BAUCHI STATE UNIVERSITY CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS (No.1)


THEME:

RE-AFFIRMING AFRICAN COMMITMENTS IN UNCOMMON DISCOVERIES AND BREAKTHROUGH: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS.

DATE:

NOVEMBER 10, 2015

 

VENUE:

University Assembly Hall, Bauchi State University, Gadau, Itas-Gadau, Bauchi State, Nigeria.

 

PROCEEDINGS:

 

ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT OF WATER SCARCITY IN NIGERIA: – AN ENGINEERING APPROACH

ENGR. GANA A.J & Dr. Engr. Ojediran J.O

Civil Engineering Department, College of Science and Engineering, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State.

Abstract

Water is the most widely occurring substance in the world. Over 72% of the earth’s surface is covered by water. This means that the bodies if water were evenly distributed, it would have covered the globe. Even the soil and rocks of the earth’s crust hold water in chemical combination with different mineral substances, so much that most of the land areas of the earth would be submerged if water were suddenly returned to the ocean. Yet so far as human beings are concerned, water is unfortunately unevenly distributed. In some regions, it is in abundant and properly utilized, while in some others, it is wasted and polluted, and in the remaining regions, it is scarce or completely lacking. This paper examines water scarcity in Nigeria, water needs and demands, water resources planning, water supply and human health, factors associated with scarcity of water in Nigeria and the way forward.

 Keywords:- Scarcity, Water resources, Management, Nigeria

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ANALYSIS OF ONLINE THREATS TO HOSTED SITES AND SUGGESTED REMEDIES.

 

*ABUBAKAR MUHAMMAD, *ZAINAB ALIYU MUSA AND **JANET FOLASADE TAIWO
*Computer Science Department, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi (Nigeria)** Department of Science Education, Faculty of Technology Education, ATBU Bauchi (Nigeria)

ABSTRACT

The new challenge posed by the computer age is that of organisations and individuals having cloud presence. The major form of cloud presence that is vital to success of organisations and individuals is having hosted site that can be accessed from anywhere through internet connection. Resulting from this trend, organisations and individuals give a rush to own website! Hundreds of websites are hosted on the cloud on weekly basis. However, just like having a new estate is having its challenges; same applies to hosted sites on the cloud. Online threats of different forms are found on the internet and these threats can cause serious harm to newly hosted sites or even sites that are old. Many sites do not give their owners the needed satisfaction required, resulting from online threats the sites are facing. While some sites are even hijacked from its rightful owners and taken by hackers. This research intends to study common online threats sites may face and the negative consequences that may result from effects of these threats on hosted sites. The research will make an attempt to suggest measures on how these threats can be remedied or prevented. In the course of conducting this research two web servers of Gwani Software Limited are studied through WHM panel the two web servers addresses are www.gwaniwebhost.com and www.gwaniwebhost.com.ng

Keywords: Web hosting, web server, threats, hacking, cybercrime, script, cpanel, web master, domain, website, web page.

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INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF GROUNDNUT FRYING USING HIGH FREQUENCY SOFT SWITCHING INVERTER IN NORTH-EASTERN NIGERIA. 

1AFOLABI  OLUSEGUN A.    2 FACHE VINCENT O.       3 ALIMI TESLIM A.,

1,2 Department Of Electrical And Electronics Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.3 Department of Electrical And Electronics Engineering, Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

The heat stress and time consuming experience in the frying of groundnut in North-East Nigeria gives a great discomfort to the processors. The effects of this risk, among other inherent risks, on the workers are very hazardous and posed a serious health challenge to their lives. When excessive, this can cause heat stroke, a condition that can either threaten their lives or cause dire consequences. In order to alleviate this problem, an induction heater suitable for the frying of groundnut with almost zero heat stress and less time consuming is proposed. This study used the principle of soft switching in design and construction of the induction heater. It is achieved by addition of resonant elements to a pulse width modulated inverter to provide soft switching. The resonant circuit brings the current to zero in order to provide zero switching for the inverter switch.  This inverter provides soft commutation and higher efficiency as compared to the hard switching PWM inverter and it therefore alleviates the problems associated with it. The proposed resonant inverter system configuration has the significant advantage of being capable of suppressing the irritating acoustic noise, lowered switching losses, reduction in electrical dynamic stresses, considerable reduction of EMI and increase the efficiency. Various samples of groundnuts were collected and dried using the induction heater and other types of heaters available in the market from different parts of the North Eastern State of Nigeria. It was found that the proposed inverter performed better in terms of the efficiency, safety and output power.

