeria




Development of a Robust Speech-to-Text Algorithm for Nigerian English Speakers


1Mohammed M. Sulaiman, 2Yahya S. Hadi, 1Mohammed Katun and 1Shehu Yakubu

1Department of Electrical Engineering, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida. 2Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Ilorin, Ilorin.



Until recently, speech was a rare means of communication between man and machine due to low level of technology. Similar pronunciation patterns among same ethnic groups could be explored in the local development of speech technology products in Nigeria because Speech-to-Text (STT) systems are dependent on the set of data used to train them. This is experienced in most STT-enabled devices (like the mobile phones, automobiles, television) when they are used by persons outside the group of data they are trained with and the performance of such devices deteriorate. This paper presents an STT algorithm that is robust to the accent of Nigerian English speakers. In the data acquisition stage of the work, about a total of 27,000 isolated speech data were collected from five ethnic groups; 30% were Yoruba speakers, 29% were Hausa speakers, 20% were from Igbo speakers and the rest 21% were from Fulani and Ijaw speakers. The data were pre-processed, after which the features were extracted using the Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) with 13 coefficients. The recognition technique adopted was the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) with varying number of states. The results of this work reveal that for the 10-word vocabulary isolated speech considered with the number of state = 5 an average accuracy of 86% was achieved. An 86% average accuracy was also achieved with the 10-word vocabulary and the number of HMM state =7. For the 10-word vocabulary with number of state = 9, an average accuracy of 90% was achieved.

Keywords: Speech to text, Pre-emphasis, Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients, Hidden Markov Model, Classification.




Awakening for 21st Century Challenges and Opportunities with the use of ICT Based Virtual Assistive Technology to Teach Early Childhood Education of Children with Learning Challenges in Pandemic Challenged Society


*I.K. Ojuope1, A.O. Adetunmbi2, O.E. Oyinloye3

1Department of Computer Science, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 2Department of Computer Science, Federal University of Technology, Akure, P.M.B. 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. 3Department of Computer Science, Ekiti State Univerversity, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria.



COVID 19 Corona virus pandemic disease has brought about the challenge of using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) based virtual Technology in teaching and learning systems. The use of ICT in education is nothing new, but the question is where the limit is when the use of ICT does not have the desired effect, classroom delivery with the use of modern technology is still very low in Nigeria. From the report of World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank (2011), physically challenged persons carry a significant proportion of the world’s population, about 15%, as a result of differences in educational standard to the normal individuals, they are rarely seen as contributor to productive human capital development of the Society. Most of the Learning Challenged children access to education, this is as a result of several challenges they face in learning and comprehension. Most schools curricula were developed without considering the fact that, different categories of students including people living with learning challenges will also make use of them. This was never put into consideration during the requirement specification of those curriculum. This paper focuses on the use of ICT based virtual assistive Technology to teach  early childhood education children with learning challenges most especially during this COVID 19 pandemic challenges. This will enhance the learning ability of this category of Students and also motivate their desire to learn. This research work was carried in one of the government school for handicap children in Nigeria. From the learning ability testing of the research, it was discovered that the students learn faster and easier with the use of ICT base assistive technology than normal classroom learning. As a result of this, this paper focus on comparing level of efficiency of the ICT base virtual reality assistive technology over normal classroom learning for these categories of Students.

Keywords: Early-Childhood, Education, Pandemic Disease, Intellectual Challenges, Virtual Reality, Assistive Technology, ICT, Teaching, Learning.




Flipped Learning Applications: A Blended Innovative Learning Model In 21st Century.


1Oladimeji S. A, 2Oparah Camillus C, 3Oyedepo Victoria A., & 4Etim Emmanuel

1,2&3Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri 4Department of Computer Science, Abia State Polytechnic Aba



Relevant influences have led to radical changes in terms of teaching and learning approaches approved in the field of education. Nowadays, the students have quite different attitudes when compared to the past, and their expectations have been shaped accordingly. Therefore, it is quite difficult to draw interest and curiosity of the students today to learning activities through the traditional teaching approaches. Moreover, it is not easy to overcome some problems regarding teaching and learning by obsolete approaches. In this regard, the educators today show highly much interest in the innovative teaching methods that solve the needs of this age. One of those approaches is flipped classroom model. It is believed that flipped learning has gained great attention of many researchers as a result of what educators are implementing at their classrooms. This paper analyzes the concept of blended learning and its didactic possibilities to make an effective transition from a traditional learning model to an integrated model couple with electronic environments and resources being widely used.

Keywords: Blended Learning, Flipped Learning, Digital Technology, Traditional Learning Model, Integrated Model.




