African Scholar Journal of African Sustainable Development (AJASD) Vol. 15 No.2


VOL. 15 NO.2 SEPTEMBER, 2019 ISSN: 2010–1086



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies,

University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office,

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.


Copyright © 2019 African Scholar Publications and Research International.


Streamflow Sensitivity Analysis, Calibration and Validation Using Soil and Water Assessment Tools (Swat) and Sufi-2 Algorithm.


Daramola, J., M Ekhwan, T., Mokhtar, J. And Lam, K. C.

Geography Program, Social, Environmental, Development, Sustainability Research Centre (SEEDS), Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.



Watershed large size and complexity in Nigeria make modeling a very crucial matter, in order to reduce cost and time spent on measurement and quantification. Hence, a physically based distributed hydrologic model Soil and Water Assessment Tools was applied to the four reaches that constituted Kaduna watershed (32,124 km2) located north central Nigeria. The weather variables used to drive the watershed hydrological balance was from 1987 to 2018, Sequential Uncertainty Fitting procedure (SUFI-2) was used for the model calibration and validation. The simulation outcomes show a good agreement between simulated and measured hydrographs at the outlet of the watershed. The model identified the threshold depth of water (, effective hydraulic conductivity (CH_K2.rte), soil available water capacity (SOL_AWC(.).sol,), plant uptake compensation factor (EPCO.hru) and surface runoff lag coefficient; (SURLAG.bsn) as the most sensitive parameters for streamflow estimation in the watershed. The model predicts the monthly discharge values with a good accuracy of about 71%, 80%, 86% according to the Nash–Sutcliff (NS), coefficient of determination (r2) and percentage of observed data (p-factor) respectively. The study revealed that a properly calibrated and validated SWAT model is appropriate for hydrology modelling the prediction at a watershed scale in Nigeria. Also, appropriately calibrated SWAT model is a good model that can guide the authority concern on hydrology and water resources management at watershed scale in Nigeria and west Africa at large.

Keywords: calibration, streamflow, sensitivity analysis, SWAT, SUFI-2 Algorithm and validation




Comparative Analysis of Households Solid Waste Storage Containers in Bauchi Metropolis


1Gumau, Binta Garba, 2Harir, Isa Adamu 3Kama, H. G,

1,2Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria 3Department of Geography, Nasarawa State University



A comparative analysis of household solid waste storage containers in three residential densities in Bauchi metropolis was carried out. The types of data collected for the study includes storage methods, types of solid waste storage containers, frequency of emptying and condition of solid waste storage container. The study employed cross sectional survey covering high, medium and low residential density areas and systematically sampled 150 households. The result from descriptive analysis indicated that there is no difference in method of solid waste storage but there are differences in types of storage containers in the high, medium and low residential density areas; The result from the Multivariate Test indicated that there was a significant mean difference of the conditions of solid waste container in the three residential density areas; V = 0.49, F (4, 294) = 23.69, p < .05. Condition of the solid waste containers were categorized into; poor, fair, and good. Poor condition of solid waste storage container is the one, that is leaking, no handle and does not equate the waste generated. Analysis from MANOVA, V = 0.46, F (4, 294) = 23.69, p < 0.05, also indicate that there was a significant mean difference in the frequency of empting the storage containers from households in the high, medium and low residential density areas. Recommendations were made on how to improve sustainable solid waste storage system and thus sustainable solid waste management.

Keywords: comparative analysis, storage container, residential density, sustainable solid waste storage system.




Inter-Religious and Inter-Ethnic Co-Existence in Nigeria: Reflections and Policy Options


Dr. Abdur-Rahman Olalekan Olayiwola

Department of Political Science, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos.



