African Scholar Journal of African Sustainable Development (AJASD) Vol. 10 No.7

African Scholar Journal of African Sustainable Development (AJASD)

Vol. 10 No.7 2018 ISSN 2010–1086


Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies, University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.


Copyright © 2017 African Scholar Publications and Research International.



Investigating RGU Art & Heritage Collections to Create More Awareness: A Contribution to the University’s Public Art and Cultural Engagement Agenda.

Sadeeq Garba Abubakar

Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.



The aim of the study is to support RGU Art & Heritage Collections through creating more awareness to be able to achieve the aim of making a significant contribution to the University’s Public Art and Cultural Engagement Agenda. To also support them in the process of integrating the Art and Heritage Collections into the teaching, learning and research activities of the university stimulating thought within the university and in the wider community. Relevant literature were reviewed, a SWOT analysis was employed to critically evaluate the current situation. Consequently, issues relating to lack of awareness and confusion were identified that led to further enquiry through field survey activity (data collection using both interview and questionnaire methods). Data were collected and analysed using the qualitative data analysis technique. Some findings were arrived at on the basis of which recommendations were made. Amongst the recommendation is the urgent need to embark on an awareness campaign within the university campus using variety of methods

Keywords: Art, Heritage, Collections, Cultural Engagement, Awareness, Confusion.




Development of Modified Firefly Optimization Algorithm (mFOA) for Improved Video Compression

H. A. Abdulkareem, A. M. S. Tekanyi & S.M Sani

Communication Engineering, Department, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.



This paper presents development of modified Firefly Optimization Algorithm (mFOA) for Improved Video Compression. A total of six (four acquired and two benchmark) sample video data were used to implement the proposed technique. Frames were extracted from the video data and stored in form of images in a buffer. Compression of the video frames ware achieved by reducing the effect of pixel intensity with larger distance part, this is one of the shortcomings identified with the FOA method of image compression. In this paper, the impact of the modification is to show the contributions made in improving the PSNR by the standard FOA technique and the modification is achieved by including the root mean square in the standard equations in order to reduce the effect of pixel intensity with larger distance part which is identified as one of the short comings of FOA. When the image samples were subjected to this mFOA compression technique, a significant amount of improvement was achieved. Simulation results indicated that, the improved technique outperformed the FOA method of compression. The PSNR evaluation showed an improved reduction of frame size by the following percentages with respect to the four acquired data and the two bench marks. 7.34%, 3.30%, 4.90% and 5.75% for NAERLS1.avi, NAERLS2.avi, NTA1.avi and NTA2.avi captured video frames, respectively and an improvement of 3.56% and 3.86% for Akiyo.avi and Forman.avi benchmark video frames, respectively.

Index Terms: Video frame, mFOA, PSNR, FOA



An Evaluation of the Role of Accounting Information to the Sustainable Development of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria

Abdullahi Mu’azu, Ali Usman, Usman Muhammad Bature, & Fatimah Bello

Department of Accountancy, School of Business Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.



Small and medium scale enterprises are becoming generally acceptable as viable drivers of economic growth. However, many of these enterprises fail without fulfilling expectations due to poor management of resources and adequate accounting information. This paper therefore, evaluates the role of accounting information to the sustainable economic development of these enterprises. Data for this research was obtained from secondary sources. Results of the findings were presented in narrative form. It was discovered that most of the owners and operators of small and medium scale enterprises do not have the requisite accounting knowledge required to enhance the sustainable development of their businesses. It is recommended that small and medium enterprises should access the services of an accountant to be able to establish dependable accounting system for sustainable development. Quality accounting information will enhance SME’S financial management as well as accessibility to finances.

Keywords: Accounting information, sustainable development, small and medium scale enterprises- Nigeria.




Performance Assesement of a Robust PID Controller under the Action of Output Pertubation Aplied to DC Motor Drive Model

R. S. Shehu1, H. Salawu2, M. Abubakar3

1,2Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna. 3Department of Electrical Engineering, Kogi State Polytechnic, Kogi.



Thirteen resistant bacteria strains from River Sokoto namely Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Providencia rettgeri,   Klebsiella pneumonae and Enterobacter aerogenes recovered on Mueller-Hinton agar by disc diffusion method were subjected to PCR (Polymerase chain reaction) analysis to determine their antibiotic resistance genes. Forward and reverse copies of five primers (TEM, spvC, SHV, aacC3 and qnrS) were used in the PCR analysis. Aminoglycoside resistance genes (aacC3) were detected in the majority of the isolates such as E. coli, Shigella flexneri, Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus saprophytica and

Keywords: Proportional Integral Derivative Controller, DC Motor, Model, Output Disturbance, Tracking Performance, Automatic Tuning.