Building Mobile House towards Sustainable Tourism in the Era of Covid-19 Pandemic


1Idris Abdullahi Mohammed 2Amina Bata Zoakah 3Hafsat Mahmud Hussaini

1Department of Building Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi 2&3Department of Leisure and Tourism Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi



Mobile Tourism is a business of travelling for the purpose of deriving satisfaction impacts in tourism destinations for various reasons such as leisure, relaxation, health, education, religious, and gastronomy activities, e.t,c. The transportation business is highly required to support Tourism activities and appropriate design and build options are main issues in Tourism development in the era of COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria that can never be under estimated. This relationship of Mobility and Tourism in this work will therefore look deeply at solutions through semi-structured interviews and consultations with stakeholders in Tourism before, within and after Covid-19 pandemic. The transformation agenda in this work was as a result of the global COVID-19 pandemic, since late 2019 till date, which paved way for the purpose of harnessing new approaches and opportunities in Mobile house towards Sustainable Tourism in Nigeria. In conclusion, the study under investigation also further discusses issues of immense contribution to the design, construction and operation of COVID-19 compliant Mobile Tourism potentials which recommended that government with stakeholders should strictly enforce the law on ‘Safe Mobile Tourism Campaign’ and advocacy on health, to attain a COVID-19 free Nigeria. Findings in this work indicates that more awareness and campaigns are needed to be carried out through Mobile house towards Sustainable Tourism in providing access to material resources, how to attain increased solutions to the Mobile Tourism delivery and satisfaction in Nigeria.

Keywords: Destination, investigation, operation, satisfaction and transportation




The Problems and Prospects of Online Cataloguing in Nigerian Libraries


Bala Suleiman Abdul; Abubakar Abdullahi Hamani; Adamu Ibrahim; & Idris Mohammed

Department of Library and Information Science, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi



The paper discusses the problems and prospects of online cataloguing in Nigerian library and information centres. It further highlights the importance of online cataloguing as it affects information retrieval based on hands-on experience. The paper also highlights the merits and demerits of online cataloguing and its effect on Nigerian Libraries. The paper also draws attention to the challenges facing the libraries as they migrate to online cataloguing as one of their service, in addition, the paper discuses some of the prospects of the online cataloguing that libraries in Nigeria can emulate.

Keywords: online cataloguing, prospects, Nigeria.




Paper Tittle: Role of Entertainment Education in Rural Communities Development.


Olowolekomo Alaba Kolapo

Science Laboratory Technology Department, Abraham Adesanya Polytechnic, Ijebu igbo.



The study investigated the various traditional entertainments in rural communities and their impact.  Random sampling was used to select a ward each from rural and urban communities in the study area.  Ten percent of the villages in each ward were then randomly selected Questionnaire was used to collect primary data from 125 respondents in which 114 (91.2%) were responded.  Data were analyzed using frequency count percentages chi square and t-test.The study revealed that traditional social institution like hide and seeks, tales by moonlight, competitive wrestling, dance, craft, art, greeting and mode of dressing still exist.  Segmental change was the major change experience through religious institutions, urbanization, application of science and technology.  They had positive economic, political, behavioral cultural and technological impact and insignificant difference exist in the extent of change in traditional social institution in the study area.  It was recommended that Government should boost extension services to make extension agents effective in impacting effective change in rural communities.  Also, missionaries should put in more effort to enlighten the rural populace through building of school, provision of health services and seminars.

Keywords: Entertainment, Education, Community, Roles, Rural.




An Overview of the Sustainability and Green Architecture Innovation: Towards Identifying Impediments to Its Practice in Nigeria


Ndandok, Christy Thyeno1; Mustapha, Muhammed Aliyu2 & Arc. Zemo, Stephen Audu3

Department of Architecture, College of Environmental Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic.



Sustainability is the solution to combating the negative environmental impacts in our environment. In Nigeria the practice of sustainability via green architecture in our built environment is a necessity in fighting the environmental concerns of the Nation. This is because green Architecture remains the foundation of sustainable construction, it refers to a structure that is resource-efficient in terms of economy, utility, durability, and comfort. Nigeria has all the necessary potential to support the implementation and practice of green architecture concepts, however, this practice is very scarce and discouraged by problems like huge power, water, & processed material consumptions due to increased urbanization, and limits of the knowledge of the Professionals in the construction industry. Literature review is used in this study to appraise sustainability and green architecture existence in Nigeria so as to identify the obstructions to its practice. The study was able to identify the impediments to the practice of green buildings in Nigeria and concluded that the sustainable environment will continue to be an illusion if the construction industry and other stake holders fail to overcome these categorized impediments.

Keywords: Sustainability, Green Architecture, Green Buildings, Built Environment and Environmental impact.




Effects of Drip Irrigation Levels on the Performance of Lettuce Under Greenhouse Condition in Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Northern Nigeria.


1Popoola, A. S.; 2Likita, M. S.; 3Lapkat, L. G.; 4Bako, A.; 5Ademola, T. O.; 6Maikano, S.; 7Yahaya, U. F.; and 8S. O. Okechalu

1Forestry Technology Department, Federal College Forestry, Jos Plateau State. 7Agricultural Extension, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. 3, 4, 8Horticulture and Landscape Technology Department, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. 2Basic Science Department, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. 5Agricultural Technology Department, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State. 6Forestry Technology, Federal College Forestry Afaka, Kaduna State.