Religion remains enormously influential in the construction and mobilization of collective identities. In the same vein, ethnicity seeks to influence the structure of power in a country and calls attention to perceived deteriorating material conditions, political deprivation or marginalization of its groups. Religion could serve, and has indeed served as an instrument of social harmony. Ethnicity could also serve, and has indeed served as a uniting and integrating weapon in deeply heterogeneous, plural, federal and divided societies to supplement and complement “unity in diversity”. Paradoxically, however, religion and ethnicity have also served as motivations for violence, conflicts, insurgency and counter insurgency. This is the situation in Nigeria, where it has been a problematic problem to achieve inter-religious and inter-ethnic peaceful co-existence. Nigeria’s return to democratic rule in 1999 has contributed to a noticeable upsurge in religious, ethnic and communal conflicts. What factors are responsible for inter-religious and inter-ethnic conflicts in Nigeria? What warning signs can be identified to prevent and/or curb inter-religious and inter-ethnic conflicts? What changes are necessary and desirable with the present situation to avoid disintegration and fragmentation being threatened by religious and ethnic conflicts as Nigeria approaches another attempt at democratic rule consolidation in socio-economic and political conditions which are less propitious than on past occasions since independence. This paper on inter-religious and inter-ethnic co-existence in Nigeria: Reflections and Policy Options, attempts to provide some answers within the limitations to which the author is exposed.

Keywords: Religion, Ethnicity, Conflicts, Violence, Unity, National integration, Inter-religious co-existence, Inter-ethnic co-existence   




An Overview of SDG 11 as a Ray of Hope for the Nigerian Informal Settlers


Adeniran Ayo1, Ibrahim Kabir2, Mngomezulu, Sibongangani3, Mbanga Sijekula4 and Botha Brink 5

1, 3&4 Department of Building & Human Settlements, 2&5Department of Construction Management, Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.



In line with the dream of many countries, affordable housing provision for her citizen has been a front-burner for the Nigerian government, and this can be attributed to the pivotal role the housing sector plays in the growth of the economy. Despite several policies, interventions and programmes in revitalising the housing sectors, adequate housing remains elusive to Nigeria citizens. This paper appraised the various Nigerian housing delivery policies by the government with respect to achieving the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 11). The review paper considers the achievement to date, and the various supports received for achieving SDG 11. The study concluded that lack of implementation and management of past government policies on housing by various agencies saddled with the responsibility had recorded little or no success in housing delivery. The study recommends a total change in policy by the Nigerian government in order to achieve the 11th Sustainable Development Goal.

Keywords: Government policy, housing, informal settlers, Nigeria, and Sustainable Development Goal.




Managing Civil-Military Interactions in a Democracy: Perspectives of the Central Naval Command


Edward D. Yeibo, Aniefiok J. Udoudo & Pauline O. Ohiagu

Department of Linguistics and Communication Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.



The desire to achieve genuine civil-military relations in Nigeria has remained problematic due to the perception of the military as oppressive. Apart from setting up a relationship department, the Nigerian Navy undertakes some civil-military relations efforts to bridge civil-military distrust. This study investigated the civil-military relations strategies of the Central Naval Command in its area of operations. The specific objectives were to: find out the civil-military relations projects undertaken by the Central Naval Command in its area of operation; find out the impact of civil-military relations strategies adopted by Central Naval Command in its area of operation; and to identify the challenges that militate against civil-military relations in the Central Naval Command’s area of operation. The study was anchored on the Concordance theory. The descriptive survey research design was used to study a population of 9, 069, 982 from which a sample size of 384 was drawn. The sample size was based on Philip Meyer’s sampling system. Findings of the study showed that the Central Naval Command has undertaking projects, such renovation of classroom block and free medical outreaches in its area of operations. It was also found out that despite the projects, occasional clashes and the alleged manhandling of civilians by some naval officers results in a frosted relationship between the civil populace and the naval authorities. The study recommended, among other things, that beyond the initiation of projects, the Central Naval Command should address occasional clashes and the manhandling of civilian by some naval personnel.

Key Terms: Central Naval Command, Central Naval Command’s Area of Operations, Civil-Military Relations, Civil-Military Relations Projects, Civil Populace




Scaffolding Teaching a Pathway to Improving Students’ Academic Achievement and Retention in Welding and Fabrication Trade in Technical College in North-Central Nigeria.


Olatunde, Eniola Oluwafemi, Atsumbe, Bernard Numgwo and Saba, Tswanya Moses

Department of Industrial and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria



The study investigated the effect of scaffolding teaching technique on students’ academic achievement and retention in welding and fabrication trade in technical colleges in North-Central Nigeria. Two research question formulated to guide this study. The study adopted quasi-experimental research design. The population of the study was 54 students from four technical colleges in Niger and Kogi state, and the sample size was manageable. The instrument for data collection was 40 multichoice questions in line with the lesson plan that was used to train the student developed by the researcher. The instruments were validated by 3 experts. Cronbach alpha was used to determine the internal consistency of the instrument and a reliability index of 0.75 was obtained. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS, mean average was used to answer the research question. The findings of the study revealed that the students had the highest performance when they were taught with scaffolding teaching technique. As it was further reveled that the students taught with scaffolding teaching technique retained more than other students. It was recommended amidst others that attention should be given to teaching technique that involves student-centered learning like scaffolding teaching techniques in welding and fabrication trades and other vocational subjects.

