African Scholar Journal of African Sustainable Development (AJASD) Vol. 11 No.7


African Scholar Journal of African Sustainable Development (AJASD) Vol. 11 No.7 2018 ISSN 2010–1086

 



Published by:

African Scholar Publications and Research International,

Centre for African Studies, University of Ibadan, PO Box 10108, U.I. Post Office, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria – West Africa.

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Copyright © 2018 African Scholar Publications and Research International.

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PAPERS:

 

AN INVESTIGATION OF ROAD TRAFFIC INCIDENTS AND ACCIDENTS ALONG NIGERIAN LAGOS-IBADAN EXPRESSWAY

Hammed, T. A.; Oni, A. F. And Oni, S. I.

Department of Geography, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria 

Abstract

Overtime, Lagos-Ibadan expressway has witnessed uncontrolled road traffic mishap causing deaths, injuries and physical impairment. In this regards, this paper investigates the road traffic incidents and accidents along the Lagos-Ibadan Expressway. Relevant primary and secondary data were acquired and analyzed using qualitative and quantitative analytical techniques. The study realises that several factors have contributed to Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) along the corridor. The study shows bad state of the road as a major factor responsible for road accident while the least was careless pedestrians. Reckless driving-induced accident is predominantly alarming among male drivers compare to their female counterparts. The Multiple Regression coefficient (R2) of Fatigue Induced Accident implies that 78.0% of the variables are explained by the independent variable while 22.0% are attributed to the stochastic variation. The t-value coefficients are statistically significant at 5.0% and 10.0% levels, which implies, the duration of driving, sleep deficit, stress and alcohol contributed significantly to the variations in drivers’ fatigue. The findings show that, the increase in duration of driving, sleep deficit, time of the day, stress and alcohol in-take contributed more to fatigue, which eventually lead to accidents, whereas the drivers’ family responsibility and experience attachments minimize the degree of fatigue along the corridor. There is a positive relationship between traffic volume and rate of accident along the corridor. Likewise, existing road infrastructure and furniture are in deplorable conditions. It is thus imperative to improve the traffic situation for the present and future transport needs along the corridor.

Keywords: Transport Needs, Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs), Fatigue, Injuries, Deaths

 

 

 

ANALYSIS OF DIGITAL VIDEO COMPRESSION METHODS USING FIREFLY, MODIFIED FIREFLY ALGORITHMS AND DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM (DWT) BASED ON PIXEL INTENSITY 

  1. A. Abdulkareem, A. M. S. Tekanyi, I. Yau And H. A. Adamu

Communication Engineering Department, and Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria 

Abstract

For decades powerful intelligence optimization techniques have been developed for graphics and video compression with the sole aim of improving the degraded quality of the reconstructed images or videos for effective storage and transmission. This paper presents a comparative study on the three techniques developed for graphical image or video compressions with emphasis on video frame pixel improvement. A total of six (four acquired and two benchmark) sample video data were used to implement the achieved technique.  Frames were extracted from the video data and stored in form of images in a buffer.  This is with a view to determining the efficiency of the proposed technique. Simulation results showed that, the achieved method is efficient with an improved compression ratio and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR). The PSNR evaluation showed the efficiency and signal quality of the technique.  It was also observed that, the enhanced modified FOA (E-mFOA) based technique produced a PSNR percentage improvement of 79.19%, 80.11%, 80.48% and 79.22% over DWT on the NAERLS1.avi, NAERLS2.avi, NTA1.avi and NTA2.avi sample videos after enhancement. For Akiyo.avi and Forman.avi benchmark video frames, the E-mFOA produced a percentage improvement of 78.36% and 77.35% over E- DWT after enhancement

Keywords: Video frames, Standard FOA, mFOA, E mFOA, DWT, PSNR and Luminance Enhancement

 

 

INVESTIGATING THE EFFECT OF WASTE PAPER ON THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE

 

*1Abdullahi Dalhat Salisu, 2Joseph Elma Legasi, 3Abdulrahman Garba, 4Monday Emmanuel Dapbwe

Department of Civil Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State Nigeria.