This study was carried out in agreenhouse in order to determine effects of different irrigation levels on lettuce yield, grown from October to December 2019, in Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. Different irrigation water amounts based on Class-A-Pan evaporation were applied to the plants by drip irrigation system at four irrigation levels (120%CWR= 1.2, 100%CWR=1.0, 80%CWR=0.80, 60%CWR=0.6) in one week irrigation interval. Applied irrigation water and evapotranspiration of 100%CWR treatment were 118 and 125 mm, respectively. The highest average lettuce yield of 7.8 ton da-1 was obtained from the full-irrigation treatment (Kp1). Significant differences were not observed between Kp1 and Kp2 treatments in terms of lettuce yield. Maximum irrigation water use efficiency and total water use efficiency were obtained from Kp4 treatment respectively with 0.117 and 0.074 ton da-1 mm-1. Yield response factor (ky) was found to be 0.88. The research results showed that a 7 day irrigation interval with Kp2 treatment could be used for irrigating lettuce under the unheated greenhouse conditions without any significant yield loss but increased water use efficiencies.

Keywords: Drip irrigation, greenhouse, water stress, class A-pan evaporation




Effects of Entrpreneurial Competencies on the Performance of Cassava Processors in Abia State, Nigeria.


1Uduak Okon Jeremiah; 2Udo Ogechi Sylvia; & 3Udo Ginikachi Cynthia

1Department of Estate Management, School of Environmental Studies, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua. 2Department of Agri-Business and Management, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State. 3Department of Financial Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri.



The study analysed the effects of entrepreneurial competencies and performances among cassava processors in Abia State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to ascertain the various forms of value added cassava products produced by the respondents;    analyze the influence of entrepreneurial competency and associated socio-economic variables on the processors entrepreneurial performance; and make recommendations based on the findings. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 70 respondents. Primary data were collected through the aid of a well structured questionnaire. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics tools such as frequency, mean, tables, percentage as well as multiple regression analysis.The result of the multiple regression result indicated that the coefficients of age, gender, education, religion, and marital statuswere statistically significant at different levels of probability. The study therefore recommended that cassava processors should be given enough orientation to enable them manage their inputs and also to understand the business environment in order to identify the market needs.

Key words: cassava processors, multiple regression, entrepreneurs competencies, performance, abia state




Nutritional and Microbial Quality of Stored Locally Formulated Weaning Meal


**Samuel, E; *Udosen, I. E.;*Okpube, H. C. and *Ambi A. A.

*Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. **Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.



In this study, a local weaning meal made up of maize, soybean and groundnut was formulated. The components were each in proportion of 2:1:1. Material balance method was used to predetermine the nutrient to meet standards in the final product. The proximate result of the formulated weaning meal showed that protein content (%) was 20.60, with 9.30 fat and 66.40 carbohydrate, 1.39 ash content, 2.32 moisture content. Though the moisture increased marginally compared to changes in weeks, the microbial load count (Cfu/g) did not change significantly. Meanwhile, the level fell below allowable recommended range of 25- 250 cfu/g. The formulation was evaluated by 15 panelists using a 9 – point hedonic scale and statistical analysis carried out on their responses. The mean scores from sensory evaluation showed that the formulated sample was accepted. These results provide a basis for the development of an acceptable complementary food that can provide the required protein energy level that are essential basic nutrients, and can meet infants growth demands.

Keywords: Nutritional, Microbial, Quality, Stored, Formulated.




Temperature Effect on Solar Photovoltaic Power Generation


Engr. K. Tanno1, Isire-Wilfred Veronica E2

1,2Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe-Oghara



The objective of this project to identify the temperature effect on the solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation and minimize the temperature effect. The photovoltaic (PV) cells suffer efficiency drop as their operating temperature increases especially under high insulation levels and cooling is beneficial. A selected photovoltaic module’s the Voc, Isc and Pmax will be determined for varying temperature when Irradiation is constant. (Isc = Short-circuit current (A), Voc = Open-circuit voltage (V) and Pmax= Maximum power (W)) and Compared Voc, Isc, Pmax from the Standard rest condition. From the gathered data, the best position (height difference between roof top and solar panel) for the solar panel to avoid temperature increasing will be determined and a suitable photovoltaic thermal system (active cooling) for solar panels.. These techniques are anticipated to contribute towards wider applications of PV systems due to the increased overall efficiency.

Keywords: photovoltaic power, solar power, renewable energy, temperature, open circuit voltage, short circuit current, maximum power.




Insecticidal Effects of Gmelina Arborea Stem Bark and Leaf Powder on Sitophilus Zeamais (Maize Weevil) on Stored Zea Mays (Maize) Grain


1Oladejo A.O., 1Sikiru G.K., 2Popoola A.S., 3Adedire O. and 1Olori-Oke O.