Keywords: scaffolding, modelling, achievement, retention.




Computational Modelling of Ecospheric Assets: Alternative Numerical Approach


Eleki, A. G.(1) and Ekaka-a, E. N.(2)

1Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic, Rumuola, Port Harcourt, Nigeria 2Department of Mathematics, Rivers State University, Nkpolu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria



By using a computationally efficient numerical method of ordinary differential equations of order 45 (ODE 45), we have systematically predicted a high volume of biodiversity gain of ecospheric assets when the per asset degradation rate coefficient of the ecosphere due to normal agricultural activities ranges from its value of 0.10 to 0.30 and thereafter from the value of 1.80 to 1.90. The novel results that we have obtained in this present study are fully presented and discussed quantitatively in this study.

Keywords: ODE 45, Ecospheric Assets, Normal Agricultural Assets, Auxiliary Agricultural Assets, Industrial Assets, Per asset degradation rate coefficient.




Data precision of a rain drop scenario using a numerical method


*J.A. Okoro **E.N. Ekaka-a

*Department of Mathematics, School of Secondary Education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Omoku, Rivers State **Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, Rivers State University, Nkpolu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria



To quantify the effect of initial raindrop on the selection of a data precision requires a sound mathematical and statistical reasoning to tackle this challenging environmental science problem, we have utilize a computationally efficient method of ODE 45. The full novel results of this study which we have not seen elsewhere are presented and discussed.

Keywords: Data, Scenerior, Method, Numerical and Precision




The Effect of Some Selected Socio-Demographic Factors on Personal Hygiene Behaviours Using Optimal Scaling Regression


1Omisore A. Olurin and 1*Adegbite I. Olawale 

1Department of Statistics Osun State Polythecnic, Iree, Nigeria



Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness and it is a science that deals with the promotion and preservation of health. This research investigated the knowledge, attitude and practice towards personal hygiene of people living in Boripe Local Government area. The target age group of respondents is of minimum of 18 years. Sample size was 192, arrived at through stratified random sampling. Descriptive and inferential statistics of bar charts, Optimal scaling regression tools are employed. The results showed that the knowledge and attitude of the dwellers toward personal hygiene is good, but their perspectives are not encouraging. It was established that number of people living in an household, level of education and type of residence are of importance in that order to the knowledge, attitude and practice of personal hygiene. It is recommended that there is a need to use different strategies and approaches to translate people’s knowledge into practice and positive behaviours. 

Keywords: Personal hygiene, Hand washing, Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, Household.




Effect of LDPE Scrap Composition on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Recycled PVC


*A.T. Sule, M.I. Aliko, K.S. Abdullahi and M.S. Mato

Department of Textile Technology and Fashion, Kano State Polytechnic, Kano – Nigeria



Plastic is a versatile and inexpensive material with thousands of uses, but it is also a significant source of pollution. Some worrisome emerging environmental issues involve plastics, including gigantic oceanic garbage parches and the micro beads problem. In an effort to combat these problems most plastics are being recycled today. Two common plastics, Low density polyethylene and Polyvinylchloride, were melt-mixed at different percentages of 10/90 – 50/50% of LDPE / PVC and tested. The sample with 10% LDPE composition showed higher tensile strength, moderate elongation and higher modulus. Results also indicate that the tensile strength decreases as the percentage of PVC is decreased. Sample 40/60 has the highest elongation property, however, samples 10/90 and 50/50 displayed higher modulus. The flexural strength, which is the ability of the specimen to resist deformation, generally decreased as the composition of LDPE was increased with 10/90 sample having highest value of 46.4Mpa. 