Keyword: Soft Switching, Inverter, IGBT, Groundnut, Frying.

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PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF A WEANING FORMULA FROM GERMINATED PEARL MILLET AND BAMBARA GROUNDNUT

 

* YELMI, M.B, U.S HARUNA and ANAYO, G.J

Department of Food Science and Technology Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, BAuchi State, Nigeria

ABSTRACT

Weaning food was formulated from malted pearlmillet (pennisetum glaucum) and bambara groundnut (Vandozea L. Theuares). The malted millet flour was obtained by steeping the grain followed by germinating, drying, toasting, grinding and sieving. The bambara groundnut flour was obtained by cleaning whole sound seeds, soaking, dehulling drying, milling and sieving. Products were obtained by mixing the flours in the ratio of (A) 90:10, B (80:20); (70:30); D (60:40); E(50:50). A control sample (Cerelac) F was used as reference sample. Proximate composition of the various products showed that moisture ranged from 6.01 to 7.08(%); Protein ranged from 11.58 to 25.40. Viscosities of the products decrease with increased amount of bambara groundnut from 4.6 x10-2NSM-2 to 3.8×10-2NSM-2. Sensory evaluation of the products showed that there was no signification difference (P£0.05) among the products in terms of Colour, taste and texture. However samples B and C compared favourably well with the control sample in terms of general acceptability.

 Keywords: Physicochemical, Weaning, Viscosity, Germination, Sensory.

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CHARACTERIZATION OF SEROTYPES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM DIARRHEAL PATIENTS IN BENIN CITY NIGERIA

ORONSAYE, F. E. (Associate Professor)

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

Diarrhoea disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries especially among children especially infants three years and below., Moreover, Escherichia coli has been incriminated as cause of diarrhoea. This organism has been known as a normal biotype in the gut of human and animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the involvement of this organism as cause of diarrhoea. Three hundred stool samples were collected from patients in various hospitals in Benin City ad and cultured using routine method in Medical microbiology department of University of Benin teaching hospital. Benin city, Nigeria.One hundred strains of Escherichia coli were isolated from the samples and were identified to species level using the protocol of Cowan and Steel. Seroyping was also done using the methods of Stokes.R-Plasmid DNA analysis was carried to isolate and characterize  the Plasmid DNA  using the alkaline analysis method  of Tagahashi and Nagano. The strains isolated strains belong the following 0. Serotypes ;01,020,063, 044(4 strains),055, 063,027,08,0167,00153,0025,029,026,0158.0018, 014,015,0152,00142,0028ac,012ac,0153,0156,and 0157 (8 strains). Plasmid DNA analysis revealed three Plasmid bands greater than that of the reference Plasmid marker HIND111. Conclusion this study presents, the isolation of R- Plasmid strains conferring resistance to the fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents and other antibiotics in Benin city, Nigeria.

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EFFECT OF COMPACTION PRESSURE ON THE COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF SAWDUST BRIQUETTES

 

*NASIRU SHUAIBU1, **HABOU DANDAKOUTA2 AND A. A. BELLO2

*Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. **Department of Mechanical Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT

This work studied the effect of compaction pressure on the combustion characteristics of sawdust briquettes.  The combustion characteristics investigated in the study were % volatile matter, % fixed carbon, % ash content and heating values of the briquettes. The briquettes were formed with the aid of a fabricated briquetting machine at compaction pressures of 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5Mpa respectively and particle size of 2.2mm. A dwell time of 120 seconds was observed during the briquettes formation. The results obtained showed that the compaction pressure had a positive effect on the combustion characteristics investigated and the values obtained compared well with the work of previous researchers. Moreover, the % volatile matter and % ash content increased with increase in compaction pressure and dropped with further increase in the pressure. Whereas, the % fixed carbon and heating values decreased with increase in compaction pressure and increased with further increase in pressure. Recommendations were put forward for further research.