1Department of Pest Management Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos Nigeria 2Department of Forestry Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos.  Nigeria 3Department of Statistics, Federal College of Forestry, Jos. Nigeria



The heavy post-harvest losses and quality deterioration caused by storage pests are a major problem facing agriculture in developing countries such as Nigeria (Adedire and Ajayi, 1996; Parwada 2018). Sitophilus zeamais (maize weevil) is a field and storage pest of maize of economic importance in several parts of Africa. Controlling of the pest by use of synthetic pesticides is raising serious concern on the environmental safety and consumer health hazards. A laboratory experiment was done to assess the insecticidal effects of and leaf powders then their combination in controlling the S. zeamais. A Completely Randomised Design (CRD) with three application rates (5.0g/200 g grain, 10.0g/200g grain and 15.0g/200g maize grain) of the botanicals (stem bark and leaf powders and combination of stem bark and leaf powders) replicated three times was used in the assessment. A synthetic chemical (Malathion dust at 0.1g) was used as a check pesticide to compare the efficacy of the botanicals on the maize weevil. The results showed higher weevil mortality and lower grain loss in the Malathion than in the botanicals (P≤0.05). However, there was no significant difference between Malathion and G. arborea stem bark powder at concentration 15.0g which recorded highest mortalities of 90% on day three. This was followed by leaf powder and combination 76.67% and 60.0%) respectively. The G. arborea stem bark powder at 15.0g/200g grain showed pesticide potentials in controlling the S. zeamais and therefore can be used to protect maize grain damage from the weevil during storage.

Keywords: Gmelina, Insecticidal effect, Weevil, Maize, Malathion




Nigerian Monocultural Economy and the Need for Economic Diversification for Sustainable Economic Development


Ezeocha, Chukwuemeka Maurice.

Department of Banking and Finance, Federal Polytechnic, PMB 1012, Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State, Nigeria



This paper assesses the nature of the oil-based mono-cultural economy of Nigeria viz-a-viz its implications. Nigeria’s economy has over the years remained a mono-cultural economy, heavily dependent on crude oil export for economic development. There have been sincere calls for diversification of the economy, especially since the sharp and continuous decline in crude oil prices in mid-2014, which arguably, led to recession in the second quarter of 2016. The paper therefore re-enforces and justifies this call, by clearly highlighting the reasons why Nigeria urgently needs to diversify its economy away from oil resource dependency. If Nigeria will not change the oil dependency economy, there will be grave implications for its economic development. With oil price volatility and decline on the global market, coupled with disruptions in oil supply affecting the international oil market in some ways, huge reliance on oil revenue has seen Nigeria being challenged in her quest for development. The research makes use of secondary data to assess the situation and also draws the conclusion that with oil price volatility and decline on the global market Nigeria needs to diversify her economy as reliance on a basic resource discourages growth. It is therefore recommended among other things, that Governments at all levels should design pragmatic and workable programmes that will revitalize the agricultural sector and promote agricultural productivity. More so, every geo-political zone and state in Nigeria has unexplored or under-utilized mineral deposits due to great focus on the oil sector and should therefore, develop other aspects of the economy where they have comparative advantage, subject to constitutional constraints.

Keywords: Monocultural Economy, Economic Diversification, Economic Development.




Suitability of Baobab Flour as a Binder and Comparative Study of Its Binding Potential with Some Locally Available Binders in Sawdust Briquetting


1Umar Musa, 2Benjamin Adejoh and 3Musa Hassan Abulkadir

1,3Department of Chemical Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, 2Department of Civil Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic



The suitability of baobab flour as a binder and comparative studies of its binding potential with some locally available binders in sawdust briquetting were carried out. The other binders studied were cassava starch and cow dung. Out of the three binders, the Baobab flour is the non-common binder which is being introduced to determine its suitability as a binder in sawdust briquetting and to compare it with the others. Nine different saw dust briquette samples were produced, samples A-I with different binder compositions. Samples A, B, and C contained only cassava starch, cow dung and Baobab flour as binder respectively while the other samples D-I contained blend of the binders at different formulations as presented in Table 1. All the binders used were found to have good binding potential for briquette production and can be used alone or as a blend in proportion with the other binders. However, Briquette sample C with pure baobab flour binder: (0% cassava starch; 0% cow dung and 30% Baobab flour) has the highest calorific value of 22.0 MJ/kg and the highest thermal efficiency of 35.48%. The briquette sample F with binder blend formulation of: (4.5%% cassava starch; 4.5% cow dung and 21% Baobab flour) on the average showed the optimal briquette qualities (Moisture content, ash content, shatter index, compressive strength, calorific value and thermal efficiency) being tested.