Keywords: Scrap, Mechanical, Properties, Physical, Recycled




Party Politics and Intra-Party Conflicts in Nigeria


*Inuwa Abdu Ibrahim **Husseini Adamu Husseini ***Jamila Waziri Mohammed *Sirajo Ado Jahun

*Department of Public Administration, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria. **Department of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria. ***Department of Hospitality Management



The paper examines the development of and dynamics of political parties in Nigeria.
Concentrating on party politics and intra-party conflicts in the country. The paper looked at the historical backgrounds of party development, administration, configuration and party allegiance in Nigeria. The paper saw that whereas multi-party system seems to have been the leading exercise from colonial era to present day. This study observes that despite from putting a good framework on ground, there is a tangible danger that could be self-inflicted by several factions within political parties while each struggles to discover methods to achieve importance and power through desperate means.

Keywords: Democracy, Democratic Institutions, Government, Nigeria, Party Politics.




Communication Barriers on Construction Sites in Abuja, Nigeria


Abdullahi, A.H.1*, Isah, M.L.2, Mamman, J. E.3, Umesi, R.O4

Department of Quantity Surveying, the Federal Polytechnic Bida



The essence of communication is that a message is transmitted, obtained, and understood. But, in a few cases, a message is not understood by the recipient, however the transmitter assumes it was; as a consequence the “break-down in communication” starts off. The study aimed at identifying and establishing the communication barriers on construction sites and how they can be mitigated on construction sites in Abuja, Nigeria. Using qualitative methodology, the interview as a method of data collection; 29 interviews were conducted for 35 minutes each and content analysis was used to analyse them. It was found out that language, lack of training and education are the major barriers to effective communication on construction sites in Abuja and these could be mitigated through understanding English, training and re-training and education. The study further recommended that speaking and understanding of English language should be a criteria for working on construction sites and parties on site should be highly educated about a job at hand and continuously trained to keep abreast with the trend; not to assume it is known.

Keywords: Barriers, Communication, Construction, Effective, Site




Pollution Control: Towards Achieving Environmental Sustainability


Kauthar Abubakar Mika’il, Maimunatu Aboki, and Zainab Mohammed Zakari

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria.



The study describes the effect, causes and consequences of pollution in Nigeria. The problem of pollution is clearly noticed in almost all the cities within the country. Indiscriminate dumping of wastes on land surfaces and drainages, along the streets, in markets, in rivers etc. release of gases in to the atmosphere has become the order of the day. This has great impact on health and economy of the people and also affects the environmental conditions of the cities. In order to attain environmental sustainability, there is need to curb the menace of pollution. This paper suggests ways to improve the quality of life of individual, encourage public awareness and community participation, and enforce environmental laws for sustainable development.

Keywords: Pollution control, Environmental Sustainability, Public Awareness, Environmental Laws, Sustainable Development.




Gender Based Study on Teachers’ Opinions about the Impact of Malnutrition n Learning Among Primary School Pupils in Zaria, Kaduna State


*Dr. Ibrahim Zubairu and **Abdulmalik Aliyu

*Department of Educational Psychology, Federal College of Education, Zaria **Directorate for Professional Diploma in Education (DPDE), Federal College of Education, Zaria



This study as an annexure to the previous one investigated the opinions of teachers being one of the major stakeholders in the education system about the impact of malnutrition on learning. First of all, malnutrition is regarded as an act of omission from food intake containing all the necessary ingredients and nutrients necessary for growth and development. It is a situation which usually leads to nutritional deficiency in individuals, whereas infants and children who are expected to grow up into healthy productive adults are those that suffer most. Owing largely due to that fact, this study was thought of in order to assess the extent to which the phenomenon affect pupils’ learning in primary schools within the area under study, based on the gender of teachers and their opinions. To achieve that, a survey design was conducted with a questionnaire as a data collection instrument. Three hundred (300) respondents were chosen as sample based on the guidance of Krejcie and Morgan (1970) table of sample size determination. After which, statistical package of IBM 23 was used in the analysis. Hypothesis was formulated in line with the research question and the objective of the study. The hypothesis was tested using independent t-test statistics at 0.05level of significance. The major finding made is the fact that there is no significant difference between male and female teachers in their opinions on the impact of malnutrition on pupils’ learning in primary school. All indicated negative impact due to malnutrition and learning. Their mean perceptions are 73.7941 and 71.000 by male and female respectively. The calculated p- value of 0.070 is greater than the 0 .05 alpha level of significance, with the computed t-value of 1.280, which is higher than the critical value of 1.96. It was concluded that both male and female had the same level of perception on impact of malnutrition on pupils’ school learning based on gender opinion. It was then recommended that all parents should provide adequate feeding with much emphasis on balance diet full of nutrients for their children irrespective of their class, age and gender differences for effective learning at primary school level.