Abstract

Waste paper is available in environment from different sources, such as office, newspaper and markets. Waste papers are the abundant sources of cellulose and may be used as landfill. Using these wastes in building materials has two benefits, the first one has reduced the environmental pollution and the second it modify the physical properties of concrete and sandcrete blocks. Addition of waste paper cellulose to concrete at certain percentage improves its thermal insulation properties and affects its density to produce lightweight and insulating building materials. The concrete produce by using the waste paper is called paper-crete. Paper-crete is the mixture of paper pulp, sand, cement and water by partial replacement of cement with paper to produce a modified concrete. This project reports on the results of an investigation of utilisation of waste paper as additional material in concrete mix to be used for housing projects. Concrete mixes containing various content of the paper were prepared and basic strength characteristics such as compressive strength and water absorption were determined and compared with a control mix. Five concrete mixes containing 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% as an additional material to concrete were prepared and cured for 7, 14 and 28 days. The maximum size of aggregate used was 20mm for concrete of Grade 20.

Keywords: Compressive, Effect, Waste, Concrete, Paper.

 

 

THE EFFECT OF FRINGE BENEFITS ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE (A STUDY OF FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC BAUCHI)

Mbakwe Francis K1, Igiba Ehimen G2. and Oleabhiele Ernest.P.3

1,2Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State. 3Department of General studies, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State.

Abstract

Human resources is one of the most important assets that an organization owns. Fringe benefits help an organization to retain efficient and experienced workforce in the organization. This research work looks at the management of fringe benefit in Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, to ascertain its effect on employee performance. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data from two hundred and thirty four (234) employees through purposive sampling method and data collected were analyzed with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Scheme (SPSS). It was found that there is positive relationship between fringe and performance. The study will benefit the employees and policy makers in Nigerian tertiary institutions. The study will also help government and other employers with information which will help them to come up with policies and legislations on the administrations of fringe benefit. The researcher recommends the need for the institution to improve on the implementation of fringe benefits so as to enhance the performance of the employees.

Keywords:  Effects, Fringe, Benefits, Employee, Performance

 

 

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INCOME AND HOUSING COST IN BAUCHI

*Dadi Haruna & **Ilekoin Olutoba Ayodele

*Department of Surveying and Geo – Informatics, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi **Department Of Estate Management, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi

Abstract

This paper examines the concept of housing affordability in Yelwa, Bauchi metropolis.  200 questionnaires were administered to the people that reside in the study area. The study found that there is a significant relationship between household income and the amount of money paid for rent. The study further revealed that 74 % of the household spends more than 30 % of their household income on accommodation while 26 % spends less than 30 % of their household income on housing. This percentage is above the universally acceptable standard . This shows that housing is not affordable in the study area.

Keywords: affordable, market, income, household, finance

 

 

GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS: ACQUISITIONS, ORGANISATION, AND UTILISATION IN RAMAT LIBRAY, UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI

Hassan Maigari, Habiba Abdullahi (Mrs), Hadiza Mohammed Ahmed & **Samuel Ejembi Oji

*Ramat Library, University Of Maiduguri **University Library, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi

Abstract

This paper examined the acquisition, organization and utilization of government publications in Ramat Library, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Records inspection and observation were used to find out the methods and extents of acquisitions, organization and utilization of government publications in Ramat Library. The use of government publications faculty by faculty was studied. Findings revealed that the acquisition of government publications in the university library were mainly through gifts, documents and deposit and publication from Federal government ministries, parastatals, and agencies. The paper recommended the implementation of legal deposits, embarking on regular acquisition tour, legislation on freedom on freedom of information, publication government documents electronically and the use subject specialist in making publication accessible as ways of addressing the problems. The study limited its scope on government publications in Ramat Library, university of Maiduguri. The research guided by four objectives. The result of the study revealed that lack of awareness of publication; funds and non-comprehensive national Bibliography were found to be major problems. Suggestions as to how to curtail the problems included improved method of dissemination strategies and available of current bibliographies.

Keywords: Acquisitions, Government Publications, Organization, Ramat Library, University of Maiduguri and Utilization.