Keywords:  Saw dust, Briquettes, moisture content, ash content, shatter index, compressible strength, calorific value, thermal efficiency




Implementation of Soft Starter Using 4 Phase Induction Motor


Odigwe Fidelis Obi

Department of Electrical/Electronics Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Oko



This paper is describes the soft and smooth start to a 3 phase induction motor. The three phase induction motor during the initial starting condition draws up much higher current than its capacity and the motor instantly reaches the full speed. This results in a mechanical jerk and high electrical stress on the windings of the motor. Sometimes the windings may get burnt. The prototype have been developed to give a soft start to the induction motor based on the SCR firing triggered by heavily delayed firing angle during starting and then gradually reducing the delay till it reaches zero voltage triggering. This results in low voltage during start and then gradually to full voltage. Thus the motor starts slowly and then slowly picks up to full speed. The working prototype consists of a six anti-parallel SCRs, two for each phase, the output of which is connected to a set of lamps representing the coils of a 3 phase induction motor, capacitors, comparators, opto-isolators to trigger the SCRs etc .This can be enhanced by using IGBTs in place of SCRs with PWM control to reduce harmonic distortions often encountered in SCR triggering mechanism for future scope. The implementation of hardware model has been discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Implementation, Soft, Starter, Phase, Induction.




Fungicidal Effect of Three Plant Extracts in Control of Four Phytopathogenic Fungi of Irish Potato (Solanum Tuberosum.) Fruit Rot in Mubi Adamawa State      


Abdu, H. I1; Abubakar Isa2; Maria Dingari 3; Ibrahim Usman Kashim4; & Samuel Waja5.

1Dept. of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi Adamawa State. 2Dept. of Science LaboratoryTechnology, Federal polytechnic mubi Adamawa State. 3Dept. of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi Adamawa State. 4Dept. of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi Adamawa State. 5Dept. of Biological sciences, Federal Polytechnic Mubi Adamawa State.



A study for fungal post-harvest rot pathogens of Irish potatot rot was investigated in four markets in Mubi Adamawa state, (mubi main market, kasuwan kuturu, new market and kasuwan gada) with objectives to identify the fungal pathogens of potato, to determine the incidence and the severity of the pathogens and to determine the in-vitro and in-vivo control of the three plant extracts (garlic oil, neem oil andTridax leaf ash) on the pathogens. One hundred and twenty Irish potatoes were randomly collected from the four markets and taken to laboratory of Plant Science, Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola. Industrial potato dextrose agar (PDA) was used for the isolation of fungi. Completely randomized design (CRD) was used in three replicates for each of the treatment. Data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and least significant difference (LSD) separated means that were significant. The symptoms of the disease were observed and associated organisms isolated and identified through pathogenicity test and the following pathogens were identified; Aspergillus flavus, Thielavia terricola Rhizopus stolonifer and Scoupulariopsis brevicaulis. A severity test on the pathogens was carried out with the sample size of twelve potatoes by measuring the level rot of the pathogens. Result showed (p=0.0001) that Thielavia terricola was the most severe (13.11mm) and Aspergillus flavus with least of (7.97mm) and no significant between Rhizopus stolonifer and Scoupulariopsis brevicaulis. The incidence of potato rot in four markets revealed a high percentage rot in kasuwan gada (12.65%), mubi main market (7.65%), kasuwan kuturu (6.5%) and new market (5.25%). Control trials both in-vitro and in-vivo with garlic oil, neem oil andTridax leaf ash were found promising, and their different concentrations (5ml, 1oml and 15ml) were also found promising and the effectiveness of the control increased as the oils and quantities of ash increased. Essential oil of garlic, neem oil and Tridax leaf ash extracts proved effective in the control of potato fungal rot and are recommended as an alternative to synthetic fungicides which are often hazardous and costly.

Keyword: Solanum tuberosum, Aspergillus flavus, Thielavia terricola, Rhizopus stolonifer and Scoupulariopsis brevicaulis, garlic, neem,Tridax leaf ash concentration, invivo and invitro.




Towards the Application of Key Issues in Assessing Disparity in Settlements for Sustainable Developmet of Cities in Nigeria


Lebana M. Daspan; Maiyaki Dele Jubrin; & Ado Tanimu Mairiga

Department of Urban and Regional Planning College of Environmental Studies, School of Environmental Design, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna



Cities of contentment has not been available or being satisfactory over the years. This is shown by the prevalence of disparity on a settlement that is characterized by two distinct posture. The emergence of equitable cities development is as a result of disparity within an area. This two different areas have characteristics with different set-up which is not supposed to be so with the rate urbanization. The scenario of different settlements having un-satisfactory features or the same settlement with two different characteristics is a situation where one area seems to be planned and the other part is not. The other part that is organic is forced to trespass into the planned area to benefit from one thing or the other. While it happens like that, the organically emerged areas become an eyesore with much burden on the planned area. This happening indeed contravene planning intention though they are said to have historical background but with problems of equidistance in distribution of facilities, utilities and services. The concept of equitable cities is based on equitable development including both environmental justice and smart growth void of disparity as observed by Levy, (2009). The intention of this paper is to see how development can be spread in equity.