Keywords:  Gender, Malnutrition, Pupil’s Learning and Teachers




Electrical Installation and Maintenance Works Teachers’ Professional Development Needs for Effective Teaching in Kwara State


*Mohammed G. M., **Dr. Usman, G. A., and **Dr. Raymond E.

*Kwara State College of Education (Technical) Lafiagi. **Department of Industrial and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology, Minna



The study was carried out to determine the electrical installation and maintenance work teachers’ professional development improvement needs for effective teaching in Niger and Kwara States, Nigeria. Survey research design was adopted for the study. The population for the study was 71 respondents comprises of teachers of electrical installation and maintenance work and workshop assistants. There was no sampling because of manageable size of the population. A structure questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. Cronbach alpha reliability method was used to determine the internal consistency of the instrument and 0.86 reliability coefficient value was obtained. two research questions and two null hypotheses were formulated for the study. Mean was used to analyse the data for answering research questions while t-test was used to test the hypotheses of no significant difference at 0.05 level of significance. The study found that 53 items on knowledge of subject matter, 47 items on teachers’ practical skills, in Niger and Kwara States, Nigeria. There was no significant difference between the mean responses of electrical installation and maintenance work teachers and workshop assistant on the highly experienced EIMW teachers and those with low experience on the; 1. Teachers knowledge of subject matter, 2. Teachers’ practical skills. Based on the findings of the study it is recommended that all skills identified should be packaged to train the graduates of EIMW, there should be retraining of teachers irrespective of their ranks and tools, equipment’s should give to technical colleges. The following conclusions were drawn; opportunity available at technical colleges should be improved and expanded for self- reliance.

Keywords: Electrical, Installation, Maintenance, Development, Effective Teaching.




An Analysis of the Rights and Protection of Internally Displaced Persons under the Nigerian Constitution and the Kampala Convention


Abdulrasheed Isah Barau1, Garba Danlami1 Hassan and Habila Isa Barau2

1Lecturer, A. D Rufa’I College for Legal and Islamic Studies, Misau, Bauchi State. 2Lecturer, Faculty of Law, Bauchi State University, Gadau, Bauchi State.



Internal displacement has become an issue of global concern. In Africa, the rate of internal displacement is alarming as a result of series of internal crises happening on the African soil. In Nigeria for example, particularly in the North Eastern Nigeria, the rate of internal displacement can better be imagined. Many Nigerians are forcefully driven out of their homes, towns and villages and are forced to seek for refuge elsewhere. This has caused a lot of untold hardship to the persons affected, central of which are the aged, women and children. While displaced, IDPs are faced with a lot of challenges ranging from forced labour, violence, sexual molestation, deprivation and others. One may be forced to ask the question, has IDPs got some rights? What are those rights and who is responsible for the protection of such rights and many more. This article attempted to analyse the rights of an Internally Displaced Person as enshrined in the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 (As Amended) viz-a-viz the protection of IDPs under the Kampala Convention. Relevant Constitutional provisions as they affects the rights of IDPs are brought out and analysed, so also the relevant Articles of the Kampala Convention as they relates with the protection of IDPs. At the end of this work, conclusions were drawn and recommendations proffered.

Keywords:  Persons, Constitution, Nigeria, Kampala, Convention.




An Overview of Community Peace Building Approach in Nigeria: An Appraisal of North East Conflict (2012-2015)


Jibrin Ubale Yahaya

Department of Political Science, Nasarawa State University, Keffi.



This paper was aimed at studying the   impact of violent conflict and fragility on crisis of North East Zone, in Nigeria.  The effect of the violence has damage the economic and political governance as devastating and encompassing. The effects of conflict can be tangible and visible, including killed and injured civilians, destroyed or derelict bridges and wells, and damaged or inadequate health and education facilities. They can also be intangible, such as the collapse of state institutions, mistrust in government, the destruction of social relationships, psychological trauma and pervasive fear. Addressing both types of effects are essential in conflict-affected and fragile contexts. This paper explores the rationale behind community-based approaches; and key issues, challenges and considerations in designing and implementing such approaches. It highlights overarching issues across sectors and country-contexts, with particular focus on implications on nature of conflict in Africa. Issues are highlighted in this paper to provide an overview of community-based approaches to peace building, including a brief look at typology and community institutions. The paper has key findings that community-based peace building approaches would help a lot in addressing damage cause by conflict in North East through active community participatory effort. The paper recommended three key issues involving host communities in the planning, execution and monitoring of community-based approaches, including the set-up of participatory, community institutions and funding mechanisms to ensure peace sustainability in the North East Zone.