Revisiting Youth Political Participation in Nigeria

Abdu Dauda Shamsu

School of General Studies, Department of Mass Communication, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi



Youth participation in the electoral process is of great concern in African democracies today. For many years we have known that young people are less likely to ecogn to vote than older groups. This study is attempting to uncover the reasons why this is so and also look at what motivates Nigerian youth to participate. However, few studies have attempted to uncover tendencies of youth participating in formal political activities such as voting and party allegiance using Facebook. Therefore, in what ways do social media foster offline political participation among youth? To address this issue, the study employ multiple regression analysis to examine the relationship between Facebook use and offline political participation among Nigerian youth (n=372). The results of this study indicate that Facebook use, interactivity with political figures, perceived Facebook information quality and political interest significantly correlates with youth offline political participation. Social media allows marginalized youth from political activities to interact with friends and political figures about political issues, share and express their opinions which encourage them to vote or participate in political party activities. Thus, the findings of this research has strengthened the implications of using social media which has been ecognized to have helped lower the barriers and widen the scope of informal political activities and present an in-depth knowledge and understanding about youth offline political participation.


Keywords: Offline Political Participation, Facebook use, Youth.


Analysis of Anthropogenic Heat; Impact on Temperature Formation and Energy Consumption Balance

*Tanko, Binibonori Salihu and Aliyu Tijjani

Department of Urban and Regional Planning. Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State. Nigeria



This paper analyzes the impact of anthropogenic heat on formation of urban heat island (UHI) and also determines which factors can directly affect energy use in the city. It explores literally the conceptual framework of confliction between anthropogenic heat and urban structure, which produced UHI intensity and affected energy consumption balance. It then discusses how these two factors can be affected and gives implication to the city and then focuses on whether actions should be taken for balancing adaptation and mitigation of UHI effects. It concluded by making the three important strategies to minimize the impact of UHI on energy consumption: landscaping, using albedo materials on external surfaces of buildings and urban areas, and promoting natural ventilation.

Keywords; Anthropogenic heat, Energy balance, Energy Consumption, Urban Heat Island




Investigation of Different Airfoils on Outer Sections of Large Rotor Blades

Sibeudu C.E*, Ochuba N. & Fidelis Odigwe.

Department Mechanical Engineering Federal Polytechnic Oko



Wind power counts for roughly 3 % of the global electricity production. In the chase to Produce greener power, much attention lies on getting more electricity from the wind, extraction of kinetic energy, with help of wind turbines. Wind turbines have been used for electricity production since 1887 and have since then developed into more efficient designs and become significantly bigger and with a higher   efficiency. The operational conditions change considerably over the rotor length. Inner sections are typically exposed to more complex operational conditions than the outer sections. However, the outer blade sections have a much larger impact on the power and load generation. Especially here the demand for good aerodynamic performance is large. Airfoils have to be identified   and investigated on mid/outer sections of a   7.0 MW rotor with 165 m diameter. Blade performance criteria were determined   and investigations like   sensitivity analysis were   made. With the   use of XFLR5   (XFoil) and Qblade,   the   airfoils were made   into a blade   and tested with   the blade element   momentum theory. This   simulation gave detailed   information regarding performance   and operational loads   depending on the   different airfoils used.   These results were     then validated in a   professional aero–elastic code (Flex5), simulating steady state, turbulent and wind shear conditions.     The best airfoils   to use from   this reports                   catalogue are   the NACA 63–6XX and   NACA 64–6XX. With the implementation Of these airfoils, blade design 2 and 3 have   a very high   performance coefficient Compared to large   commercial HAWT rotors.

Keywords: Investigation, Airfoils, Sections, Large, Blades




Secondary Education Curriculum and Community Development In Nigeria: Issues And Challenges

*Umar Muhammad **Dr. Muhammad Ibrahim

*Department of Educational Foundations, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto **Department of Curriculum and Educational Technology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto



University education in Nigeria and indeed any other part of the world plays a crucial role in the supply of highly skilled manpower to manned different sectors of the nations economy. The gross under-funding of the education sector in the country has been rendering the university system incapacitated. This paper examined new trends in the funding of universities in Nigeria in order to avoid over-dependence on Government allocation. On the basis of this, issues such as, description of the Nigerian higher education system, financing higher education in Nigeria, problems of funding and utilization in Tertiary institutions in Nigeria, importance of adequate funding in universities in Nigeria, Tertiary Education Trust Fund (TETFund) and finally University-Industry Partnership were discussed. This paper concluded that management of higher education in general and university education in particular has been bedeviled by inadequate funding. The Paper recommends that education sector should be adequately funded by allocating at least 30% to education sector and 50% of this allocation to universities and also sourcing internal revenue and individual contributions, corporate bodies should be encouraged. Andfinally it is recommended that a university/Industry Partnership should be established because it is a hall mark of national development and progress. This would give double benefit to industries by helping universities to produce graduates for their consumption.