Keywords: Key issues, Assessment, Disparity, Development and Sustainable.




Assessment of Urban Public Open Spaces in Mubi Metropolitan Area, Adamawa State Nigeria


¹Tpl. Rabiu Mohammed Usman; ²Ignatius Joseph; & ³Ahmed Mohammed Habibu

¹Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State. ²Department of Environmental Science and Industrial safety, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State. ³Department of Estate Management, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria



Open Spaces whether public or private can increase the aesthetics appeal, amenity and value of a neighbourhood, town, city, suburb or regional area, apart from providing places to play, be it active in case of active recreation or relax in passive recreation, public open space afford many various benefits. Environmental benefits can be gained through protecting our local Flora and Fauna (i.e biodiversity) and visual landscapes, retiring ecological system and linkages, and management of urban water. Socially the benefits that can be derived by our communities from Public Open Spaces include interaction and recreation and enhancement of our cultural values. Economic benefits that can be derived from Public Open Spaces include provision of service supporting visitation for sport, recreation and tourism. The aim of this paper is to assess condition of existing Public Open Spaces in Mubi Metropolitan area. One hundred questionnaires were administered and retrieved and this represents 0.03% of the people in the study area. It was found that the area lacks these facilities and the few ones on ground are in bad shape due to poor maintenance. Recommendations proffered include provision of more these facilities and rehabilitation of existing ones by the state Government and the Planning Authority at Local Government level.

Keywords: Public, Open Space, Urban Area, Facilities




Design and Construction of a Fully Automated Egg Incubator Using Electric/ Battery


Engr. Bala, A. M1.;   Abubakar, M. A2.; Bello, M. S2.; & Salako.,  I.2

1Department of Electrical Electronic Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, 0231, Nigeria. 2Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, 0231, Nigeria.



Incubation of poultry egg is important these days as the demand for chicken is increasing day by day. The objective of this paper is to design, fabricate and testing of a fully automated egg incubator using electric, battery and inverter. Microcontroller based egg incubator system which is able to automatically maintain the environment which is optimum for embryo growth. The system has a temperature sensor which is able to monitor the temperature inside and outside the incubator and this data is sent to a microcontroller. The microcontroller, with the help of relays controls an incandescent lamp and an air circulating fan to maintain the egg temperature from 36 to 38.5°C. The microcontroller also has a user-programmed timer to control a gear motor for turning the egg holder. Egg incubators with regular, effective and efficient operation have the capacities of providing enough poultry birds, which can serve every household in Nigeria with sufficient amount of protein on daily basis. Although many commercial incubators in Nigeria have folded up due to epileptic and erratic electricity supply which disrupts and impairs the operation of the incubators and reduce their level of performance resulting into low production and cost of poultry birds. In order to ensure an uninterrupted power supply and keep egg incubators in operation, an electric, battery and inverter powered poultry egg incubators were developed. The developed electrical/ battery and inverter incubator will be 0.98*0.73*1.31m in size with capacity for 1000 chickens egg. The size of the charge controller, batteries and inverter power designed and used was 400W. For the duration of the days of ground work the temperature will be maintained within the recommended range of 360C to 390C which will achieved will achieved with the temperature control system. The diameter of the crank of the turning mechanism will be 151mm while the radius of the ventilation hole obtained will be 13.30mm and the heat required will be 360W and incubation unit heat losses at the rate of 1.154KJ/s.  Two batteries for GEL 100-12 or 12V/100AH was used as an electronic device that converts direct current into alternating current and also work as a backup power supply from batteries which will be fully charged for 6hours.

Keywords:  Design, Egg Incubator, Inverter, Battery, and Chicken.




Application of Bacteriocin and Silver Nanoparticles against Bacteria Associated with Selected Vegetables


1Ihum, T. A; 2Iheukwumere, C. C.; 3Ogbonna, I. O.; 3Gberikon G. M.

1Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute, Ilorin, Kwara State. 2Department of Botany, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State. 3Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State. 



The combined and individual effects of Bacterocin of L. plantarum and silver nanoparticles synthesized using goat milk at different concentrations (50, 75, 100 µL) was tested against food spoilage organisms (Enterobacter cloacae AS10, Escherichia coli 2013C-3342 and Staphylococcus aureus CIP 9973) isolated from selected vegetables. Results showed that silver nanoparticle/bacteriocin combination exerted notable influence against Enterobacter cloacae AS10 (25 ± 0.16 mm, 27 ± 0.22 mm, 30 ± 0.5 mm), Staphylococcus aureus CIP 9973 (24 ± 0.2 mm, 27 ± 0.27 mm, 30 ± 0.29 mm) and Escherichia coli 2013C-3342 (24.07 ± 0.4, 26.27 ± 0.25 and 30 ± 0.2 mm) at aliquots of 50, 75 and 100 µl respectively with increasing concentration as compared to the individual effects of bacteriocin and silver nanoparticles. Besides the use of bacteria, fungi and other macromolecules, goat milk could also be harnessed in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles while also exploring its use in the nearest future as an antibacterial and preservative agent.