Keywords: Peace Building, Conflict, Participatory Effort, Fragility




The Role of Community Leaders in Actualisation of Community Road Development Project


*Ajala, Abdul-Rahman T. **Adebanjo Rauf O.

*Department of Transportation Planning and Management, Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro, Ogun State. **Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta, Ogun State.



Need for accessibility has made every community focus on road development project. The study aim at assessing the role of community leaders in actualisation of community road development project, it examines socio-economic background of the community members; identifying community leaders and their role(s) in achievement of road projects. Questionnaire was served to 190 respondents selected through stratify random sample techniques. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics with the aid of SPSS version 23. Findings revealed that community leaders perform the roles of monitoring and evaluation of project (81%), decision making (70.6%), fund raising (69.4%), determination of feasible projects (63.7%) and mobilization of community members (62.6%).  Community leaders were rated effective by majority (57.9%) in the performance of their roles. The study concludes that leadership is central to the achievement of community road development project and recommends training and orientation to enhance the performance of leadership roles by community leaders.

Keywords: community, development, leaders, leadership role, road project.




Qualitative Characterization off Bifurcation Analysis Velocity if Rain Drop and Data Precision


*J.A. Okoro **E.N. Ekaka-a **N.M. Napo ***O.C. Aaron Mandah ***Eleki A. Gbolu

*Department of Mathematics, School of Secondary Education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Omoku, Rivers State **Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, Rivers State, University, Nkpolu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria ***Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic Rumuola, Port Harcourt



The efficient data precision calculation depends on the qualitative behavior of the dynamical system. In the contact of the velocity raindrop with respect to a changing arbitrary unit of time, the initial velocity value of the raindrop having 30 has produced a standard deviation value of 33.12 in contrast, when the initial velocity of value of the raindrop is 125, a lower standard deviating value of 28.25 has been found which makes the specified solution map data satisfying the initial velocity value of 125 to be considered as best fit due to the bifurcation behavior of the solution map data.

Keywords:  Qualitative, Characterization, Bifurcation, Analysis, Velocity.




Impact of Commercial Tricycle Business on the Craftmanship in Nigeria


Akuvuo Jude Obiora

Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria



In recent years, commercial tricycle (keke-Napep) business has constituted more than fifty (50) percent of the means of transportation in most of the urban, semi urban, areas of Nigeria. Despite its numerous advantages, some studies shows its serious implications especially in the area of health hazard (accident) and crimes. The paper therefore focuses on the critical area that in the long run will affect the lives of so many Nigerians specially the youths that are the hope of the nation. The rising danger of tricycle on the survival of craftsmanship cannot be left unchecked. This paper examines the risk associated with the growing loss of apprentices and artisans in the   carefully selected skill businesses (roadside mechanics/ panel beaters/ welders, carpenters/ upholsterers and local builders/painters). A structured questionaries’ was administed on the factors above and analyzed using chi-square statistics at 5% significant level, with the aid of SSPS package. Result from the data showed significant relationship between the factors and the loss of the craftsmanship at all levels. Conclusion were drawn and recommendations such as placing age limit on the use of tricycle, effort should be made to educate the Nigeria Youth on danger of tricycle business without having an entrepreneurial skills, government should also place embargo on the use of tricycle at odd hours to check the excesses of criminals e.t.c.

Keywords: Craftsmanship, tricycle, apprentice, entrepreneurial.




Assessment of the Emergence of Insurgency in North Eastern Nigeria


Adda Gana Bukar

Department of Industrial & Labour Relations, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria



This paper attempt to conceptualize the term insurgency and assess its emergence in the north east with more emphasis on Borno State which is considered as the birth place of current insurgency in north-eastern Nigeria. Equally sociological theories would also be employed to explain insurgency as a deviant act in modern world.

Keywords: Insurgency, Boko Haram, Emergence, Deviance.




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