 

 

MANAGEMENT OF ICT INFRASTRUCTURE: A PANACEA TO THE ATTAINING EFFECTIVE GOALS IN NIGERIAN HIGHER INSTITUTIONS

Auwal Ahmad*, Abubakar S. Hamza**, Alhaji Kawugana***,  Yakubu Nuhu Danjuma**

*ICT/MIS Directorate, Federal Polytechnic Bauchi **Computer Science Department Federal Polytechnic Bauchi ***Bursary Department Federal Polytechnic Bauchi

Abstract

Higher Institutions are approaching the point at which Science and Technology particularly Information and Communication Technology (ICT) plays a vital role, nearly in all phases of the educational process. Application of ICT is an important part of services delivering to the end-users as an effective goal achievement. This paper focuses on the how to properly Manage the existing ICT infrastructure in the higher educational institutions in Nigeria in order to achieve effective goals. The research addresses the existent ICT tools for enhancing academic and management activities of the Nigerian higher institutions to solve all the surviving problems. A  survey revealed that the down-time failure of ICT tools is high, skilled or trained ICT support personnel are inadequate, investment in ICT infrastructure is low, these and other reasons shows that the ICT tools are not adequately managed in Nigerian Higher Institutions (NHIs). Recommendations made include the type and quality of the infrastructure acquired must be in line with the vision, mission and objectives of the Institution, to ensure that ICT tools must be online at all time as well as been constantly and adequately maintained by the skilled and trained staff. Finally the NHI should invest more in ICT infrastructure and general maintenance.

Keywords: Management of ICT, ICT infrastructure, effective goals, Nigerian Higher Institutions

 

 

DIGITAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT ON TELEVISION PROGRAMMING: A CASE STUDY OF PLATEAU RADIO TELEVISION CORPORATION, JOS.

Abubakar Baba Garba,

Department Of Mass Communication, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi.

Abstract

The coming of digitization has marked a watershed in human’s capacity for invention. Until the 1980s, media relied upon print and analog (electronic) broadcast models such as those of television and radio. The media has experienced a rapid transformation in the last twenty-five years which was manifested through the use of digital computers. The use of digital computers has transformed the old media, giving it some more advanced and qualitative products as revealed by the advent of digital television. The survey method of research was employed, through the distribution of questionnaires to 100 respondents to examine the impact of digitization on television programming. This research work has succeeded in bringing to lime light, the effectiveness and extend of impact digitization has brought in programming. The findings also revealed that digitization has positively impacted on television programming.

Keywords: Digitalization, Media transformation, Programming &Quality products.

 

 

PRUDENT PUBLIC FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT THROUGH TRANSPARENCY AND ACCOUNTABILITY IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

Abubakar Ahmed Jada

Department of Business Management Education, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola

Abstract

One of the most important factors that brings development especially in developing nations is prudent management of finance which is a function of transparency and accountability in public procurement. This is because huge amount of funds are allocated annually in a nation’s budget expenditure for procurement purpose. The purpose of this paper is to determine the effect of transparency and accountability in nation’s development. More often, people found the application of transparency in their mindsets as a struggle force difficult to overcome especially in the developing societies. The earning desires or expectancy for nation’s development is largely a mechanism in their capability and self conscious to give adequate account of their resources entrusted in their disposals of the accounting people. This paper was written with the aim of delivery into the process of encouraging all sectors to handle procure items i.e. goods, works, services and consultancy in their possession in such a manner that accountability will be achieved. It was also anticipated that it will assist the general public to contribute and monitor strategically the syndrome of high level corruption in the developing countries. The paper offer recommendations to solicit all that matters in acquiring resources for the development of nations.

Keywords: Transparency Accountability Public procurement Corruption National development

 

 

AN OVERVIEW OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION CHALLENGES IN NIGERIA

Iliya Simon Pukuma

Department of Business Administration and Management Studies, Adamawa State Polytechnic Yola, Numan Campus

Abstract

Entrepreneurship is unique to the development of Economic Parameter. Entrepreneurs however, cannot work in isolation; they need the right environment to thrive. The judicial system, the educational system, the financial system and general government policies should be such that encourage and promote entrepreneurship. Basic infrastructures such as power, water, and transport systems are necessary to boost entrepreneurship. This paper looks at the challenges facing entrepreneurship in Nigeria and recommend solutions to creating a better entrepreneurial society.