Keywords: Antibacterial; Bacteriocin; Food spoilage organisms, Preservatives, Silver Nanoparticles.




An Optimization Model for Minimizing the Production Cost of Deteriorating Items


Yahaya, Ahmad Abubakar; Bello Yakubu; Manko Abubakar Abdulrahman; and Abdllahi M. Usman

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, School of Basic and General Studies, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida



The profit of any manufacturing company is dependent on how much the firm can cut on its production cost. So, Minimizing production cost in a manufacturing company will increase the profit of the company. The production cost of deteriorating items is dependent on the cutting parameters including the holding, shortage, set up and production cost. If these parameters are set to the optimal level, then, the overall cost of the production can be minimized. This study develops profit and production inventory model for deteriorating items with constant demand, Shortages are allowed in the inventory system. The aim of this model is to determine the optimal cycle length of each product such that the expected total cost is minimized. The necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of optimal solutions are also determined. To validate the optimal solution, numerical example is provided. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to explore the effect of changes in the values of different parameters. 

Keywords: Deteriorating items, Production cost and Cost minimization




The Optimization Problem of Product Mix and Linear Programing Applications, a Revise Simplex Approach; a Study of Amo Byng Nigeria Limited


Usman Hassan; Aminu Haruna; Salisu Lukunti; & Bala Yusuf

Department of Maths and Statistics, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi.



Strategies for developing industries are characterized by the efficient use of resources at every production stage. Efficient utilization of resources is made sustainable by effective management decision making techniques employed in the industry. A quantitative decision-making tool called linear programming can be used for the optimization problem of product mix. Understanding the concept behind the optimization problem of product mix is essential to the success of the industry for meeting customer needs, determining its image, focusing on its core business, and inventory management. The firm’s profit mainly depends on the proper allocation and usage of available production time, material and labor resources. This paper considers Amo Byng product and profit per unit for each product have been collected from the company. The data gathered was used to estimate the parameters of the linear programming model. The model was solved using Reverse simplex method. The findings of the study shows that, the profit of the company can be improved by 9.1% (from 26,520,300 naira per month to 29.192 million per month). by applying linear programming models if customer orders have to be satisfied. The profit of the company can be improved by 9.1% if the linear programming formulation does not need to consider customer order

Keywords: Optimization, Problem, Product, Linear Programing, Applications.




Problems of Hostel Accommodation on Campus, a Survey of College of Education Hong, Adamawa State


Gideon Jafiya; James Jesse Shingu; & Stephen Joseph

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi



The survey revealed that most of students lived on campus and that the problem is severe to the extent that two to five students share one bed space. The major causes of the problem according to the findings is the over enrolment of students into the college as the college now upgrade some department into degree awarding institution, others are lack of maintainers and students vandalization. The problem of the accommodation according to the findings if not address lead to poor academic performance, overcrowding, stealing, raping and sexual assault among others. The research also discovered other problems, which include over stretching of facilities like toilet and water. The survey gave recommendations which the researcher believe will help to reduce the problems of accommodation in the college

Keywords: Accommodation, Hostel, problem, Survey, campus




The Politics of Turkey-Syria Relations: Emerging Conflict or Peace


Jibrin Ubale Yahaya, PhD

Department of Political Science, National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN)



Turkey has been diplomatically and militarily involved in the Syrian Civil War since its outbreak in 2011. Initially condemning the Syrian government at the outbreak of civil unrest in Syria during the spring of 2011, the Turkish government’s involvement gradually  into military assistance for the Free Syrian Army in July 2011, border clashes in 2012, and direct military interventions in 2016- 2017, 2018, and in 2019. The military operations have resulted in the Turkish occupation of northern Syria since August 2016. After a decade of relatively friendly relations with Syria during the prior decade, Turkey condemned Syrian President Bashar Al-Assad over the violent crackdown on protests in 2011 and later that year joined a number of other countries demanding his resignation. From the beginning of the war, Turkey trained defectors of the Syrian Army in its territory under the supervision of the Turkish National Intelligence Organization (MİT), among who emerged the Free Syrian Army (FSA) in July 2011. In May 2012, the Turkish National Intelligence Organization (MİT) began arming and training the FSA and provided them with a base of operations. Tensions between Syria and Turkey significantly worsened after Syrian forces shot down a Turkish fighter jet in June 2012, and border clashes erupted in October 2012. On 24 August 2016, the Turkish Armed Forces began a declared direct military intervention into Syria, mainly targeting the People’s Protection Units but also the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. Human rights groups, including the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights and Human Rights Watch have reported that Turkish troops have killed 443 civilians fleeing the civil war in Syria. This includes 78 children and 44 women killed by Turkish border guards. This paper has uses various literatures on the subject matter and reviewed it to investigate the problem at hand. The researcher was of view that Turkey-Syria relation has growing serious bad signals bad diplomatic relations since 2011 after Syrian unrest and involvement of Turkey government in to refugee and military assistance that led to Turkish army occupying some places around the country’s borders that make Syrian army to revolt in order to protect their territory. For peace to be maintain in Syrian there is need for Russia , US,  French and other superpowers  countries to withdraw their hands from the conflict and allowed the two countries to diplomatically resolved their differences.