Keywords: Education,Funding, Nigeria, Sustainable Development, Universities.




Synergic Effect Of Ethanolic Leaf Extract Of Tamarindus Indica And Vernonia Amygdalina On The Adult Mortality, Seed Damage And Seed Weight Loss Of Callosobruchus Maculatus (F.) On Treated Cowpea Seeds.

Alkali, Z. D1, Abdullahi, N2, Shafiu, N2, Abdullahi, A2 And Abdullahi, M.T2

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology,Kano State Polytechnic. 2Department of Biological Sciences, Bayero University Kano.



The efficacy of T. indica and Vernonia amygdalina   ethanolic leaf extract in combination against the adult mortality, seed damage and seed weight loss of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) on treated cowpea seed were evaluated at the New Biology Laboratory, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Kano State Polytechnics. Leaf extract from T. indica and Vernonia amygdalina were obtained by soxhlet extraction method. C. maculatus   were obtained along with infested cowpea grains from Dawanau market in Kano State of Nigeria. The insects were reared in the laboratory. Four different concentrations of the leaf extract (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5g) in combination were separately mixed with twenty gram (20g) of cowpea seeds in separate Petri-dishes which correspond to (5.0, 7.5, 10, and 12.5 % w/w) respectively. Control treatment was also set along. Five (5) adult pairs of newly emerged C.   maculatus were introduced into each Petri dish. The result indicated that T. indica and V. amygdalina leaf extract at high treatment level (12.5%ww) recorded 100% insect mortality at 48hours after treatment compared to lowest dose (5.0%w/w) which recorded (80.78±1.69), reduced seed damage (0.00±0.00) and seed weight loss (0.10±0.00)   in comparisons with untreated control treatment and could be used by traditional farmers as alternative to synthetics chemical insecticide.

Keywords: (1) leaf extract (2) adult mortality (3) seed damage (4) seed weigh loss (5) Callasobruchus maculatus.


Contingency/Situational/Environmental Approach and the Management of Public Organizations in Nigeria

Bala Umar & Mahmud Adam

Department of Public Administration, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.



This paper examines the Contingency approach to the management of public organizations in Nigeria; data were generated mainly from secondary sources. It was revealed among others that the basic premise of this theory is that, there is no single universally effective way of managing the complex organizations. This implies that different situations call for different managerial approaches. Thus, the focus of this theory is the ability of managers to recognize, identify and react to a wide variety of organizational variables. These variables can be state of the economy, nature of the objectives, the level of technology and distinct characteristics of the organization. Furthermore, understanding the social environment in which the organization exists and its workers are equally important. It was further discovered that the Contingency theory was criticized on the ground that it did not offer meaningful solutions to different managerial problems; it is said to be theoretically complex.

Keywords: Contingency, Situational, Environmental, Approach, Management.



Partnership for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): The Need for a Research Component for Accountability in Nigeria


Hakeem Olatunji Tijani, PhD

Political and Governance Policy Department, Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER), Oyo Road, Ojo, Ibadan.



There has been eclectic collection of research on the Sustainable Development Goals, which seek advancement of accountability of the programmes. However, institutional stretching and a lack of coordinating and centralized Research House have limited some variant of accountability especially the diagonal accountability. The successful implementation of the SDGs is anchored on active participation of stakeholders especially the Civil Society. To address this research gap, this paper advocates for institutional strengthening that establishes the Research House, which oversees the coordination and the centralization of research on the SDGs. This is with a view to providing feedback mechanism between the beneficiaries and government. This is imperative if access to justice is to be heralded as encapsulated in Goal 16. The path dependence of political philosophy of some of the SDGs targets such as issue of justice necessitates modification of the institutions for the programme. The feedback mechanism provides the effectiveness of the implementation process, which makes the review of progress critical to the attainment of the SDGs. The corollary of this thesis is that the SDGs require new institutional direction to ensure efficient coordination and centralization of ideas on the SDGs. This would make the desiderata of The SDGs readily available to the Nigerian citizens. There is availability of institution designed to collate data on the SDGs, such is not institutionalized to vigorously explore research proper. The paper concludes that what would make a difference between success and failure of the implementation of the SDGs is the establishment of the Research House, which provides feedback mechanism through the Civil Society as a veritable partner in providing diagonal accountability for the programme. This paper makes use of secondary data collection and data were content analyzed

Keywords: Research, Accountability, SDGs, Development, Nigeria

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