Keywords: Overview of Entrepreneurship Educator, Challenges in Nigeria

 

 

L’IMAGE DE LA FEMME AFRICAINE DANS UNE SI LONGUE LETTRE DE MARIAMA BA

Taiyol Tyavnum

Department of French, College of Education, Oju.

Abstract

La société Africaine, en général, est une société » masculin pluriel  » (Yacine, Kateb : 19,1999). Il en est de même particulièrement de la société sénégalaise. L’homme y fait la loi. Il se sert de parapluie de coutume et de religion pour gérer la société à ses fins. Ainsi, la femme, marginalisée, devient un instrument, un objet selon les lois des institutions aménagées par l’homme au gré de ses goûts. Du toit paternel au toit conjugal, la femme est à la merci de la sacrée coutume auxquelles d’autres femmes participent en faveur de l’homme et de ses institutions. En ce travail, nous avons présenté l’image de la  femme africaine  telle quelle est vue par Mariama Bâ dans Une si longue lettre, selon la tradition africaine et la religion musulmane. À travers Ramatoulaye, son personnage principal et la technique épistolaire choisis sciemment pour plaider la cause de la femme, l’auteur nous conduit dans sa conception romanesque. Elle nous y montre la considération générale accordée à  la femme dans tous les domaines de la vie au Sénégal. En tout et pour tout, la femme – jeune ou mature soit-elle, est vouée au  silence en dépit de la gravité de ses peines. Ses droits sont taillés à la hauteur de la volonté de l’homme. Il en est même en amour. On le verra avec le cas des foyers de Ramatoulaye et de celui de Aïssatou, deux amies de très longue date dont les maris s’étaient engagés en de nouvelles aventures amoureuses contre toute attente de leurs épouses respectives. Ni la coutume ni la religion musulmane n’ont, ici,  réservé aucun droit à ces deux femmes même au sujet de ce qui les concerne très intimement chacune. Binetou et La petite Nabou, les co-épouses qui leurs avaient été adjointes au nom de ces sacrées institutions ne purent elles aussi que fléchir contre leur propre liberté devant ces susdites institutions. Ainsi, en l’univers romanesque de Une si longue lettre la parole ou l’action de la femme opposée à la sacro-sainte volonté de l’homme, de la coutume et de la religion est une atteinte à l’honneur- un tel acte serait donc une transgression de la loi. Ici, l’homme s’érigeant en norme, la femme devient le faux. La femme c’est l’ autre, enveloppé en une altérité aux stéréotypes limitatifs et dépréciatifs comme nous le démontre  Mariama Bâ  dans Une si longue lettre. Mots clés : Afrique, Sénégal, Femme, homme, coutume, mariage, co-épouse, amour, amitié, deuil.

Keywords: Femme, Africaine, Longue, Lettre, Mariama

 

 

EXPLORING TOURISM POTENTIALS TO ENHANCE BAUCHI STATE GOVERNMENT REVENUE BASE

Aly Audu Fada

Leisure and Tourism Management Department, the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Bauchi State.

Abstract

The place of tourism in revenue generation together with a concise outline of tourism in the Nigerian context. Various tourisms potentials, which exist in Buachi state, are discussed while constraints towards the development of tourism as it relates to revenue generation to enhance economic development were mentioned. The wider tourism industry which includes meetings, incentives, conferences and exhibitions, are mostly referred to as MICE i.e. Business Tourism which increasingly important part of the tourism industry since it is often of high value and earns corporate travel agencies, hoteliers, caterers; souvenirs companies generate significant revenue to the economic growth of a state (Robinson et al, 2010). With a population about 5 million according to the 2006 census, the study area has gone through tremendous transformation since it was created. During the colonial era up to independence, it formed part of the state of the then Northern Region, until the 1967 state creation exercise, when the study area and other two area are provinces constituted the former North-Eastern State. The state is bless with numerous tourism potentials of which if developed it will enhance the revenue strange of the state, also it preserve, conserve the tourism resources of the state. This will in sustaining the culture, tradition and resources of the state for the future usages and other interested bodies wishing to undergo research about similar studies.

Keywords: Exploring, Tourism, Potentials, Enhance, Revenue.