Keywords: Syrian Unrest, Peace, Turkey Intervention, Diplomatic Relations




Challenges Impeding Events Management In Bida, Niger State


1Ononogbo Kingsley Ugochukwu; 2Habeeb Mohammed Aishetu; 2Tsado Martha N. & 2Chinekeokwu Sylvia Uchenna

1Department of Leisure and Tourism Management, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida. 2Department of Hospitality Management, the Federal Polytechnic, Bida.



The purpose of this study was to assess the challenges facing events management in Bida, in order to reposition its events sector and enable the various stakeholders play positive roles that foster effective and efficient events management. Questionnaires were administered to eight events companies and interview schedule on relevant stakeholders for data collection. Data were collected and analyzed using frequency count and percentage, and the hypotheses subjected to the Chi-square analytical technique to ascertain the relationships between the variables. In this study, the alternative hypotheses were accepted. This implies that not only will the challenges of event management businesses in Bida adversely affect the growth of the event industry; poor customer satisfaction directly affects event management business in Bida. It was also discovered that lack of professionalism and government controls and policies especially on taxation have affected the prospects of events management in Bida necessitating poor customer satisfaction and sales volume. It was suggested that government should eliminate multiple taxations and regular training and retraining organized for staff of event management firms in Bida.

Keywords: Events management, events planning, event tourism




Identification of Trees Used in Charcoal Production in Bauchi State, Nigeria


1Wakili, A., 1Garba, A., 2Yakubu, M.N. and ³Abdallah, Y. 

1Department of Forestry Technology, Federal Polytechnic, PMB 0231 Bauchi, Bauchi State- Nigeria 2Biologcal Sciences Programme, Abu-Bakr Tafawa Balewa University, PMB 0248 Bauchi, Bauchi State- Nigeria ³Bauchi State Agricultural Development Programme, HQ, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria 



With an aid of validated copies of structured questionnaire, charcoal tree species, method of charcoal production and conservative effort of those involved in charcoal business were examined in Bauchi State, Nigeria. Out of the twenty Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Bauchi State, six were randomly selected using stratified   according to the prevailing tree ecological zones which include: Northern Guinea savannah, Sudan Savannah and Sahel Savannah. The LGAs selected were Toro and Dass from Northern Guinea Savannah, Kirfi and Warji from Sudan Savannah and, Jama’are and Dambam from Sahel Savannah. The study reveals that twenty nine (29) forest tree species from eighteen botanical families were being used FOR charcoal production. The families that had the highest utilization were Fabaceae, and Combretaceae with four species each used for charcoal production. Moraceae had three species; Caesalpiniacea, Verbanaceae and Anarcadiaceae had two species each. The families of melaceae, Sapotaceae, Myrtacea, leguminaceae, balanitaceae, Bambacaceae, Rhamnaceae, Euphobiaceae, Boraginaceae, Ebonaceae and Burseraceae had the least of one specie each. The results also shows that those involved in charcoal business have never participated in tree planting for environmental rejuvenation but have indicated their interest to take part in future when planting stock and extension services will be made available. In order to lessen the utilization of charcoal, provision of improved stoves and alternative to fuel wood were recommended among others.

Keywords: Charcoal, Conservation, Rare species, Abundant species, Planting stock




Evaluation of Processing Methods on Engineering Properties of Carrot


Abodenyi, V.A

Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi



The study was undertaken to analyze and give rise to methods and techniques to which carrot can be processed, ready for use at periods when they are scarce, be in safe and useful condition while stored. Two different size of carrot were used 5 x6x7cm3 and 10x11x12cm3 both blanched and unblanched to investigate the effect of drying mediums as a processing method on the physical properties of carrot. Three different drying medium were used which include electric cabinet dryer, solar cabinet dryer and direct sun drying. Some of the engineering properties evaluated were size, color, bulk density, texture. The dried carrot were refreshed to compare the moisture absorption with the fresh carrot and also color variation of both blanched and unblanched carrot sliced in the different drying medium. The result showed that the drying medium had significant effect on the color of carrot after drying, size A  which is5 x6x7 cm3 (small) was found to retain the color much better and dried faster and better than size B which is10 x11x12cm3 (big), also the time taken for drying was shorter for electric method 3 – 4 hours at 500C.

Keyword: carrot, blanched, color, physical properties, drying medium



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