Keywords: briquettes, combustion, fixed carbon, volatile matter, heating value

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AN OVERVIEW OF INTERNET OF THINGS: CHALLENGES OF embracing IT IN THE AFRICAN CONTINENT 

1KULIYA MUHAMMED, 2ABOU KADI

1, 2 Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria

Abstract

The Internet of Things has been in existence since the large scale adoption of Radio-frequency Identification began a decade ago and it is regarded as the new-fangled revolution of the internet. Internet of Things maintains its importance by connecting numerous things and offering promising solutions for numerous fields. This paper is aimed at outlining the growth of Internet of Things, its application in our daily lives, and the various opportunities it offers. The challenges of adopting Internet of Things in the African continent were also discussed and they include Lack of digital literacy, Paucity of internet penetration in most African countries coupled with the lowest internet access in the world, high cost of IoT devices, the growing concern about how secure is the Internet of Things, lack of network infrastructures needed to link the physical and virtual objects, high cost of smart phones and data services, power supply and good telecommunication coverage in most African countries.

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INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE EFFECT OF BINDER RATIO ON THE COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF SAWDUST BRIQUETTES

*NASIRU SHUAIBU1, **HABOU DANDAKOUTA2 AND ADISA. A. BELLO3

Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

The paper investigated the effect of binder ratio (%) on the combustion characteristics of sawdust briquettes.  The combustion characteristics investigated in the study were % volatile matter, % fixed carbon, % ash content and heating values of the briquettes. The briquettes were formed with the aid of a fabricated briquetting machine at compaction pressure of 4.5Mpa, binder ratios of 10%, 20%, and 30% respectively and particle size of 2.2mm. A dwell time of 120 seconds was observed during the briquettes formation. The results obtained showed that the binder ratio (%) had a positive effect on the combustion characteristics investigated and the values obtained compared well with the work of previous researchers. Moreover, the % volatile matter and heating value increased with increase in the binder ratio and dropped with further increase in the binder ratio (%). On the other hand, the % fixed carbon and % ash content decreased with increase in binder ratio and increased with further increase in binder ratio (%). Recommendations were put forward for further research.

Keywords: briquettes, combustion, fixed carbon, volatile matter, heating value, binder ratio

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THE POTENTIALS OF ONLINE LEARNING AND THE CHALLENGES TOWARDS ITS ADOPTION IN NIGERIA’S HIGHER INSTITUTIONS OF LEARNING 

1KULIYA MUHAMMED, 2LELE MOHAMMED, 3KABIR RUMANA

Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT:

This paper examines the potentials of online learning and the challenges to its adoption in Nigeria’s higher institutions of learning. The research would assist in tackling the challenges of online learning adoption and enlighten institutions on the numerous benefits of online learning in Nigeria. The researchers used survey method for the study and questionnaires were used to obtain the needed data from 230 respondents cut across 20 higher institutions in the country. The findings revealed that online learning has the prospect to boost access to learning tools, assist students to learn from the comfort of their offices or homes, reduce the cost of learning, and enable individuals to gain self knowledge. The major challenges in the adoption of e-learning are poor Information and Communication Technology infrastructures, poor internet connectivity where available, lack of Information and Communication Technology background, problem of power supply, lack of commitment by institutions, poor maintenance of Information and Communication Technology tools, inadequate facilities, lack of government funding and fraud. Recommendations were also made at the end of the research work.

Keywords: Electronic, learning, Technology, ICT, Institution, Internet

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RESPONSE OF Moringa oleifera SEEDLINGS TO DIFFERENT LEVELS OF COW DUNG MANURE

 

¹GARBA A,¹ADAMU W., ²IBRAHIM A, AND ¹EDWARD D.