 

 

TOOLS AND TECHNIQUE FOR ENSURING DIGITAL LIBRARY SECURITY: BENEFITS AND PROBLEM

*Sahabi, Muhammad Kabir **Unobe, Elameyi Susan ***Sangosanya Abosede Kaltumi

*University Library, Kaduna State University, Kaduna **Kashim Ibrahim Library, A.B.U. Zaria ***National Library of Nigeria

Abstract

This paper describes the tools and techniques for ensuring the security of digital libraries. Library security is essential for their effective use or use, as awareness of the need for regulation and adequate security becomes more urgent than ever. This paper describes how to secure a digital library by using electronic measures. Securing the library through telecommunications, tools, policies, library security features, issues associated with using electronic security in the library, and problem-solving methods using the system electronic security of the library. The study identified the security of the digital library and discussed tools and techniques to ensure the security of digital libraries as well as the benefits and problems of the digital library.

Keywords: digital library, library security, tools, technique, benefits and problem.

 

 

SERVICE PRICING AND MARKETING PERFORMANCE OF NOVOTEL IN PORT-HARCOURT

Helen Y. Ollor1 and Jumbo Confidence 2

1Senior Lecturer, Hospitality Management and Tourism, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State 2Hospitality Management and Tourism, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State

 

Abstract

This study sets out to examine the influence of Service Pricing and Marketing Performance in Novotel Hotel, Port Harcourt. Six Hypotheses were formulated, all in Null form. These Hypotheses were tested at 5% level of significance. The Quasi-Experimental Research Design was adopted. Questionnaire was distributed to the respondents. The returned copies of the Questionnaire were analyzed statistically using Simple Percentage, and Frequency Tables. The data analysis technique used was Spearman’s Rank Correlation Co-efficient. The six Hypotheses were all tested using the SPSS, (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). The findings revealed that there is a relationship between Service pricing and the measures of Marketing Performance. Based on the findings, the researchers recommended that whenever Hotels launch New Service, they should adopt Price skimming which involves charging a relatively high price for a short time. Finally similar study could also be conducted in other sectors of the economy such as the Recreational Parks.

Keywords: Service, Pricing, Marketing Performance, Service pricing, Marketing

 

 

PERSPECTIVES ON AGRICULTURAL BANKING IN NIGERIA WITH BIAS FOR FINANCING FISHERIES PROJECTS.

Bolarinwa, J.B,

Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 704, Akure, Ondo  State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

The persistent self­-insufficiency in fish production in Nigeria despite the immerse natural and human resources could be traced to poor funding of agricultural activities(especially fisheries projects) by the banking institutions. This paper gave a historical review of agriculture in Nigeria starting from the period when agriculture was the mainstay of our economy in the 1960’s. The present and future expected role of Central Bank of Nigeria(CBN) as a monetary policy formulator and apex lending institution since inception was examined and compared with that of the developed economics like the European Union and United States of America. The various key policy instruments used to date in stimulating institutional supply of credit for agriculture were compared with the Common Agricultural policy (CAP) of the European Union members’ like The Netherlands, Germany, United Kingdom etc. The issues and challenges facing agriculture banking include poor policy implementation, poor monitoring of banking activities, apathy towards agriculture especially Fisheries sector (which is regarded as a ‘no go area’ due to inadequate technical-know-how of the lenders), mismatch of loans, performance of non-banking or ultra vires transactions like trading and importation by the banks (before the withdrawal of licensing of non- performing banks) and others.  The recent agricultural transformation agenda of the Federal Government gave more emphasis on culture fisheries (which is becoming the most profitable agricultural venture) as a way of diversifying from the monolithic oil-dependent economy into agriculture. By and large, there is a need for public enlightenment of culture fisheries especially among the rural dwellers.  Agricultural lenders need to be more competitive in provision of innovative services and products.  There is a need to adjust her agricultural lending programmes to become more competitive.  Bankers in the future need to emphasize sound agricultural loan analysis rather than focusing on portfolio growth.  The CBN as the apex monetary body needs to ensure strict compliance with the bank regulations by the banks with appropriate sanctions for deviants if Nigeria is to come out of the current acute food crisis.  Nigerians should not suffer in the midst of plenty.

Keywords: Fisheries, Perspectives, Banking, Financing, Projects.

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