¹Department of forestry technology, School of Agriculture, Federal Polytechnics Bauchi.²Department of Agricultural Technology, School of Agriculture, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi

 

ABSTRACT

The response of Moringa oleifera (lam) to four different levels of cow dung manure was assessed. The cow dung manure constituted 25%, 50%, 75% and 0% of the total potted mixture in the four replications. Randomised complete block design was used for the experiment. Three parameters (height, girth and number of leaves) were measured and recorded in each of the four replications after every seven days for a period of 56 days. Under the height parameter 50% level of cow dung has the highest mean of 26.8cm, then 25.6cm at 25% , 24.7cm at 75% and 13.8 cm at 0% level. For girth the thickest mean of 1.4cm was observed at 50% level, followed by 25% and 75% each with 1.3cm. The thinnest mean girth was recorded at 0%. The trend was however the same for number of leaves. The results indicated that optimum initial yield in the nursery is obtained when cow dung constitute 50% of the potted mixture. These findings have indicated the great potentials in producing vigorous and viable moringa seedling using cow dung manure.

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DETERMINATION OF PROXIMATE, ANTI-NUTRIENTS AND SOME TRACE ELEMENTS OF TRINIDAD MORINGA SCORPION, BELL PEPPER AND CAYENNE PEPPER

 

*NUHU1, A. H. SHITU2, F. A. AND TIJANI3, R. A.

1Chemistry Department, Bauchi State University Gadau,  P.M.B. 3011, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. 2General Studies Department, the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, P. M. B. 0231, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria 3Science Laboratory Technology Department, the Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, P. M. B. 0231, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

Three varieties of pepper (capsicum spp.) were evaluated for antinutrients and trace elements using standard analytical technique. The result shows that, an antinutrient of all the varieties varies significantly. Phytate results for Attarugu, Tattasai and Shambo were found to be 0.17%, 0.16% and 0.14% respectively. Oxalate content were 1.87%, 2.32% and 1.80%, alkaloid content were 2.00%, 6.00% and 8.00% respectively while Flavonoid content were 4.00%, 2.00% and 2.00% respectively. the trace element content shows that Attarugu, Tattasai and Shambo has the following quantity of trace minerals: Zn (6.80mg/kg, 6.5mg/kg and 6.6mg/kg), Fe (31.90mg/kg, 28.60mg/kg and 29.10mg/kg), Cu (4.86mg/kg, 5.02mg/kg and 4.66mg/kg), Co (1.05mg/kg, 0.85mg/kg and 0.96mg/kg) and Mn (1.24mg/kg, 1.39mg/kg and 1.06mg/kg). These result shows that peppers are a good source of antioxidants and minerals.

Keywords; Pepper, Nutrients, Anti-nutrients, Cayenne, Determination.

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A FRAMEWORK FOR INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION4 ADDRESS GENERATOR IN A ROUTING AND SWITCHING ENVIRONMENT’S

 *MUHAMMAD ALIYU1 *ILIYA MUSA ADAMU2 *MAIDORAWA, AHMADU3 *KULIYA MUHAMMED4

*Department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State (Nigeria).

ABSTRACT

This paper targeted and produced an IP address framework to grant access to users / network engineers in a routing and switching environment who wish to generate IP addresses at an accurate and real time. Each subnet of the IP Address generated creates identification as a separate network on its own. The generation includes; Broadcast Ids, Subnet mask and IP Addresses PIN. The system is capable of generating valid IP addresses. The generated IP addresses will now be assigned dynamically to every host or router interface on the network. The developed system is strongly recommended for ISP’s and network engineer’s. .  A competitive analysis based on research was conducted, feasibility study carried out as the system implemented in a platform using ASP.NET, whereas the codes are implemented in Visual Basic(10.0) and integrated with SQL Server 2005. 

Keywords: Protocol, Internet, Broadcast, Network, Subnet mask

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